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The CO content of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies IC5152, UGCA438 and the Phoenix dwarf
We present a search for CO(1 -> 0) emission in three Local Groupdwarf irregular galaxies: IC5152, the Phoenix dwarf and UGCA 438, usingthe ATNF Mopra radio telescope. Our scans largely cover the opticalextent of the galaxies and the stripped HI cloud west of the Phoenixdwarf. Apart from a tentative but non-significant emission peak at oneposition in the Phoenix dwarf, no significant emission was detected inthe CO spectra of these galaxies. For a velocity width of 6kms-1, we derive 4σ upper limits of 0.03, 0.04 and0.06Kkm s-1 for IC5152, the Phoenix dwarf and UGCA438,respectively. This is an improvement of over a factor of 10 comparedwith previous observations of IC5152 the other two galaxies had not yetbeen observed at millimetre wavelengths. Assuming a GalacticCO-to-H2 conversion factor, we derive upper limits on themolecular gas mass of 6.2 × 104,3.7 ×103 and 1.4 × 105Msolar forIC5152, the Phoenix dwarf and UGCA438, respectively. We investigate twopossible causes for the lack of CO emission in these galaxies. On theone hand, there may be a genuine lack of molecular gas in these systems,in spite of the presence of large amounts of neutral gas. However, inthe case of IC5152 which is actively forming stars, molecular gas is atleast expected to be present in the star-forming regions. On the otherhand, there may be a large increase in the CO-to-H2conversion factor in very low-metallicity dwarfs (-2 <= [Fe/H] <=-1), making CO a poor tracer of the molecular gas content in dwarfgalaxies.

The Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Spectrum of Iso-Propanol [(CH3)2CHOH]
Iso-propanol [(CH3)2CHOH], an isomer ofn-propanol, has been studied in the millimeter- and submillimeter-waveregion of the electromagnetic spectrum with our FASSST spectrometerthrough 360 GHz. Spectra arising from the ground vibrational state ofall three hydroxyl torsional substates, given the labels symmetricgauche, antisymmetric gauche, and trans in order of increasing energy,have been observed. We have successfully assigned ~7600 pure rotationaltransitions within the torsional substates as well as ~4700torsional-rotational transitions between the symmetric and antisymmetricgauche substates through the lower rotational quantum numberJ''=68. Spectral lines involving one or both of the twogauche forms have been simultaneously analyzed with a 2×2effective torsional-rotational Hamiltonian, which includes terms throughfifth order in the torsional-rotational interaction. Excluding perturbedtransitions, the assigned transitions were fitted to a root mean squaredeviation of 76 kHz. The trans substate was analyzed as a semirigidrotor, and its unperturbed transitions fitted to a root mean squaredeviation of 63 kHz. A perturbation was seen at transitions withJ''>50 in the trans substate. The torsional excitationenergy for the trans substate above ground was estimated from intensityratios to be about 120 K.

The Local Group Stellar Populations Archive from the Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2
We present a database (LOGPHOT) of stellar photometry of Local Groupgalaxies obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope using the Wide FieldPlanetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). The database includes photometry from allWFPC2 observations taken through 2003 with long exposures (>500 s) inF555W and F814W, and many observations in which long exposures weretaken in at least two broadband filters. We have attempted to derive anduse techniques that produce the best photometry; the database has beenfully populated using the HSTphot photometry package. To test theeffects of different techniques, independent reductions were made for afew fields, and the comparison of these highlights some important issuesand gives an estimate of plausible errors; these tests also led to someminor modifications and improvements to HSTphot. We provide bothpoint-spread function photometry and subtracted-frame aperturephotometry and discuss the merits of each. The database is availableelectronically. In addition to discussing the techniques used toconstruct the database, we present color-magnitude diagrams from singlefields in each of the Local Group galaxies that have been observed;these provide an educational and visual display of the variety of starformation histories observed in Local Group galaxies.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc.,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

