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 The Narrow-Line Region of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy Mrk 78: An Infrared ViewWe report near-infrared spectroscopic data for the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk78, taken with the LIRIS near-infrared camera/spectrometer at theWilliam Herschel Telescope (WHT). The long-slit spectra clearly showextended emission. The resolution and depth of the near-infrared spectraallow the examination of its morphology and ionization regions, and adirect comparison with similarly deep visible spectra. The emission-lineratios obtained are used to derive the extinction toward the nucleus.The detection of strong features such as [Fe II], H2,hydrogen recombination lines, and the coronal [Si VI] λ1.962 lineis used to study the kinematics and excitation mechanisms occurring inMrk 78, revealing that despite the strong radio-jet interaction presentin this object, photoionization from the active nucleus dominates thenarrow-line region emission, while UV fluorescence is the source of theH2 emission. Lines with extended emission yield velocitydistributions with an amplitude of about 600 km s-1, theconsequence of an eastern lobe moving away from us plus a western lobewith the opposite contribution. We used the photoionization code CLOUDYto recreate a typical narrow-line region, to derive the ionizationparameter, and to compare our spectral data with diagnostic diagrams. Environmental Effects on Late-Type Galaxies in Nearby ClustersThe transformations that take place in late-type galaxies in theenvironment of rich clusters of galaxies at z=0 are reviewed. From thehandful of late-type galaxies that inhabit local clusters, whether theywere formed in situ and survived as such, avoiding transformation oreven destruction, or if they are newcomers that have recently fallen infrom outside, we can learn an important lesson on the latest stages ofgalaxy evolution. We start by reviewing the observational scenario,covering the broadest possible stretch of the electromagnetic spectrum,from the gas tracers (radio and optical) to the star formation tracers(UV and optical), the old star tracers (near-IR), and the dust (far-IR).Strong emphasis is given to the three nearby, well-studied clustersVirgo, A1367, and Coma, which are representative of differentevolutionary stages, from unrelaxed and spiral-rich (Virgo) to relaxedand spiral-poor (Coma). We continue by providing a review of models ofgalaxy interactions that are relevant to clusters of galaxies.Prototypes of various mechanisms and processes are discussed, and theirtypical timescales are given in an appendix. Observations indicate thepresence of healthy late-type galaxies falling into nearby clustersindividually or as part of massive groups. More rare are infallinggalaxies belonging to compact groups, where significant preprocessingmight take place. Once they have entered the cluster, they lose theirgas and quench their star formation activity, becoming anemic.Observations and theory agree in indicating that the interaction withthe intergalactic medium is responsible for the gas depletion. However,this process cannot be the origin of the cluster lenticular galaxypopulation. Physical and statistical properties of S0 galaxies in nearbyclusters and at higher redshift indicate that they originate from spiralgalaxies that have been transformed by gravitational interactions. Hαkinematics of the SINGS nearby galaxies survey - I*This is the first part of an Hαkinematics follow-up survey of theSpitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample. The data for28galaxies are presented. The observations were done on three differenttelescopes with Fabry-Perot of New Technology for the Observatoire dumont Megantic (FaNTOmM), an integral field photon-counting spectrometer,installed in the respective focal reducer of each telescope. The datareduction was done through a newly built pipeline with the aim ofproducing the most homogenous data set possible. Adaptive spatialbinning was applied to the data cubes in order to get a constantsignal-to-noise ratio across the field of view. Radial velocity andmonochromatic maps were generated using a new algorithm, and thekinematical parameters were derived using tilted-ring models. A Virgo high-resolution Hα kinematical survey - II. The AtlasA catalogue of ionized gas velocity fields for a sample of 30 spiral andirregular galaxies of the Virgo cluster has been obtained by using 3Doptical data. The aim of this survey is to study the influence ofhigh-density environments on the gaseous kinematics of local clustergalaxies. Observations of the Hα line by means of Fabry-Perotinterferometry have been performed at the Canada-France-HawaiiTelescope, European Southern Observatory 3.6-m telescope, Observatoirede Haute-Provence 1.93-m telescope and Observatoire du montMégantic telescope at angular and spectral samplings from 0.4 to1.6arcsec and 7 to 16kms-1. A recently developed, automaticand adaptive spatial binning technique is used to reach a nearlyconstant signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) over the whole field of view,allowing us to keep a high spatial resolution in high-S/N regions andextend the detection of signal in low-S/N regions. This paper is part ofa series and presents the integrated emission-line and velocity maps ofthe galaxies. Both Hα morphologies and kinematics exhibit signs ofperturbations in the form of, for example, external filaments, inner andnuclear spiral- and ring-like structures, inner kinematical twists,kinematical decoupling of a nuclear spiral, streaming motions alongspiral arms and misalignment between kinematical and photometricorientation axes. Mid-Infrared Spectral Diagnostics of Nuclear and Extranuclear Regions in Nearby GalaxiesMid-infrared diagnostics are presented for a large portion of theSpitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample plus archivaldata from ISO and Spitzer. The SINGS data set includes low- andhigh-resolution spectral maps and