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Wide field CCD photometry around open cluster NGC 1912.
Not Available

Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.

Comparison of the Luminosity Functions of Open Clusters Based on USNO-A1 Data
The luminosity and mass functions of a group of Galactic open clustersare constructed by applying a statistical method to photometric datafrom the USNO-A1 catalog. Despite some limitations, this catalog can beused for statistical analyses in Galactic astronomy. Pairwisecomparisons of the derived cluster luminosity functions are performedfor five age intervals. The differences between the luminosity functionsof the open clusters are not statistically significant in most cases. Itis concluded that the luminosity functions are approximately universalthroughout a large volume in the solar neighborhood. Combined luminosityand mass functions are constructed for six age intervals. The slope ofthe mass spectrum may vary somewhat from cluster to cluster, and themean slope may be somewhat higher than the Salpetervalue.

Astrophysical supplements to the ASCC-2.5. II. Membership probabilities in 520 Galactic open cluster sky areas
We present a catalogue (CSOCA ) of stars residing in 520 Galactic opencluster sky areas which is the result of the kinematic (proper motion)and photometric member selection of stars listed in the homogeneousAll-sky Compiled Catalogue of 2.5 Million Stars (ASCC-2.5). We describethe structure and contents of the catalogue, the selection procedureapplied, and the proper motion and photometric membership constraintsadopted. In every cluster area the CSOCA contains the complete list ofthe ASCC-2.5 stars regardless of their membership probability. Forevery star the CSOCA includes accurate J2000 equatorial coordinates,proper motions in the Hipparcos system, BV photometric data in theJohnson system, proper motion and photometric membership probabilities,as well as angular distances from the cluster centers for about 166 000ASCC-2.5 stars. If available, trigonometric parallaxes, spectral types,multiplicity and variability flags from the ASCC-2.5, and radialvelocities with their errors from the Catalogue of Radial Velocities ofGalactic Stars with high precision Astrometric Data (CRVAD) are alsogiven.

WIYN Open Cluster Study MOSAIC Photometry of M38
We present high-precision BVI CCD photometry of the open cluster M38using the 1 degree field of the MOSAIC instrument on the WIYN 0.9mtelescope. These data have been obtained as part of the WIYN OpenCluster Study. We have also combined our data with JHK photometry fromthe Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Using this combination of opticaland near-IR data, we will present revised values for the reddening,metallicity, distance, and age of the cluster. This research issupported by NSF grant AST-0196212 to A. Sarajedini.

The Princeton Variability Survey
The Princeton Variability Survey (PVS) is a robotic survey that makesuse of readily available ``off-the-shelf'' type hardware products, inconjunction with a powerful set of commercial software products, inorder to monitor and discover variable objects in the night sky. Themain goal of the PVS has been to devise an automated telescope and datareduction system requiring only moderate technical and financialresources to assemble, which may be easily replicated by the dedicatedamateur, a student group, or a professional and used to study anddiscover a variety of variable objects, such as stars. This paperdescribes the hardware and software components of the PVS device as wellas observational results from the initial season of the PVS, includingthe discovery of a new bright variable star.

Recent developments on studies of open clusters
Studies on open clusters are of great significance for astronomy andastrophysics, for which distinct developments have been made recently inboth observational and theoretical respects. In this paper, currentresearch of open cluster is reviewed, and membership determination,basic parameters determination, evolution of cluster and clustermembers, structure and dynamics of open cluster are also described indetail.

Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.

On the Galactic Disk Metallicity Distribution from Open Clusters. I. New Catalogs and Abundance Gradient
We have compiled two new open cluster catalogs. In the first one, thereare 119 objects with ages, distances, and metallicities available, whilein the second one, 144 objects have both absolute proper motion andradial velocity data, of which 45 clusters also have metallicity dataavailable. Taking advantage of the large number of objects included inour sample, we present an iron radial gradient of about -0.063+/-0.008dex kpc-1 from the first sample, which is quite consistentwith the most recent determination of the oxygen gradient from nebulaeand young stars, about -0.07 dex kpc-1. By dividing clustersinto age groups, we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past,which is consistent with the recent result from Galactic planetarynebulae data, and also consistent with inside-out galactic diskformation scenarios. Based on the cluster sample, we also discuss themetallicity distribution, cluster kinematics, and space distribution. Adisk age-metallicity relation could be implied by those properties,although we cannot give conclusive result from the age- metallicitydiagram based on the current sample. More observations are needed formetal-poor clusters. From the second catalog, we have calculated thevelocity components in cylindrical coordinates with respect to theGalactic standard of rest for 144 open clusters. The velocitydispersions of the older clusters are larger than those of youngclusters, but they are all much smaller than that of the Galactic thickdisk stars.