On Extending the Mass-Metallicity Relation of Galaxies by 2.5 Decades in Stellar Mass
We report 4.5 μm luminosities for 27 nearby (D<~5 Mpc) dwarfirregular galaxies measured with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera. Wehave constructed the 4.5 μm luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relation for25 dwarf galaxies with secure distance and interstellar medium oxygenabundance measurements. The 4.5 μm L-Z relation is12+log(O/H)=(5.78+/-0.21)+(-0.122+/-0.012)M[4.5], whereM[4.5] is the absolute magnitude at 4.5 μm. The dispersionin the near-infrared L-Z relation is smaller than the correspondingdispersion in the optical L-Z relation. The subsequently derived stellarmass-metallicity (M*-Z) relation is12+log(O/H)=(5.65+/-0.23)+(0.298+/-0.030)logM*, and extendsthe SDSS M*- Z relation to lower mass by about 2.5 dex. Wefind that the dispersion in the M*-Z relation is similar over5 orders of magnitude in stellar mass, and that the relationship betweenstellar mass and interstellar medium metallicity is similarly tight fromhigh-mass to low-mass systems. We find a larger scatter at low mass inthe relation between effective yield and total baryonic mass. In fact,there are a few dwarf galaxies with large yields, which is difficult toexplain if galactic winds are ubiquitous in dwarf galaxies. The lowscatter in the L-Z and M*-Z relationships are difficult tounderstand if galactic superwinds or blowout are responsible for the lowmetallicities at low mass or luminosity. Naively, one would expect anever increasing scatter at lower masses, which is not observed.

Hot Dust and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission at Low Metallicity: A Spitzer Survey of Local Group and Other Nearby Dwarf Galaxies
We present Spitzer 4.5 and 8.0 μm imaging of 15 Local Group andnearby dwarf galaxies. We find that the diffuse 8 μm emission isspatially correlated with regions of active star formation. Our samplespans a range of >1 dex in nebular metallicity and 3 orders ofmagnitude in current star formation rate, allowing us to examine thedependence of emission from hot dust and PAHs on these parameters. Wedetect prominent diffuse 8 μm emission from the four most luminousgalaxies in the sample (IC 1613, IC 5152, NGC 55, and NGC 3109) and onlyvery low surface brightness emission from four others (DDO 216, SextansA, Sextans B, and WLM). These are the first spatially resolved images ofdiffuse 8 μm emission from such low-metallicity objects[12+log(O/H)~7.5]. We observe correlations of this emission with thecurrent star formation rate and the nebular metallicity of thesegalaxies. However, we also see evidence suggesting that other processesmay also have a significant effect on the generation of this emission.These systems all have evidence for old and intermediate-age starformation; thus, the lack of diffuse 8 μm emission cannot beattributed to low galaxy ages. Also, winds cannot explain the paucity ofthis emission, since high-resolution imaging of the neutral gas in theseobjects shows no evidence of blowout. We propose that the lack ofdiffuse 8 μm emission in low-metallicity systems may be due to thedestruction of dust grains by supernova shocks, assuming a longtimescale to regrow dust. It is likely that the observed weak emissionis at least partly due to a general absence of dust (including PAHs), inagreement with their low metallicities.

Oxygen and Nitrogen in Leo A and GR 8
We present elemental abundances for multiple H II regions in Leo A andGR 8 obtained from long-slit optical spectroscopy of these two nearbylow-luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies. As expected from theirluminosities, and in agreement with previous observations, the derivedoxygen abundances are extremely low in both galaxies. Highsignal-to-noise ratio (S/N) observations of a planetary nebula in Leo Ayield 12+log(O/H)=7.30+/-0.05 semiempirical calculations of the oxygenabundance in four H II regions in Leo A indicate12+log(O/H)=7.38+/-0.10. These results confirm that Leo A has one of thelowest ISM metal abundances of known nearby galaxies. Based on resultsfrom two H II regions with high S/N measurements of the weak [O III]λ4363 line, the mean oxygen abundance of GR 8 is12+log(O/H)=7.65+/-0.06 using ``empirical'' and ``semiempirical''methods, similar abundances are derived for six other GR 8 H II regions.Similar to previous results in other low-metallicity galaxies, the meanlog(N/O)=-1.53+/-0.09 for Leo A and -1.51+/-0.07 for GR 8. There is noevidence of significant variations in either O/H or N/O in the H IIregions. The metallicity-luminosity relation for nearby (D<5 Mpc)dwarf irregular galaxies with measured oxygen abundances has a meancorrelation of 12+log(O/H)=5.67MB-0.151MB, with adispersion in oxygen about the relationship of σ=0.21. Theseobservations confirm that gas-rich, low-luminosity galaxies haveextremely low elemental abundances in the ionized gas phase of theirinterstellar media. Although Leo A has one of the lowest metalabundances of known nearby galaxies, detection of tracers of an olderstellar population (RR Lyrae variable stars, horizontal branch stars,and a well-populated red giant branch) indicate that it is not a newlyformed galaxy, as has been proposed for some other similarlow-metallicity star-forming galaxies.