broadband imaging in the infrared forover 160 nuclear and extranuclear regions within 75 nearby galaxiesspanning a wide range of morphologies, metallicities, luminosities, andstar formation rates. Our main result is that these mid-infrareddiagnostics effectively constrain a target's dominant power source. Thecombination of a high-ionization line index and PAH strength serves asan efficient discriminant between AGNs and star-forming nuclei,confirming progress made with ISO spectroscopy on starbursting andultraluminous infrared galaxies. The sensitivity of Spitzer allows us toprobe fainter nuclear and star-forming regions within galaxy disks. Wefind that both star-forming nuclei and extranuclear regions stand apartfrom nuclei that are powered by Seyfert or LINER activity. In fact, weidentify areas within four diagnostic diagrams containing >90%Seyfert/LINER nuclei or >90% H II regions/H II nuclei. We also findthat, compared to starbursting nuclei, extranuclear regions typicallyseparate even further from AGNs, especially for low-metallicityextranuclear environments. In addition, instead of the traditionalmid-infrared approach to differentiating between AGNs and star-formingsources that utilizes relatively weak high-ionization lines, we showthat strong low-ionization cooling lines of X-ray-dominated regions like[Si II] 34.82 μm can alternatively be used as excellentdiscriminants. Finally, the typical target in this sample showsrelatively modest interstellar electron density (~400 cm-3)and obscuration (AV~1.0 mag for a foreground screen),consistent with a lack of dense clumps of highly obscured gas and dustresiding in the emitting regions. Magnetic Fields in Starburst Galaxies and the Origin of the FIR-Radio CorrelationWe estimate minimum energy magnetic fields (Bmin) for asample of galaxies with measured gas surface densities, spanning morethan four orders of magnitude in surface density, from normal spirals toluminous starbursts. We show that the ratio of the minimum energymagnetic pressure to the total pressure in the ISM decreasessubstantially with increasing surface density. For the ultraluminousinfrared galaxy Arp 220, this ratio is ~10-4. Therefore, ifthe minimum energy estimate is applicable, magnetic fields in starburstsare dynamically weak compared to gravity, in contrast to normalstar-forming spiral galaxies. We argue, however, that rapid cooling ofrelativistic electrons in starbursts invalidates the minimum energyestimate. We assess a number of independent constraints on the magneticfield strength in starburst galaxies. In particular, we argue that theexistence of the FIR-radio correlation implies that the synchrotroncooling timescale for cosmic-ray electrons is much shorter than theirescape time from the galactic disk; this in turn implies that the truemagnetic field in starbursts is significantly larger thanBmin. The strongest argument against such large fields isthat one might expect starbursts to have steep radio spectra indicativeof strong synchrotron cooling, which is not observed. However, we showthat ionization and bremsstrahlung losses can flatten the nonthermalspectra of starburst galaxies even in the presence of rapid cooling,providing much better agreement with observed spectra. We furtherdemonstrate that ionization and bremsstrahlung losses are likely to beimportant in shaping the radio spectra of most starbursts at GHzfrequencies, thereby preserving the linearity of the FIR-radiocorrelation. We thus conclude that magnetic fields in starbursts aresignificantly larger than Bmin. We highlight severalobservations that can test this conclusion. The Nature of the Peculiar Virgo Cluster Galaxies NGC 4064 and NGC 4424Using extensive kinematical and morphological data on two Virgo Clustergalaxies undergoing strong nuclear star formation, we show that rampressure stripping and gravitational interactions can act together ongalaxies that have recently fallen into clusters. We present a detailedstudy of the peculiar H I-deficient Virgo Cluster spiral galaxies NGC4064 and NGC 4424 using 12CO 1-0 interferometry, opticalimaging, and integral field spectroscopic observations in order to learnwhat type of environmental interactions have affected these galaxies.Optical imaging reveals that NGC 4424 has a strongly disturbed stellardisk, with banana-shaped isophotes and shells. NGC 4064, which lies inthe cluster outskirts, possesses a relatively undisturbed outer stellardisk and a central bar. In both galaxies Hα emission is confinedto the central kiloparsec and originates in barlike strings of luminousstar-forming complexes surrounded by fainter filaments. Complexes ofyoung blue stars exist beyond the present location of ongoing starformation, indicating rapidly shrinking star-forming disks. Disturbeddust lanes extend out to a radius of 2-3 kpc, much farther than theHα and CO emission detected by us but similar to the blue stellarcomplexes. CO observations reveal bilobal molecular gas morphologies,with Hα emission peaking inside the CO lobes, implying a timesequence in the star formation process. Gas kinematics reveals strongbarlike noncircular motions in the molecular gas in both galaxies,suggesting that the material is radially infalling. In NGC 4064 thestellar kinematics reveals strong barlike noncircular motions in thecentral 1 kpc and stars supported by rotation with V/σ>1 beyonda radius of 15" (1.2 kpc). On the other hand, NGC 4424 has extremelymodest stellar rotation velocities (Vmax~30 kms-1), and stars are supported by random motions as far out aswe can measure, with V/σ=0.6 at r=18'' (1.4 kpc). Theionized gas kinematics in the core are disturbed and possiblycounterrotating. The observations suggest that the peculiarities of NGC4424 are the result of an intermediate-mass merger plus ram pressurestripping. In the case of NGC 4064, the evidence suggests an alreadystripped truncated/normal'' galaxy that recently suffered a minormerger or tidal interaction with another galaxy. Observations of thepresent star formation rate and gas content suggest that these