Urban Astronomy: Observing the Messier Objects from the City
Not Available

Membership in the Region of the Double Cluster h and χ Persei Working from Proper Motions and Positions: Distance Moduli and Extinction in That Galactic Direction
A segregation between cluster members and field stars in the region ofthe double cluster h and χ Persei is accomplished working fromproper motions and positions as kinematic random variables. Theextinction RV and the distance moduli are determined once thephysical cluster members are found.

NGC 1912 and NGC 1907: A close encounter between open clusters?
The possible physical relation between the closely projected openclusters NGC 1912 (M 38) and NGC 1907 is investigated. Previous studiessuggested a physical pair based on similar distances, and the presentstudy explores in more detail the possible interaction. Spatialvelocities are derived from available radial velocities and propermotions, and the past orbital motions of the clusters are retrieved in aGalactic potential model. Detailed N-body simulations of their approachsuggest that the clusters were born in different regions of the Galaxyand presently experience a fly-by.

Proper motions of open clusters based on the TYCHO2 Catalogue. II. Clusters farther than 1 kpc
We determined the mean absolute proper motion of 94 open clusterssituated farther than 1 kpc from the Sun. The results are derived fromthe stellar proper motion data given in the Tycho2 Catalogue. The meanproper motion of the clusters and membership probability of individualstars were obtained from the proper motion data by applying thestatistical method proposed by Sanders (\cite{Sanders1971}). Themeasurements made use of a large number of stars, usually several tens,for each cluster. The total number of stars investigated in the fieldsof the clusters is 4864 of which 2021 were considered members. For 55clusters, this is the first determination of the proper motion. Based onobservations of the ESA Hipparcos satellite. Tables 1 to 95 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/388/168

Integrated photometric characteristics of galactic open star clusters
Integrated UBVRI photometric parameters of 140 galactic open clustershave been computed. Integrated I(V-R)0 and I(V-I)0colours as well as integrated parameters for 71 star clusters have beenobtained for the first time. These, in combination with published data,altogether 352 objects, are used to study the integrated photometriccharacteristics of the galactic open clusters. The I(MV)values range from -9.0 to -1.0 mag corresponding to a range in totalmass of the star clusters from ~ 25 to 4*E4 Msun.The integrated colours have a relatively narrow range, e.g., I(B-V){_0}varies from -0.4 to 1.2 mag. The scatter in integrated colours at agiven integrated magnitude can be understood in terms of differences infraction of red giants/supergiants in the clusters. The observedintegrated magnitudes and colours agree with the synthetic ones, exceptthe dependences of I(V-R)0 and I(V-I)0 colours forclusters younger than ~ 100 Myrs and also of the integrated magnitudesof oldest clusters. The large sample provides the most accurate agedependence of integrated magnitudes and colours determined so far. Theluminosity function of the I(MV) has a peak around -3.5 magand its slope indicates that only ~ 1% of the open clusters in thegalactic disc are brighter than I(MV)=-11 mag. No variationhas been found of integrated magnitude with galactocentric distance andmetallicity.