Masses of the local group and of the M81 group estimated from distortions in the local velocity field
Based on high precision measurements of the distances to nearby galaxieswith the Hubble telescope, we have determined the radii of the zerovelocity spheres for the local group, R0 =0.96±0.03Mpc, and for the group of galaxies around M 81/M 82,0.89±0.05Mpc. These yield estimates of MT =(1.29±0.14)· 1012 Mȯ and(1.03±0.17)· 1012 Mȯ,respectively, for the total masses of these groups. The R0method allows us to determine the mass ratios for the two brightestmembers in both groups, as well. By varying the position of the centerof mass between the two principal members of a group to obtain minimalscatter in the galaxies on a Hubble diagram, we find mass ratios of0.8:1.0 for our galaxy and Andromeda and 0.54:1.00 for the M82 and M81galaxies, in good agreement with the observed ratios of the luminositiesof these galaxies.

Weak redshift discretisation in the Local Group of galaxies?
We discuss the distribution of radial velocities of galaxies belongingto the Local Group. Two independent samples of galaxies as well asseveral methods of reduction from the heliocentric to the galactocentricradial velocities are explored. We applied the power spectrum analysisusing the Hann function as a weighting method, together with thejackknife error estimation. We performed a detailed analysis of thisapproach. The distribution of galaxy redshifts seems to be non-random.An excess of galaxies with radial velocities of ˜ 24 kms-1 and ˜ 36 km s-1 is detected, but theeffect is statistically weak. Only one peak for radial velocities of˜ 24 km s-1 seems to be confirmed at the confidence levelof 95%.

Associations of Dwarf Galaxies
The Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys has been used todetermine accurate distances for 20 galaxies from measurements of theluminosity of the brightest red giant branch stars. Five associations ofdwarf galaxies that had originally been identified based on strongcorrelations on the plane of the sky and in velocity are shown to beequally well correlated in distance. Two more associations with similarproperties have been discovered. Another association is identified thatis suggested to be unbound through tidal disruption. The associationshave the spatial and kinematic properties expected of bound structureswith (1-10)×1011 Msolar. However, theseentities have little light, with the consequence that the mass-to-lightratios are in the range 100-1000 MsolarL-1solar. Within a well-surveyed volume extendingto a 3 Mpc radius, all but one known galaxy lie within one of the groupsor associations that have been identified.

The K Luminosity-Metallicity Relation for Dwarf Galaxies and the Tidal Dwarf Galaxies in the Tails of HCG 31
We determine a K-band luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relation for dwarfirregular galaxies over a large range of magnitudes,-20.5

Diffuse Ionized Gas in Irregular Galaxies. I. GR 8 and ESO 245-G05
We have studied the spectral characteristics of the diffuse ionized gas(DIG) in two irregular galaxies with low metallicities and intermediatestar formation rates: ESO 245-G05 and GR 8. The [O III]/Hβ ratio inthese galaxies is higher than in the DIG of spiral galaxies but not ashigh as in other irregular galaxies previously studied, such as IC 10and NGC 6822. The [N II]/Hα and [S II]/Hα ratios have verysmall values, indicating the absence of shocks as the ionization sourcefor this gas. This ionization can be explained in both galaxies withphoton leakage from the H II regions as the only source. The percentageof photons that have escaped from the H II regions is small in ESO245-G05, only 35%, but varies from 35% up to 60% in GR 8. We alsoinvestigated whether the differences found between spiral and irregulargalaxies in the [O III]/Hβ and the [N II]/Hα ratios are dueto differences in the metal content between these types of galaxies.Although the number of galaxies studied is not very large, it can beconcluded that the [O III]/Hβ ratio is not related to the oxygencontent, while the situation is more ambiguous for the [N II]/Hαratio.

Towards a phylogenetic analysis of galaxy evolution: a case study with the dwarf galaxies of the Local Group
Context: .The Hubble tuning-fork diagram has always been the preferredscheme for classifying galaxies. It is based only on morphology. Incontrast, biologists have long taken the genealogical relatedness ofliving entities into account for classification purposes. Aims:.Assuming branching evolution of galaxies as a "descent withmodification", we show here that the concepts and tools of phylogeneticsystematics that are widely used in biology can be heuristicallytransposed to the case of galaxies. Methods: .This approach,which we call "astrocladistics", is applied to dwarf galaxies of theLocal Group and provides the first evolutionary tree for realgalaxies. Results: .The trees that we present here are solidenough to support the existence of a hierarchical organisation in thediversity of dwarf galaxies of the Local Group. They also show thatthese galaxies all stem from a common ancestral kind of object. We findthat some kinds of dIrrs are progenitors of both dSphs and other kindsof dIrrs. We also identify three evolutionary groups, each one with itsown characteristics and own evolution. Conclusions: .The presentwork opens a new way to analysing galaxy evolution and a path towards anew systematics of galaxies. Work on other galaxies in the Universe isin progress.