galaxieswill become small-bulge S0s within the next 3 Gyr. We propose thatgalaxies with truncated/compact'' Hα morphologies such as theseare the result of the independent effects of ram pressure stripping,which removes gas from the outer disk, and gravitational interactionssuch as mergers, which heat stellar disks, drive gas to the centralkiloparsec, and increase the central mass concentrations. Together theseeffects transform the morphology of these galaxies. A Comparison of Hα and Stellar Scale Lengths in Virgo and Field SpiralsThe scale lengths of the old stars and ionized gas distributions arecompared for similar samples of Virgo Cluster members and field spiralgalaxies via Hα and broad R-band surface photometry. While theR-band and Hα scale lengths are, on average, comparable for thecombined sample, we find significant differences between the field andcluster samples. While the Hα scale lengths of the field galaxiesare a factor of 1.14+/-0.07 longer, on average, than their R-band scalelengths, the Hα scale lengths of Virgo Cluster members are, onaverage, 20% smaller than their R-band scale lengths. Furthermore, inVirgo, the scale length ratios are correlated with the size of thestar-forming disk: galaxies with smaller overall Hα extents alsoshow steeper radial falloff of star formation activity. At the sametime, we find no strong trends in scale length ratio as a function ofother galaxy properties, including galaxy luminosity, inclination,morphological type, central R-band light concentration, or bar type. Ourresults for Hα emission are similar to other results for dustemission, suggesting that Hα and dust have similar distributions.The environmental dependence of the Hα scale length placesadditional constraints on the evolutionary process(es) that cause gasdepletion and a suppression of the star formation rate in clusters ofgalaxies. Large-scale magnetized outflows from the Virgo Cluster spiral NGC 4569. A galactic wind in a ram pressure windUsing the Effelsberg radio telescope at 4.85 GHz and 8.35 GHz wediscovered large symmetric lobes of polarized radio emission around thestrongly Hi deficient Virgo cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4569. These lobesextend up to 24 kpc from the galactic disk. Our observations werecomplemented by 1.4 GHz continuum emission from existing Hiobservations. This is the first time that such huge radio continuumlobes are observed in a cluster spiral galaxy. The eastern lobe seemsdetached and has a flat spectrum typical of in-situ cosmic ray electronacceleration. The western lobe is diffuse and possesses verticalmagnetic fields over its whole volume. The lobes are not powered by anAGN, but probably by a nuclear starburst that occurred  30 Myr ago,producing ≥ 105 supernovae. Since the radio lobes aresymmetric, they resist ram pressure due to the galaxy's rapid motionwithin the intracluster medium. Virgo High-Resolution CO Survey: V. Circumnuclear Elliptical Ring in NGC 4569We present high-resolution (1''.8 ‑ 4''.5) CO data of the Virgospiral galaxy NGC 4569, obtained using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Wefound that the molecular gas is highly concentrated in the circumnuclearregion with two off-center peaks. A CO image with the highest angularresolution of 2''.0 × 1''.8 shows that six blobs likely form acircumnuclear elliptical ring (CER) with a semimajor axis of 720pc. TheCER shows a strongly twisted velocity field, and the position-velocitydiagram shows significant forbidden velocity components. These kineticfeatures are understood as being non-circular motion due to abar-potential. We found that the CER coincides with the Hα brightcentral core and that the mass ratio of the molecular gas to thedynamical mass is about 18%. These results support a gaseous inflowscenario induced by a weak bar potential and self-gravity of the gas. The Schmidt Law at High Molecular DensitiesWe combined Hα and recent high-resolution12CO(J=1‑0) data to consider the quantitative relationbetween the gas mass and the star-formation rate, or the so-calledSchmidt law in nearby spiral galaxies at regions of high moleculardensity. The relation between the gas quantity and the star-formationrate has not been previously studied for high-density regions, but usinghigh-resolution CO data obtained at the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, wefound that the Schmidt law is valid at densities as high as 103Modotpc-2 for sample spiral galaxies, which is anorder of magnitude denser than what has been known to be the maximumdensity at which the empirical law holds for non-starburst galaxies.Furthermore, we obtained a Schmidt law index of N = 1.33 ± 0.09and a roughly constant star-formation efficiency over the entire disk,even within several hundred parsecs of the nucleus. These results implythat the physics of star formation does not change in the centralregions of spiral galaxies. Comparisons with starburst galaxies are alsogiven. We find a possible discontinuity in the Schmidt law betweennormal and starburst galaxies. The stellar populations of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei - III. Spatially resolved spectral propertiesIn a recently completed survey of the stellar population properties oflow-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) and LINER/HIItransition objects (TOs), we have identified a numerous class ofgalactic nuclei which stand out because of their conspicuous108-9 yr populations, traced by high-order Balmer absorptionlines and other stellar indices. These objects are called young-TOs',because they all have TO-like emission-line ratios. In this paper weextend this previous work, which concentrated on the nuclear properties,by investigating the radial variations of spectral properties inlow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our analysis is based onhigh signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectra in the 3500-5500Å interval for a sample of 47 galaxies. The data probe distancesof typically up to 850 pc from the nucleus with a resolution of ~100 pc(~1 arcsec) and S/N ~ 30. Stellar population gradients are mapped by theradial profiles of absorption-line equivalent widths and continuumcolours along the slit. These variations are further analysed by meansof a decomposition of each spectrum in terms of template galaxiesrepresentative of very young (<=107 yr), intermediate age(108-9 yr) and old (1010 yr) stellar populations.This study reveals that young-TOs also differ from old-TOs andold-LINERs in terms of the spatial distributions of their stellarpopulations and dust. Specifically, our main findings are as follows.