A study of spatial structure of galactic open star clusters
In order to study the relation between the core and corona in galacticstar clusters, the spatial structure of 38 rich open star clusters hasbeen studied using radial density profiles derived from the photometricdata of the Digital Sky Survey. The shape of the radial density profileindicates that the corona, most probably, is the outer region around thecluster. It can exist from the very beginning of the cluster formationand dynamical evolution is not the reason for its occurrence. The studydoes not find any relation between cluster size and age but indicatesthat the clusters with galacto-centric distances >9.5 kpc have largersizes. Further, we find that the average value of the core radius is1.3+/- 0.7 pc and that of annular width of the corona is 5.6+/- 1.9 pc,while average values of densities of cluster members in the core andcorona are 15.4+/- 9.9 star/pc2 and 1.6+/- 0.99star/pc2 respectively. Average field star contaminations inthe core and corona are ~ 35% and 80% respectively. In spite of smallerdensities in the coronal region, it contains ~ 75% of the clustermembers due to its larger area in comparison to the core region. Thisclearly demonstrates the importance of the coronal region in studiesdealing with the entire stellar contents of open star clusters as wellas their dynamical evolution. In contrast to the cluster cores, thestructure of coronal regions differs significantly from one cluster toother.

The rise and rise of the deep sky image
Presidential Address to the British Astronomical Association, 2000October 25

Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Young star clusters of our galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud as test for stellar evolutionary models.
Not Available

Multicolor CCD Photometry and Stellar Evolutionary Analysis of NGC 1907, NGC 1912, NGC 2383, NGC 2384, and NGC 6709 Using Synthetic Color-Magnitude Diagrams
We present the first CCD photometric observations of NGC 2383 and NGC2384 in B, V, R, and I, NGC 1912, NGC 6709 in B, V, and I and NGC 1907in B and V passbands, reaching down to a limiting magnitude of V~20 magfor ~3300 stars put together. The results of the spectroscopicobservations of 43 bright stars in the field of NGC 1912, NGC 2383, NGC2384, and NGC 6709 are also presented. The color-magnitude diagrams(CMDs) of the clusters in V versus B-V, V versus V-R, and V versus V-Iare presented. The distances and reddening to these clusters aredetermined using the cluster CMDs. The distances to the clusters NGC1907, NGC 1912, NGC 2383, NGC 2384, and NGC 6709 are 1785+/-260,1820+/-265, 3340+/-490, 2925+/-430, and 1190+/-175 pc, respectively.Some gaps in the cluster main sequence have been identified. We havecompared the observed color-magnitude diagrams of these four openclusters with the synthetic ones derived from one classical and twoovershoot stellar evolutionary models. Overshoot models estimate olderages for clusters when compared to the classical models. The age of theclusters estimated using the isochrones of Bertelli et al. are 400, 250,400, 20, and 315 Myr for the clusters NGC 1907, NGC 1912, NGC 2383, NGC2384, and NGC 6709, respectively. A comparison of the syntheticcolor-magnitude diagrams with the observed ones indicates that theovershoot models should be preferred. The comparison of integratedluminosity functions do not clearly indicate as to which model is to bepreferred. The values of the mass function slopes estimated for theclusters are x=1.7+/-0.15 for NGC 1912 (mass range: 1.7-3.9 M_solar) andNGC 6709 (1.7-3.4 M_solar), x=1.3+/-0.15 for NGC 2383 (1.7-3.1 M_solar),and x=1.0+/-0.15 for NGC 2384 (2.0-14.0). The present age estimates showthat the closely located cluster pair NGC 1912 + NGC 1907 have similarages, indicating that they may have born together, making them a goodcandidate to be a binary open cluster.

Search for star clustering: methodology and application to the Two Micron Galactic Survey
A new approach to the study of the large-scale stellar clusterdistribution in the Galaxy based on two-point correlation techniques ispresented. The basic formalism for this method is outlined, and itsapplications are then investigated by the use of a simple model ofcluster distribution in the Galaxy. This provides an estimate of thepotentials of the two-point correlation function for indicatingclustering in the measured star positions, which can be related to thepresence of star clusters in the observed field. This technique is thenapplied to several areas of the Two Micron Galactic Survey catalogue,from which information is obtained on the distribution of clustersaccording to position in the Galaxy, as well as about age, density ofstars, etc.