A Dynamical Model for the Orbit of the Andromeda Galaxy M31 and the Origin of the Local Group of Galaxies
We propose a new model for the origin and evolution of the Local Groupof Galaxies (LGG) that naturally explains the formation of theMagellanic Clouds and their large orbital angular momenta around theGalaxy. The basic idea is that an off-center hydrodynamical collisionoccurred some 10Gyr ago between the primordial Andromeda galaxy (M31)and a similar Galaxy, and compressed the halo gas to form the LGG dwarfgalaxies, including the Magellanic Clouds. New-born dwarf galaxies canbe expected to locate on the orbital plane of these two massivegalaxies. We reexamined the two-dimensional sky distribution of the LGGmembers, and confirmed an early idea that they align along two similargreat circles. The planes of these circles are approximately normal tothe line joining the present position of the Sun and the galacticcenter. We made a distribution map of these objects, and found awell-defined plane of finite thickness. Thus we could determine theorbital elements of M31 relative to the Galaxy by reproducing thewell-studied dynamics of the LMC and the SMC around the Galaxy. Theexpected proper motion of M31 is (μl, μb) =(38 ± 16 μas yr-1, -49 ± 5 μasyr-1).

Light and Motion in the Local Volume
Using high-quality data on 149 galaxies within 10 Mpc, I find nocorrelation between luminosity and peculiar velocity at all. There is nounequivocal sign on scales of 1-2 Mpc of the expected gravitationaleffect of the brightest galaxies, in particular infall toward groups, orof infall toward the supergalactic plane on any scale. Either darkmatter is not distributed in the same way as luminous matter in thisregion, or peculiar velocities are not due to fluctuations in mass. Thesensitivity of peculiar velocity studies to the background model ishighlighted.

Light-to-Mass Variations with Environment
Large and well-defined variations exist between the distribution of massand the light of stars on extragalactic scales. Mass concentrations inthe range 1012-1013 Msolar manifest themost light per unit mass. Group halos in this range are typically thehosts of spiral and irregular galaxies with ongoing star formation. Onaverage M/LB~90 Msolar/Lsolar in thesegroups . More massive halos have less light per unit mass. Within agiven mass range, halos that are dynamically old as measured by crossingtimes and galaxy morphologies have distinctly less light per unit mass.At the other end of the mass spectrum, below 1012Msolar, there is a cutoff in the manifestation of light.Group halos in the range 1011-1012Msolar can host dwarf galaxies but with such low luminositiesthat M/LB values can range from several hundred to severalthousand. It is suspected that there must be completely dark halos atlower masses. Given the form of the halo mass function, the low relativeluminosities of the high-mass halos have the greatest cosmologicalimplications. Of order half the clustered mass may reside in halos withgreater than 1014 Msolar. By contrast, only 5%-10%of clustered mass would lie in entities with less than 1012Msolar.

Chemical Abundances of H II Regions in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 1705
We report optical spectroscopy of 16 H II regions in NGC 1705 and [OIII] λ4363 detections for the first time in five H II regions.The resulting mean oxygen abundance derived directly from measuredelectron temperatures is 12+log(O/H)=8.21+/-0.05, which corresponds to[O/H]=-0.45, or 35% of the solar value. There are no significant spatialinhomogeneities in [O III] λ4363 oxygen abundances from H IIregions at a radius approximately 10" from the super star cluster. In HII regions where [O III] λ4363 was not measured, oxygenabundances derived with bright-line methods (accurate only to 0.2 dex)are in agreement with direct values of the oxygen abundance. Faint,narrow He II λ4686 emission is found in two H II regions, but theimplied contribution from O+3 to the total oxygen abundanceis only 0.01 dex. The mean argon-, neon-, and nitrogen-to-oxygenabundance ratios are consistent with mean values for other dwarfirregular galaxies, blue compact dwarf galaxies, and H II galaxies atcomparable oxygen abundances. Interestingly, the nitrogen-to-oxygenabundance ratio in the ionized H II gas agrees with the value for theneutral H I, even though the metallicity of the neutral gas may be afactor of 6 lower than that of the ionized gas. This may be indicativeof low-metallicity gas in the halo of the galaxy. Extinction values,AV, derived from observed Balmer line ratios along lines ofsight to H II regions are in the range between 0 and 0.9 mag.Significant and variable extinction may have important effects on theinterpretation of resolved stellar populations and derived starformation histories. With respect to the metallicity-luminosity andmetallicity-gas fraction diagnostics, the measured oxygen abundance forNGC 1705 is comparable to those of Local Group dwarf irregular galaxiesat a given luminosity and gas fraction. Simple chemical evolution modelssuggest that the galaxy is quickly evolving into a gas-poor dwarfgalaxy.Based on EFOSC2 observations collected at the European SouthernObservatory, Chile.