(i) Significant stellar population gradients are found almostexclusively in young-TOs. (ii) The intermediate age population ofyoung-TOs, although heavily concentrated in the nucleus, reachesdistances of up to a few hundred pc from the nucleus. Nevertheless, thehalf width at half-maximum of its brightness profile is more typically100 pc or less. (iii) Objects with predominantly old stellar populationspresent spatially homogeneous spectra, be they LINERs or TOs. (iv)Young-TOs have much more dust in their central regions than otherLLAGNs. (v) The B-band luminosities of the central <~1 Gyr populationin young-TOs are within an order of magnitude of MB=-15,implying masses of the order of ~107-108Msolar. This population was 10-100 times more luminous in itsformation epoch, at which time young massive stars would have completelyoutshone any active nucleus, unless the AGN too was brighter in thepast. An Atlas of Warm Active Galactic Nuclei and Starbursts from the IRAS Deep FieldsWe present a set of 180 active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates basedon color selection from the IRAS slow-scan deep observations, with colorcriteria broadened from the initial Point Source Catalog samples so asto include similar objects with redshifts up to z=1 and allowing fortwo-band detections. Spectroscopic identifications have been obtainedfor 80 (44%); some additional identifications are secure based on radiodetections or optical morphology, although yet unobservedspectroscopically. These spectroscopic identifications include 13 type 1Seyfert galaxies, 17 type 2 Seyferts, 29 starburst galaxies, 7 LINERsystems, and 13 emission-line galaxies so heavily reddened as to remainof ambiguous classification. The optical magnitudes range from R=12.0 to20.5; the counts suggest that incompleteness is important fainter thanR=15.5. Redshifts extend to z=0.51, with a significant part of thesample at z>0.2. Even with the relaxed color criteria, this sampleincludes slightly more AGNs than star-forming systems among those wherethe spectra contain enough diagnostic feature to make the distinction.The active nuclei include several broad-line objects with strong Fe IIemission, and composite objects with the absorption-line signatures offading starbursts. These AGNs with warm far-IR colors have littleoverlap with the red AGNs'' identified with 2MASS; only a singleSeyfert 1 was detected by 2MASS with J-K>2. Some reliable IRASdetections have either very faint optical counterparts or onlyabsorption-line galaxies, potentially being deeply obscured AGNs. TheIRAS detections include a newly identified symbiotic star, and severalpossible examples of the Vega phenomenon,'' including dwarfs as coolas type K. Appendices detail these candidate stars, and theoptical-identification content of a particularly deep set ofhigh-latitude IRAS scans (probing the limits of optical identificationfrom IRAS data alone).Based on observations from the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical AstronomyObservatories, operated by the Association of Universities for Researchin Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the NationalScience Foundation; the Isaac Newton and William Herschel telescopes,operated by the Royal Greenwich Observatory on behalf of the SERC at theSpanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, and Lowell Observatory. Atomic and Molecular Gas in Colliding Galaxy Systems. I. The DataWe present H I and CO (1-0) interferometric observations of 10comparable-mass interacting systems obtained at the Very Large Array(VLA) and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) millimeter array.The primary intent of this study is to investigate the response of coldgas during the early stages of collision of massive disk galaxies. Thesample sources are selected based on their luminosity(MB<=-19), projected separation (5-40 kpc), andsingle-dish CO (1-0) content (SCO>=20 Jy kms-1). These selection criteria result in a sample thatprimarily consists of systems in the early stages of an interaction or amerger. Despite this sample selection, 50% of the systems show long H Itidal tails indicative of a tidal disruption in a prograde orbit. Inaddition, all (4/4) of the infrared luminous pairs (LIRGs) in the sampleshow long H I tails, suggesting that the presence of a long H I tail canbe a possible signature of enhanced star formation activity in acollision of gas-rich galaxies. More than half of the groups show adisplacement of H I peaks from the stellar disks. The CO (1-0)distribution is generally clumpy and widely distributed, unlike in mostIR-selected late stage mergers-in fact, CO peaks are displaced from thestellar nucleus in 20% (4/18) of the galaxies with robust CO detection.H I and CO (1-0) position-velocity diagrams (PVDs) and rotation curvesare also presented, and their comparison with the numerical simulationanalyzed in Paper I show evidence for radial inflow and wide occurrencesof nuclear molecular rings. These results are further quantified byexamining physical and structural parameters derived in comparison withisolated systems in the BIMA SONG sample in our forthcoming paper. Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data AnalysisX-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources. Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby GalaxiesThe Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is carrying out acomprehensive multiwavelength survey on a sample of 75 nearby galaxies.The 1-850 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are presented usingbroadband imaging data from Spitzer, 2MASS, ISO, IRAS, and SCUBA. Theinfrared colors derived from the globally integrated Spitzer data aregenerally consistent with the previous generation of models that weredeveloped using global data for normal star-forming galaxies, althoughsignificant deviations are observed. Spitzer's excellent sensitivity andresolution also allow a detailed investigation of the infrared SEDs forvarious locations within the three large, nearby galaxies NGC 3031(M81), NGC 5194 (M51), and NGC 7331. A wide variety of spectral shapesis found within each galaxy, especially for NGC 3031, the closest of thethree targets and thus the galaxy for which the smallest spatial scalescan be explored. Strong correlations exist between the local starformation rate and the infrared colors fν(70μm)/fν(160 μm) and fν(24μm)/fν(160 μm), suggesting that the 24 and 70 μmemission are useful tracers of the local star formation activity level.Preliminary evidence indicates that variations in the 24 μm emission,and not variations in the emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsat 8 μm, drive the variations in the fν(8.0μm)/fν(24 μm) colors within NGC 3031, NGC 5194, andNGC 7331. If the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in SEDs seen in our sampleare representative of the range present at high redshift, thenextrapolations of total infrared luminosities and star formation ratesfrom the observed 24 μm flux will be uncertain at the factor of 5level (total range). The corresponding uncertainties using theredshifted 8.0 μm flux (e.g., observed 24 μm flux for a z=2source) are factors of 10-20. Considerable caution should be used wheninterpreting such extrapolated infrared luminosities. Secular Evolution via Bar-driven Gas Inflow: Results from BIMA SONGWe present an analysis of the molecular gas distributions in the 29barred and 15 unbarred spirals in the BIMA CO (J=1-0) Survey of NearbyGalaxies (SONG). For galaxies that are bright in CO, we confirm theconclusion by Sakamoto et al. that barred spirals have higher moleculargas concentrations in the central kiloparsec. The SONG sample alsoincludes 27 galaxies below the CO brightness limit used by Sakamoto etal. Even in these less CO-bright galaxies we show that high central gasconcentrations are more common in barred galaxies, consistent withradial inflow driven by the bar. However, there is a significantpopulation of early-type (Sa-Sbc) barred spirals (6 of 19) that have nomolecular gas detected in the nuclear region and have very little out tothe bar corotation radius. This suggests that in barred galaxies withgas-deficient nuclear regions, the bar has already driven most of thegas within the bar corotation radius to the nuclear region, where it hasbeen consumed by star formation. The median mass of nuclear moleculargas is over 4 times higher in early-type bars than in late-type (Sc-Sdm)bars. Since previous work has shown that the gas consumption rate is anorder of magnitude higher in early-type bars, this implies that theearly types have significantly higher bar-driven inflows. The loweraccretion rates in late-type bars can probably be attributed to theknown differences in bar structure between early and late types. Despitethe evidence for bar-driven inflows in both early and late Hubble-typespirals, the data indicate that it is highly unlikely for a late-typegalaxy to evolve into an early type via bar-induced gas inflow.Nonetheless, secular evolutionary processes are undoubtedly present, andpseudobulges are inevitable; evidence for pseudobulges is likely to beclearest in early-type galaxies because of their high gas inflow ratesand higher star formation activity. The Central Region of Barred Galaxies: Molecular Environment, Starbursts, and Secular EvolutionStellar bars drive gas into the circumnuclear (CN) region of galaxies.To investigate the fate of the CN gas and star formation (SF), we studya sample of barred nonstarbursts and starbursts with high-resolution CO,optical, Hα, radio continuum, Brγ, and HST data, and findthe following. (1) The inner kiloparsec of bars differs markedly fromthe outer disk. It hosts molecular gas surface densitiesΣgas-m of 500-3500 Msolar pc-2,gas mass fractions of 10%-30%, and epicyclic frequencies of several100-1000 km s-1 kpc-1. Consequently, in the CNregion gravitational instabilities can only grow at high gas densitiesand on short timescales, explaining in part why powerful starburstsreside there. (2) Across the sample, we find bar pattern speeds withupper limits of 43-115 km s-1 pc-1 and outer innerLindblad resonance radii of >500 pc. (3) Barred starbursts andnonstarbursts have CN SF rates of 3-11 and 0.1-2 Msolaryr-1, despite similar CN gas masses. TheΣgas-m value in the starbursts is larger (1000-3500Msolar pc-2) and close to the Toomre criticaldensity over a large region. (4) Molecular gas makes up 10%-30% of theCN dynamical mass and fuels large CN SF rates in the starbursts,building young, massive, high-V/σ components. Implications forsecular evolution along the Hubble sequence are discussed. The Murmur of the Sleeping Black Hole: Detection of Nuclear Ultraviolet Variability in LINER GalaxiesLINER nuclei, which are present in many nearby galactic bulges, may bethe manifestation of low-rate or low-radiative-efficiency accretion ontosupermassive central black holes. However, it has been unclear whetherthe compact UV nuclear sources present in many LINERs are clusters ofmassive stars, rather than being directly related to the accretionprocess. We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to monitor the UVvariability of a sample of 17 galaxies with LINER nuclei and compactnuclear UV sources. Fifteen of the 17 galaxies were observed more thanonce, with two to five epochs per galaxy, spanning up to a year. Wedetect significant variability in most of the sample, with peak-to-peakamplitudes from a few percent to 50%. In most