Thirty years of research with the Baldone Schmidt Telescope
We describe the research done with the Baldone Schmidt telescope(80/120/240 cm) of the Radioastrophysical Observatory. The telescope hastwo objective prisms with reciprocal dispersions of 600 and 1130 A/mm atH-gamma. One of the main research projects is the search for andphotometric study of galactic carbon stars. The telescope has also beenused for novae studies in M 31 and stellar photometry in open clustersand fields of special interest. Comet studies, particularly during theInternational Halley Watch, proved to be another successful applicationof the telescope. The archive of the Baldone Schmidt telescope containsnearly 20,000 direct and 2000 spectral plates and films.

Spectral Classification of "Photometric Subgiants" in Open Clusters
Color-magnitude diagrams of several intermediate-age open clusterscontain apparent post-main-sequence stars which are fainter thanpredicted by standard evolutionary tracks. We have obtainedclassification spectra for such stars in eight clusters. Some of theseare reddened background early-type stars, and several of the late-typestars turn out to have luminosities indicative of being foreground tothe cluster. A few stars appear to be cluster members but do not fit thetheoretical tracks. We find that the Bahcall-Soneira Galaxy model,modified for low galactic latitudes, can give statistically usefulpredictions of the numbers of field stars.

Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.

Probable binary open star clusters in the Galaxy.
The existence of double/binary clusters in the Magellanic Clouds isfairly well established, whereas only one such pair, h + χ Persei,is known in the Galaxy. From the catalogues of open clusters of theGalaxy, we have identified 18 probable pairs of clusters (with knowndistances), with spatial separations less than 20pc. The tidaldisruption timescales for these pairs, due to Galactic differentialrotation are calculated, using cluster data where available or byassuming typical values. In some cases, these timescales are larger thanthe average open cluster lifetime, =~10^8^yr. About 8% of open clustersappear to be members of binary systems, and hence binary cluster systemsmay not be very uncommon in the Galaxy.

Be stars in young clusters
Photometric H(alpha) and H(beta) line indices for 71 B stars in sevengalactic clusters are presented. Some stars in three of the clusterswere observed at two epochs. Using these data nine Be stars wereidentified. Three of them were previously detected as emission-linestars, while six do not appear to have been previously recognized assuch. Of the 62 stars for which we find no indication of emission, threewere previously found to exhibit emission. We find that emission-lineobjects are absent among the most luminous early B giants.

Integrated photometric properties of open clusters
Galactic open clusters provide an abundant sample of stellar aggregatesof various sizes, ages and metal abundances, apt to constitute atemplate for comparison with star systems in other galaxies. In thispaper we present and discuss a standard methodology to synthesize U,B,Vfluxes and colours, and apply it to a set of 138 open clusters. Resultsare compared with previous ones available in the literature. We wereable to calibrate a mass-luminosity relation by which we evaluated themass of ~400 open clusters, leading to a well defined present-day massfunction. The number-complete sample of galactic open clusters presentedin Battinelli & Capuzzo-Dolcetta (1991) is enlarged of a 15%.

Eine Beobachtungsnacht im Herbst.
Not Available

Radial velocities of stars in open clusters
A CORAVEL type spectrometer was used to measure precise radialvelocities of 116 late-type stars of spectral classes F5 - M5 in thefields of 18 open clusters. Probable cluster members were selected onthe basis of kinematic and photometric data. New or improved radialvelocities for 12 open clusters were thus obtained.

Formation and evolutionary properties of the Galactic open cluster system
Results are reported from a statistical analysis of observational dataon 100 open clusters within 2 kpc of the sun, selected from the catalogof Lynga (1987). The selection criteria and the completeness of thesample are discussed; the data are compiled in a table; and the analysisresults are presented in a series of graphs and characterized in detail.A cluster formation rate of 0.45 clusters/kpc Myr is found,significantly lower than the rates determined previously (using clusterswithin 1 kpc of the sun) and corresponding to a cluster star-formationefficiency of 0.0063. The low average cluster lifetime (about 10 Myr)suggests that clusters are formed as unstable systems.

A Star-Hop from Capella
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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h28m42.00s
Apparent magnitude:6.4

Catalogs and designations:
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MessierM 38
NGC 2000.0NGC 1912

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