The 1000 Brightest HIPASS Galaxies: H I Properties
We present the HIPASS Bright Galaxy Catalog (BGC), which contains the1000 H I brightest galaxies in the southern sky as obtained from the H IParkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS). The selection of the brightest sourcesis based on their H I peak flux density (Speak>~116 mJy)as measured from the spatially integrated HIPASS spectrum. The derived HI masses range from ~107 to 4×1010Msolar. While the BGC (z<0.03) is complete inSpeak, only a subset of ~500 sources can be consideredcomplete in integrated H I flux density (FHI>~25 Jy kms-1). The HIPASS BGC contains a total of 158 new redshifts.These belong to 91 new sources for which no optical or infraredcounterparts have previously been cataloged, an additional 51 galaxiesfor which no redshifts were previously known, and 16 galaxies for whichthe cataloged optical velocities disagree. Of the 91 newly cataloged BGCsources, only four are definite H I clouds: while three are likelyMagellanic debris with velocities around 400 km s-1, one is atidal cloud associated with the NGC 2442 galaxy group. The remaining 87new BGC sources, the majority of which lie in the zone of avoidance,appear to be galaxies. We identified optical counterparts to all but oneof the 30 new galaxies at Galactic latitudes |b|>10deg.Therefore, the BGC yields no evidence for a population of``free-floating'' intergalactic H I clouds without associated opticalcounterparts. HIPASS provides a clear view of the local large-scalestructure. The dominant features in the sky distribution of the BGC arethe Supergalactic Plane and the Local Void. In addition, one can clearlysee the Centaurus Wall, which connects via the Hydra and Antlia Clustersto the Puppis Filament. Some previously hardly noticable galaxy groupsstand out quite distinctly in the H I sky distribution. Several newstructures, including some not behind the Milky Way, are seen for thefirst time.

A Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies
We present an all-sky catalog of 451 nearby galaxies, each having anindividual distance estimate D<~10 Mpc or a radial velocityVLG<550 km s-1. The catalog contains data onbasic optical and H I properties of the galaxies, in particular, theirdiameters, absolute magnitudes, morphological types, circumnuclearregion types, optical and H I surface brightnesses, rotationalvelocities, and indicative mass-to-luminosity and H I mass-to-luminosityratios, as well as a so-called tidal index, which quantifies the galaxyenvironment. We expect the catalog completeness to be roughly 70%-80%within 8 Mpc. About 85% of the Local Volume population are dwarf (dIr,dIm, and dSph) galaxies with MB>-17.0, which contributeabout 4% to the local luminosity density, and roughly 10%-15% to thelocal H I mass density. The H I mass-to-luminosity and the H Imass-to-total (indicative) mass ratios increase systematically fromgiant galaxies toward dwarfs, reaching maximum values about 5 in solarunits for the most tiny objects. For the Local Volume disklike galaxies,their H I masses and angular momentum follow Zasov's linear relation,expected for rotating gaseous disks being near the threshold ofgravitational instability, favorable for active star formation. We foundthat the mean local luminosity density exceeds 1.7-2.0 times the globaldensity, in spite of the presence of the Tully void and the absence ofrich clusters in the Local Volume. The mean local H I density is 1.4times its ``global'' value derived from the H I Parkes Sky Survey.However, the mean local baryon densityΩb(<8Mpc)=2.3% consists of only a half of the globalbaryon density, Ωb=(4.7+/-0.6)% (Spergel et al.,published in 2003). The mean-square pairwise difference of radialvelocities is about 100 km s-1 for spatial separations within1 Mpc, increasing to ~300 km s-1 on a scale of ~3 Mpc. alsoWe calculated the integral area of the sky occupied by the neighboringgalaxies. Assuming the H I size of spiral and irregular galaxies to be2.5 times their standard optical diameter and ignoring any evolutioneffect, we obtain the expected number of the line-of-sight intersectionswith the H I galaxy images to be dn/dz~0.4, which does not contradictthe observed number of absorptions in QSO spectra.

The very local Hubble flow: Computer simulations of dynamical history
The phenomenon of the very local (≤3 Mpc) Hubble flow is studied onthe basis of the data of recent precision observations. A set ofcomputer simulations is performed to trace the trajectories of the flowgalaxies back in time to the epoch of the formation of the Local Group.It is found that the ``initial conditions'' of the flow are drasticallydifferent from the linear velocity-distance relation. The simulationsenable one also to recognize the major trends of the flow evolution andidentify the dynamical role of universal antigravity produced by thecosmic vacuum.