cases, correlatedvariations are seen in two independent bands (F250W and F330W).Comparison to previous UV measurements indicates, for many objects,long-term variations by factors of a few over decade timescales.Variability is detected in LINERs with and without detected compactradio cores, in LINERs that have broad Hα wings detected in theiroptical spectra (LINER 1s''), and in those that do not (`LINER 2s'').This variability demonstrates the existence of a nonstellar component inthe UV continuum of all types and sets a lower limit to the luminosityof this component. Interestingly, all the LINERs that have detectedradio cores have variable UV nuclei, as one would expect from bona fideactive galactic nuclei. We note a trend in the UV color (F250W/F330W)with spectral type-LINER 1s tend to be bluer than LINER 2s. This trendmay indicate a link between the shape of the nonstellar continuum andthe presence or the visibility of a broad-line region. In one target,the poststarburst galaxy NGC 4736, we detect variability in a previouslynoted UV source that is offset by 2.5" (~60 pc in projection) from thenucleus. This may be the nearest example of a binary active nucleus andof the process leading to black hole merging.Based on observations with the Hubble Space Telescope, which is operatedby AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Nuclear Accretion in Galaxies of the Local Universe: Clues from Chandra ObservationsIn order to find an explanation for the radiative quiescence ofsupermassive black holes in the local universe, the most accurateestimates for a sample of nearby galaxies are collected for the mass ofa central black hole (MBH), the nuclear X-ray luminosityLX,nuc, and the circumnuclear hot gas density andtemperature, by using Chandra data. The nuclear X-ray luminosityLX,nuc varies by ~3 orders of magnitude and does not show arelationship with MBH or with the Bondi mass accretion rateM˙B LX,nuc is always much lower than expectedif M˙B ends in a standard accretion disk with highradiative efficiency (this instead can be the case of the active nucleusof Cen A). Radiatively inefficient accretion as in the standardadvection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) modeling may explain the lowluminosities of a few cases; for others, the predicted luminosity isstill too high, and, in terms of Eddington-scaled quantities, it isincreasingly higher than that observed for increasingM˙B. Variants of the simple radiatively inefficientscenario including outflow and convection may reproduce the low emissionlevels observed, since the amount of matter actually accreted is reducedconsiderably. However, the most promising scenario includes feedbackfrom accretion on the surrounding gas; this has the important advantagesof naturally explaining the observed lack of relationship amongLX,nuc, MBH, and M˙B, and evadingthe problem of the fate of the material accumulating in the centralgalactic regions over cosmological times. Simulating the Spitzer Mid-Infrared Color-Color DiagramsWe use a simple parameterization of the mid-IR spectra of a wide rangeof galaxy types in order to predict their distribution in the InfraredArray Camera (IRAC) 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm and MultibandPhotometer for Spitzer 24 μm color-color diagrams. We distinguishthree basic spectral types by the energetically dominant component inthe 3-12 μm regime: stellar-dominated, polycyclic aromatichydrocarbon (PAH)-dominated, and continuum-dominated. We use a Markovchain Monte Carlo approach to arrive at a more systematic and robustrepresentation of the mid-IR spectra of galaxies than do moretraditional approaches. We find that IRAC color-color plots are wellsuited to distinguishing the above spectral types, while the addition of24 μm data allows us to suggest practical three-color cuts thatpreferentially select higher redshift sources of a specific type. Wecompare our simulations with the color-color plot obtained by theSpitzer First Look Survey and find reasonable agreement. Lastly, wediscuss other applications as well as future directions for this work. Probing the Dust Obscuration in Seyfert Galaxies using Infrared Spectroscopy. II. Implication for the Unification of Seyfert GalaxiesWe report near-IR spectroscopic observations of 11 Seyfert galaxies (sixSeyfert 1s, one Seyfert 1.9, and four Seyfert 2s) and additionalgalaxies (four LINERs, two H II, and one type 2 transition) forcomparison, obtained using the Gemini twin-channel near-IR camera on theShane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory. With the unique design of theGemini camera, full J and K spectra were taken simultaneously throughthe same slit. This produced accurate line ratios of hydrogenrecombination lines over a large wavelength baseline. For the Seyfert 1s(<=1.5), the line ratios of Paβ/Brγ are not onlycomparable in both broad- and narrow-line regions but also consistentwith case B recombination, indicating little or no reddening in bothnarrow- and broad-line regions. Seyfert 2 (>1.5) galaxies, however,show substantial reddening toward the narrow-line regions. We compareoptical reddening data from the literature and find significant supportfor the dichotomy between Seyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s, at least inlow-luminosity objects. Two different scenarios are explored to explainthe observed difference in reddening: a difference in reddening due toan extended dusty torus under active galactic nucleus unification, and adifference due to a different grain size distribution between the twoSeyfert types. We also discuss a similar potential difference found inthe strength of the 9.7 μm silicate line, along with a possiblecorrelation between the narrow-line reddening and the strength of thesilicate absorption line. We also analyzed CO band head absorptionfeatures longward of 2.3 μm to look for nonstellar contamination andevidence of recent star formation activity. The CO band head in Seyfert1s shows heavy contamination from nonstellar radiation, which iscorrelated with an