Globular Clusters as Candidates for Gravitational Lenses to Explain Quasar-Galaxy Associations
We argue that globular clusters (GCs) are good candidates forgravitational lenses in explaining quasar-galaxy associations. Thecatalog of associations (Bukhmastova 2001) compiled from the LEDAcatalog of galaxies (Paturel 1997) and from the catalog of quasars(Veron-Cetty and Veron 1998) is used. Based on the new catalog, we showthat one might expect an increased number of GCs around irregulargalaxies of types 9 and 10 from the hypothesis that distant compactsources are gravitationally lensed by GCs in the halos of foregroundgalaxies. The King model is used to determine the central surfacedensities of 135 GCs in the Milky Way. The distribution of GCs incentral surface density was found to be lognormal.

The Progenitors of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies
The gas-deficient dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies present anevolutionary puzzle that we explore in 40 early-type and late-typedwarfs in the Local Group and nearby field. Although dSph's experiencedstar formation over extended time spans in their youths, today all butone are completely free of detectable interstellar material, even in theFornax dSph, where stars formed in the last 100 Myr. Combiningphotometric and spectroscopic stellar metallicity estimates for redgiant branches with high-sensitivity H I 21 cm line data from theliterature, we show that the well-established offset inluminosity-metallicity relationships for dSph's and dwarf irregular(dIrr) galaxies exists also when confining the comparison to their oldstellar populations: dSph's have higher mean stellar metallicities for afixed optical luminosity. Evidently star formation in younger dSph's wasmore vigorous than in the youthful dIrr's, leading to more efficientenrichment. Dwarf galaxies, whose locus in the luminosity-metallicitydiagram is consistent with that of dSph's, even when baryonicluminosities are considered, are the ``transition-type dwarfs'' Phoenix,DDO 210, LGS 3, Antlia, and KKR 25. These dwarfs have mixed dIrr/dSphmorphologies, low stellar masses, low angular momentum, and H I contentsof at most a few 106 Msolar. Unlike dIrr's manytransition-type dwarfs would closely resemble dSph's if their gas wereremoved, as required to become a dSph; they are likely dSph progenitors.As gas removal is the key factor for such a transition, we consider theempirical evidence in favor and against various gas removal processes.We suggest that internal gas removal mechanisms are inadequate and favorram-pressure stripping to clean the bulk of interstellar matter fromgalaxies to make dSph's. A combination of initial conditions andenvironment seems to support the formation of dSph's: nearby dSph'sappear to form from small galaxies with active early star formation,whose evolution halts due to externally induced gas loss.Transition-type dwarfs, then, are dSph's that kept their interstellarmedium and therefore should replace dSph's in isolated locations wherestripping is ineffective.

Distances to nearby galaxies in Sculptor
We present an analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images of ninenearby galaxies in Sculptor. We derive their distances from theluminosity of the tip of the red giant branch stars with a typicalaccuracy of ~ 12%. Their distances are 4.21 Mpc (Sc 22), 4.92 Mpc (DDO226), 3.94 Mpc (NGC 253), 3.40 Mpc (KDG 2), 3.34 Mpc (DDO 6), 3.42 Mpc(ESO 540-030), 4.43 Mpc (ESO 245-05), 4.27 Mpc (UGCA 442), and 3.91 Mpc(NGC 7793). The galaxies are concentrated in several spatially separatedloose groups around NGC 300, NGC 253, and NGC 7793. The Sculptor galaxycomplex together with the CVn I cloud and the Local Group form a 10 Mpcfilament, apparently driven by the free Hubble flow.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. TheSpace Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Nebular abundances of nearby southern dwarf galaxies
The results of optical spectroscopy of H II regions in a sample ofsouthern dwarf irregulars consisting of five dwarf galaxies in theCentaurus A group, four dwarfs in the Sculptor group, and eightadditional dwarf galaxies are presented. Oxygen abundances are derivedusing the direct method where [O III]lambda 4363 is detected;otherwise, abundances are derived with the bright-line method using theMcGaugh and the Pilyugin calibrations. ESO358-G060 has the lowest oxygenabundance (12+log(O/H) = 7.32) in the sample, which is comparable to thevalue for the second most metal-poor galaxy known (SBS 0335-052). Inall, new oxygen abundances are reported for nine dwarf galaxies; updatedvalues are presented for the remaining galaxies. Derived oxygenabundances are in the range from 3% to 26% of the solar value. Oxygenabundances for dwarfs in the southern sample are consistent with themetallicity-luminosity relationship defined by a control sample of dwarfirregulars with [O III]lambda 4363 abundances and well-measureddistances. However, NGC 5264 appears to have an (upper branch) oxygenabundance approximately two to three times higher than other dwarfs atsimilar luminosities. Nitrogen-to-oxygen and neon-to-oxygen abundanceratios are also reported; in particular, IC 1613 and IC 5152 showelevated nitrogen-to-oxygen ratios for their oxygen abundances.

The metallicity-luminosity relationship of dwarf irregular galaxies. II. A new approach
The nature of a possible correlation between metallicity and luminosityfor dwarf irregular galaxies, including those with the highestluminosities, has been explored using simple chemical evolutionarymodels. Our models depend on a set of free parameters in order toinclude infall and outflows of gas and covering a broad variety ofphysical situations. Given a fixed set of parameters, a non-linearcorrelation between the oxygen abundance and the luminosity may beestablished. This would be the case if an effective self-regulatingmechanism between the accretion of mass and the wind energized by thestar formation could lead to the same parameters for all the dwarfirregular galaxies. In the case that these parameters were distributedin a random manner from galaxy to galaxy, a significant scatter in themetallicity-luminosity diagram is expected. Comparing with observations,we show that only variations of the stellar mass-to-light ratio aresufficient to explain the observed scattering and, therefore, the actionof a mechanism of self-regulation cannot be ruled out. The possibleorigin of discrepancies in the metallicity-luminosity correlation foundby different authors is discussed.

Local galaxy flows within 5 Mpc
We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images of sixteen dwarf galaxiesas part of our snapshot survey of nearby galaxy candidates. We derivetheir distances from the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branchstars with a typical accuracy of ~ 12%. The resulting distances are4.26 Mpc (KKH 5), 4.74 Mpc (KK 16), 4.72 Mpc (KK 17), 4.66 Mpc (ESO115-021), 4.43 Mpc (KKH 18), 3.98 Mpc (KK 27), 4.61 Mpc (KKH 34), 4.99Mpc (KK 54), 4.23 Mpc (ESO 490-017), 4.90 Mpc (FG 202), 5.22 Mpc (UGC3755), 5.18 Mpc (UGC 3974), 4.51 Mpc (KK 65), 5.49 Mpc (UGC 4115), 3.78Mpc (NGC 2915), and 5.27 Mpc (NGC 6503). Based on distances and radialvelocities of 156 nearby galaxies, we plot the local velocity-distancerelation, which has a slope of H0 = 73 km s-1Mpc-1 and a radial velocity dispersion of 85 kms-1. When members of the M81 and Cen A groups are removed,and distance errors are taken into account, the radial velocitydispersion drops to sigmav = 41 km s-1. The localHubble flow within 5 Mpc exhibits a significant anisotropy, with twoinfall peculiar velocity regions directed towards the Supergalacticpoles. However, two observed regions of outflow peculiar velocity,situated on the Supergalactic equator, are far away ( ~ 50degr ) fromthe Virgo/anti-Virgo direction, which disagrees with a sphericallysymmetric Virgo-centric flow. About 63% of galaxies within 5 Mpc belongto known compact and loose groups. Apart from them, we found six newprobable groups, consisting entirely of dwarf galaxies.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. TheSpace Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 2, and Figs. 1 and 2, are only availablein electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

The Luminosity-Metallicity Relation, Effective Yields, and Metal Loss in Spiral and Irregular Galaxies
I present results on the correlation between galaxy mass, luminosity,and metallicity for a sample of spiral and irregular galaxies havingwell-measured abundance profiles, distances, and rotation speeds.Additional data for low surface brightness galaxies from the literatureare also included for comparison. These data are combined to study themetallicity-luminosity and metallicity-rotation speed correlations forspiral and irregular galaxies. The metallicity-luminosity correlationshows its familiar form for these galaxies, a roughly uniform change inthe average present-day O/H abundance of about a factor of 100 over 11mag in B luminosity. However, the O/H-Vrot relation shows achange in slope at a rotation speed of about 125 km s-1. Atfaster Vrot, there appears to be no relation between averagemetallicity and rotation speed. At lower Vrot, themetallicity correlates with rotation speed. This change in behaviorcould be the result of increasing loss of metals from the smallergalaxies in supernova-driven winds. This idea is tested by looking atthe variation in effective yield, derived from observed abundances andgas fractions assuming closed box chemical evolution. The effectiveyields derived for spiral and irregular galaxies increase by a factor of10-20 from Vrot~5 to 300 km s-1, asymptoticallyincreasing to approximately constant yeff forVrot>~150 km s-1. The trend suggests thatgalaxies with Vrot<~100-150 km s-1 may lose alarge fraction of their supernova ejecta, while galaxies above thisvalue tend to retain metals.