H-K nuclear color excess. We confirm that the COspectroscopic indices in both Seyfert types do not show evidence ofrecent star formation. Taking the nonstellar contamination into account,there is little evidence from the CO index for a difference in starformation rates in the nuclei of Seyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s in ourlow-luminosity sample. A Chandra Snapshot Survey of Infrared-bright LINERs: A Possible Link Between Star Formation, Active Galactic Nucleus Fueling, and Mass AccretionWe present results from a high-resolution X-ray imaging study of nearbyLINERs observed by ACIS on board Chandra. This study complements andextends previous X-ray studies of LINERs, focusing on the underexploredpopulation of nearby dust-enshrouded infrared-bright LINERs. The sampleconsists of 15 IR-bright LINERs (LFIR/LB>3),with distances that range from 11 to 26 Mpc. Combining our sample withprevious Chandra studies, we find that ~51% (28/55) of the LINERsdisplay compact hard X-ray cores. The nuclear 2-10 keV luminosities ofthe galaxies in this expanded sample range from ~2×1038to ~2×1044 ergs s-1. We find that the mostextreme IR-faint LINERs are exclusively active galactic nuclei (AGNs).The fraction of LINERs containing AGNs appears to decrease with IRbrightness and increase again at the highest values ofLFIR/LB. We find that of the 24 LINERs showingcompact nuclear hard X-ray cores in the expanded sample that wereobserved at Hα wavelengths, only eight actually show evidence of abroad line. Similarly, of the 14 LINERs showing compact nuclear hardX-ray cores with corresponding radio observations, only eight display acompact flat spectrum radio core. These findings emphasize the need forhigh-resolution X-ray imaging observations in the study of IR-brightLINERs. Finally, we find an intriguing trend in the Eddington ratioversus LFIR and LFIR/LB for theAGN-LINERs in the expanded sample that extends over 7 orders ofmagnitude in L/LEdd. This correlation may imply a linkbetween black hole growth, as measured by the Eddington ratio, and thestar formation rate, as measured by the far-IR luminosity andIR-brightness ratio. If the far-IR luminosity is an indicator of themolecular gas content in our sample of LINERs, our results may furtherindicate that the mass accretion rate scales with the host galaxy's fuelsupply. We discuss the potential implications of our results in theframework of black hole growth and AGN fueling in low-luminosity AGNs. The molecular connection to the FIR-radio continuum correlation in galaxiesWe have studied the relationships between the radio continuum (RC) andCO emission for a set of galaxies selected from the BIMA Survey ofNearby Galaxies. We find that the global CO-RC correlation is as tightas the global FIR-RC correlation for the 24 galaxies studied. Within 9galaxies with ~6´´ CO and RC data available, the CO and RCemission is as tightly correlated as its global value; the radiallyaveraged correlation is nearly linear, extends over four order ofmagnitude and holds down to the smallest linear resolution of theobservations, which is ~100 pc. We define q_CO/RC as the log of theratio of the CO to RC flux as a way to characterize the CO-RCcorrelation. Combining 6´´ pixel-by-pixel comparisons acrossall sources yields an average small-scale correlation of q_CO/RC = 1.1± 0.28; that is, the spatially resolved correlation has adispersion that is less than a factor of 2. There are however systematicvariations in the CO/RC ratio; the strongest organized structures inq_CO/RC tend to be found along spiral arms and on size scales muchlarger than the resolution of the observations. We do not measure anysystematic trend in CO/RC ratio as a function of radius in galaxies. Theconstancy of the CO/RC ratio stands in contrast to the previouslymeasured decrease in the FIR/RC ratio as a function of radius ingalaxies. We suggest that the excellent correlation between the CO, RCand FIR emission in galaxies is a consequence of regulation byhydrostatic pressure; this model links all three emissions withoutinvoking an explicit dependence on a star formation scenario. Ram pressure stripping of disk galaxies. From high to low density environmentsGalaxies in clusters and groups moving through the intracluster orintragroup medium (abbreviated ICM for both) are expected to lose atleast a part of their interstellar medium (ISM) by the ram pressure theyexperience. We perform high resolution 2D hydrodynamical simulations offace-on ram pressure stripping (RPS) of disk galaxies to compile acomprehensive parameter study varying galaxy properties (mass, verticalstructure of the gas disk) and covering a large range of ICM conditions,reaching from high density environments like in cluster centres to lowdensity environments typical for cluster outskirts or groups. We findthat the ICM-ISM interaction proceeds in three phases: firstly theinstantaneous stripping phase, secondly the dynamic intermediate phase,thirdly the quasi-stable continuous viscous stripping phase. In thefirst phase (time scale 20 to 200~Myr) the outer part of the gas disk isdisplaced but only partially unbound. In the second phase (10 times aslong as the first phase) a part of the displaced gas falls back (about10% of the initial gas mass) despite the constant ICM wind, but mostdisplaced gas is now unbound. In the third phase the galaxy continues tolose gas at a rate of about 1~Mȯ~~yr-1 byturbulent viscous stripping. We find that the stripping efficiencydepends slightly on the Mach number of the flow, however, the mainparameter is the ram pressure. The stripping efficiency does not dependon the vertical structure and thickness of the gas disk. We discussuncertainties in the classic estimate of the stripping radius of Grunn& Gott (1972, ApJ, 176, 1), which compares the ram pressure to thegravitational restoring force. In addition, we adapt the estimate usedby Mori & Burkert (2000, ApJ, 538, 559) for spherical galaxies,namely the comparison of the central pressure with ram pressure. We findthat the latter