Squelched Galaxies and Dark Halos
There is accumulating evidence that the faint end of the galaxyluminosity function might be very different in different locations. Theluminosity function might be rising in rich clusters and flat in regionsof low density. If galaxies form according to the model of hierarchicalclustering, then there should be many small halos compared to the numberof big halos. If this theory is valid, then there must be a mechanismthat eliminates at least the visible component of galaxies inlow-density regions. A plausible mechanism is photoionization of theintergalactic medium at a time before the epoch that most dwarf galaxiesform in low-density regions but after the epoch of formation for similarsystems that ultimately end up in rich clusters. The dynamicaltimescales are found to accommodate this hypothesis in a flat universewith Ωm<~0.4. If small halos exist but simply cannotbe located because they have never become the sites of significant starformation, they still might have dynamical manifestations. Thesemanifestations are hard to identify in normal groups of galaxies becausesmall halos do not make a significant contribution to the global massbudget. It could be entertained, however, that there are clusters ofhalos where there are only small systems, clusters that are at thelow-mass end of the hierarchical tree. There may be places where only afew small galaxies managed to form, enough for us to identify and use astest probes of the potential. It turns out that such environments mightbe common. Four probable groups of dwarfs are identified within 5 Mpc,and the assumption that they are gravitationally bound suggestsM/LB~300-1200Msolar/Lsolar, a factor of6+/-2 times higher than typical values for groups with luminousgalaxies.

A Search for H2O Maser Emission in Southern Active Galactic Nuclei and Star-forming Galaxies: Discovery of a Maser in the Edge-on Galaxy IRAS F01063-8034
We report the cumulative results of five surveys for H2Omaser emission at 1.35 cm wavelength in 131 active galactic nuclei(AGNs) and star-forming galaxies, conducted at the Parkes Observatorybetween 1993 and 1998. We detected one new maser, in the edge-on galaxyIRAS F01063-8034, which exhibits a single ~0.1 Jy spectral feature at4282+/-6 km s-1 (heliocentric) with an unusually large54+/-16 km s-1 half-power full width. The centroid velocityof the emission increased to 4319.6+/-0.6 km s-1 (38+/-2 kms-1 width) over the 13 days between discovery andconfirmation of the detection. A similarly broad-line width and largechange in velocity has been noted for the maser in NGC 1052, wherein jetactivity excites the emission. Neither optical spectroscopy,radio-infrared correlations, nor infrared colors provide compellingevidence of unusual activity in the nucleus of IRAS F01063-8034. Sincethe galaxy appears to be outwardly normal at optical and infraredwavelengths, detection of an H2O maser therein is unique. Themaser emission is evidence that the galaxy harbors an AGN that isprobably obscured by the edge-on galactic disk. The detection highlightsthe possibility that undetected AGNs could be hidden in other relativelynearby galaxies. No other maser emission features have been identifiedat velocities between 3084 and 6181 km s-1.

HIPASS High-Velocity Clouds: Properties of the Compact and Extended Populations
A catalog of southern anomalous-velocity H I clouds at decl. <+2° is presented. This catalog is based on data from the H I ParkesAll-Sky Survey (HIPASS) reprocessed with the MINMED5 procedure andsearched with a new high-velocity cloud-finding algorithm. The improvedsensitivity (5 σ: ΔTB= 0.04 K), resolution(15.5′), and velocity range (-500 kms-1

The chemical content of a sample of dwarf irregular galaxies
We present abundances of neon, nitrogen and oxygen of some nearby dwarfirregular galaxies. The elemental abundances are retrieved fromlong-slit spectroscopy of H II regions in the objects. The abundancesare found to be sub-solar in all cases. For the dwarf irregular galaxyDDO 190 the abundances reported in this work are the first everpublished. One object, DDO 167, proved to have an oxygen abundance aboutsimilar to the one of I Zw 18, even though the uncertainties are high. Acomparison of the chemical abundances between all the groups of gas-richgalaxies have been performed and the main conclusion is that the dwarfgas-rich galaxies are not distinguishable on the basis of their chemicalcontent. Based on observations made at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile, the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma,Spain, and Calar Alto Observatory, Almería, Spain.

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Right ascension:22h02m41.20s
Aparent dimensions:5.129′ × 3.631′

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