estimate predicts the radius and mass of the gas diskremaining at the end of the second phase very well, and better than theGrunn & Gott (1972, ApJ, 176, 1) criterion. From our simulations weconclude that gas disks of galaxies in high density environments areheavily truncated or even completely stripped, but also the gas disks ofgalaxies in low density environments are disturbed by the flow andback-falling material, so that they should also be pre-processed. Completing H I observations of galaxies in the Virgo clusterHigh sensitivity (rms noise  0.5 mJy) 21-cm H I line observationswere made of 33 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, using the refurbishedArecibo telescope, which resulted in the detection of 12 objects. Thesedata, combined with the measurements available from the literature,provide the first set of H I data that is complete for all 355 late-type(Sa-Im-BCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster with mp ≤ 18.0mag. The Virgo cluster H I mass function (HIMF) that was derived forthis optically selected galaxy sample is in agreement with the HIMFderived for the Virgo cluster from the blind HIJASS H I survey and isinconsistent with the Field HIMF. This indicates that both in this richcluster and in the general field, neutral hydrogen is primarilyassociated with late-type galaxies, with marginal contributions fromearly-type galaxies and isolated H I clouds. The inconsistency betweenthe cluster and the field HIMF derives primarily from the difference inthe optical luminosity function of late-type galaxies in the twoenvironments, combined with the HI deficiency that is known to occur ingalaxies in rich clusters.Tables \ref{t1, \ref{sample_dat} and Appendix A are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Bar-induced perturbation strengths of the galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey - IBar-induced perturbation strengths are calculated for a well-definedmagnitude-limited sample of 180 spiral galaxies, based on the Ohio StateUniversity Bright Galaxy Survey. We use a gravitational torque method,the ratio of the maximal tangential force to the mean axisymmetricradial force, as a quantitative measure of the bar strength. Thegravitational potential is inferred from an H-band light distribution byassuming that the M/L ratio is constant throughout the disc. Galaxiesare deprojected using orientation parameters based on B-band images. Inorder to eliminate artificial stretching of the bulge, two-dimensionalbar-bulge-disc decomposition has been used to derive a reliable bulgemodel. This bulge model is subtracted from an image, the disc isdeprojected assuming it is thin, and then the bulge is added back byassuming that its mass distribution is spherically symmetric. We findthat removing the artificial bulge stretch is important especially forgalaxies having bars inside large bulges. We also find that the massesof the bulges can be significantly overestimated if bars are not takeninto account in the decomposition.Bars are identified using Fourier methods by requiring that the phasesof the main modes (m= 2, m= 4) are maintained nearly constant in the barregion. With such methods, bars are found in 65 per cent of the galaxiesin our sample, most of them being classified as SB-type systems in thenear-infrared by Eskridge and co-workers. We also suggest that as muchas ~70 per cent of the galaxies classified as SAB-types in thenear-infrared might actually be non-barred systems, many of them havingcentral ovals. It is also possible that a small fraction of the SAB-typegalaxies have weak non-classical bars with spiral-like morphologies. Spiral Galaxy - ICM Interactions in the Virgo ClusterWe discuss HI and optical evidence for ongoing ICM-ISM interactions in 6HI-deficient Virgo cluster spiral galaxies. One of the clearest cases isthe highly inclined Virgo galaxy NGC 4522, which has a normal stellardisk but a truncated gas disk, and lots of extraplanar gas right next tothe gas truncation radius in the disk. Unusually strong HI, Hα andradio continuum emission are all detected from the extraplanar gas. Theradio continuum polarized flux and spectral index peak on the sideopposite the extraplanar gas, suggesting ongoing pressure by the ICM.Four other HI-deficient edge-on Virgo spirals show evidence ofextraplanar ISM gas or exhibit asymmetries in their disk HIdistributions, but contain much less extraplanar HI than NGC 4522.Comparison with recent simulations suggests this difference may beevolutionary, with large surface densities of extraplanar gas observedonly in early phases of an ICM-ISM interaction. In NGC 4569, theHα image shows 2 effects of ICM pressure on the galaxy ISM. Ananomalous arm of HII regions, possibly extraplanar, emerges from theedge of a truncated Hα disk. This resembles the arms seen insimulations which are formed by the combined effects of wind pressureplus rotation. An extended nebulosity near the minor axis, also in theNW, is interpreted as a starburst outflow bubble disturbed by ICM windpressure. Studies of Extragalactic Formaldehyde and Radio Recombination LinesWe present the most sensitive and extensive survey yet performed ofextragalactic H2CO 6 cm (4.829 GHz) emission/absorption.Sixty-two sources were observed with the C-band system of the AreciboTelescope to a 1 σ rms noise level of ~0.3 mJy. We report a newdetection of H2CO 6 cm absorption toward NGC 520 and theconfirmation of H2CO 6 cm absorption toward several sources.We report confirmation of H2CO 6 cm emission toward the OHmegamasers Arp 220, IC 860, and IRAS 15107+0724. At present these arethe only extragalactic H2CO 6 cm emitters independentlyconfirmed. A characterization of the properties of formaldehydeabsorbers and emitters based on infrared properties of the galaxies isdiscussed. We also conducted a simultaneous survey of the H110αhydrogen recombination line toward a sample of 53 objects. We report thedetection of H110α toward the giant extragalactic H II region NGC604 in M33.
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