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Ripples in a Galactic pond.
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Lifetime of nuclear velocity dispersion drops in barred galaxies
We have made hydro/N-body simulations with and without star formation toshed some light on the conditions under which a central kinematicallycold stellar component (characterized by a velocity dispersion drop orσ-drop) could be created in a hot medium (e.g. a bulge) andsurvive enough time to be observed. We found that the time-scale for aσ-drop formation could be short (less than 500 Myr), whereas itslifetime could be long (more than 1 Gyr) provided that the centralregion is continuously or regularly fed by fresh gas which leads to acontinuous star formation activity. Star formation in the centralregion, even at a low rate as 1Msolaryr-1, ismandatory to sustain a permanent σ-drop by replacing heatedparticles by new low-σ ones. We moreover show that as soon as starformation is switched off, the σ-drop begins to disappear.

The SAURON project - VII. Integral-field absorption and emission-line kinematics of 24 spiral galaxy bulges
We present observations of the stellar and gas kinematics for arepresentative sample of 24 Sa galaxies obtained with our custom-builtintegral-field spectrograph SAURON operating on the William HerschelTelescope. The data have been homogeneously reduced and analysed bymeans of a dedicated pipeline. All resulting data cubes were spatiallybinned to a minimum mean signal-to-noise ratio of 60 per spatial andspectral resolution element. Our maps typically cover thebulge-dominated region. We find a significant fraction of kinematicallydecoupled components (12/24), many of them displaying central velocitydispersion minima. They are mostly aligned and co-rotating with the mainbody of the galaxies, and are usually associated with dust discs andrings detected in unsharp-masked images. Almost all the galaxies in thesample (22/24) contain significant amounts of ionized gas which, ingeneral, is accompanied by the presence of dust. The kinematics of theionized gas are consistent with circular rotation in a disc co-rotatingwith respect to the stars. The distribution of mean misalignmentsbetween the stellar and gaseous angular momenta in the sample suggeststhat the gas has an internal origin. The [OIII]/Hβ ratio is usuallyvery low, indicative of current star formation, and shows variousmorphologies (ring-like structures, alignments with dust lanes oramorphous shapes). The star formation rates (SFRs) in the sample arecomparable with that of normal disc galaxies. Low gas velocitydispersion values appear to be linked to regions of intense starformation activity. We interpret this result as stars being formed fromdynamically cold gas in those regions. In the case of NGC5953, the datasuggest that we are witnessing the formation of a kinematicallydecoupled component from cold gas being acquired during the ongoinginteraction with NGC5954.

Can gas dynamics in centres of galaxies reveal orbiting massive black holes?
If supermassive black holes in centres of galaxies form by merging ofblack hole remnants of massive Population III stars, then there shouldbe a few black holes of mass one or two orders of magnitude smaller thanthat of the central ones, orbiting around the centre of a typicalgalaxy. These black holes constitute a weak perturbation in thegravitational potential, which can generate wave phenomena in gas withina disc close to the centre of the galaxy. Here, we show that a singleorbiting black hole generates a three-arm spiral pattern in the centralgaseous disc. The density excess in the spiral arms in the disc reachesvalues of 3-12 per cent when the orbiting black hole is about 10 timesless massive than the central black hole. Therefore, the observeddensity pattern in gas can be used as a signature in detecting the mostmassive orbiting black holes.

Optical Counterparts of Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources Identified from Archival HST WFPC2 Images
We present a systematic analysis of archival HST WFPC2 ``Association''data sets that correlate with the Chandra positions of a set of 44ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) of nearby galaxies. The mainmotivation is to address the nature of ULXs by searching for opticalcounterparts. Sixteen of the ULXs are found in early-type galaxies (RC3Hubble type <3). We have improved the Chandra/HST relative astrometrywhenever possible, resulting in errors circles of 0.3"-1.7" in size.Disparate numbers of potential ULX counterparts are found, and in somecases none are found. The lack of or low number of counterparts in somecases may be due to insufficient depth in the WFPC2 images. Particularlyin late-type galaxies, the HST image in the ULX region was often complexor crowded, requiring source detection to be performed manually. Wetherefore address various scenarios for the nature of the ULX since itis not known which, if any, of the sources found are true counterparts.The optical luminosities of the sources are typically in the range104-106 Lsolar, with (effective) Vmagnitudes typically in the range 22-24. In several cases colorinformation is available, with the colors roughly tending to be more redin early-type galaxies. This suggests that, in general, the (potential)counterparts found in early-type galaxies are likely to be older stellarpopulations and are probably globular clusters. Several early-typegalaxy counterparts have blue colors, which may be due to youngerstellar populations in the host galaxies, however, these could also bebackground sources. In spiral galaxies the sources may also be due tolocalized structure in the disks rather than bound stellar systems.Alternatively, some of the counterparts in late-type galaxies may beisolated supergiant stars. The observed X-ray/optical flux ratio isdiluted by the optical emission of the cluster in cases where the systemis an X-ray binary in a cluster, particularly in the case of a low-massX-ray binaries in an old cluster. If any of the counterparts are boundsystems with ~104-106 stars and are the truecounterparts to the ULX sources, then the X-ray luminosities of the ULXare generally well below the Eddington limit for a black hole with mass~0.1% of the cluster mass. Finally, we find that the optical flux of thecounterparts is consistent with being dominated by emission from anaccretion disk around an intermediate-mass black hole if the black holehappens to have a mass >~102 Msolar and isaccreting at close to the Eddington rate, unless the accretion disk isirradiated (which would result in high optical disk luminosities atlower black hole masses).Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This project isassociated with Archival proposal 9545.

Mid-Infrared Spectral Diagnostics of Nuclear and Extranuclear Regions in Nearby Galaxies
Mid-infrared diagnostics are presented for a large portion of theSpitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample plus archivaldata from ISO and Spitzer. The SINGS data set includes low- andhigh-resolution spectral maps and broadband imaging in the infrared forover 160 nuclear and extranuclear regions within 75 nearby galaxiesspanning a wide range of morphologies, metallicities, luminosities, andstar formation rates. Our main result is that these mid-infrareddiagnostics effectively constrain a target's dominant power source. Thecombination of a high-ionization line index and PAH strength serves asan efficient discriminant between AGNs and star-forming nuclei,confirming progress made with ISO spectroscopy on starbursting andultraluminous infrared galaxies. The sensitivity of Spitzer allows us toprobe fainter nuclear and star-forming regions within galaxy disks. Wefind that both star-forming nuclei and extranuclear regions stand apartfrom nuclei that are powered by Seyfert or LINER activity. In fact, weidentify areas within four diagnostic diagrams containing >90%Seyfert/LINER nuclei or >90% H II regions/H II nuclei. We also findthat, compared to starbursting nuclei, extranuclear regions typicallyseparate even further from AGNs, especially for low-metallicityextranuclear environments. In addition, instead of the traditionalmid-infrared approach to differentiating between AGNs and star-formingsources that utilizes relatively weak high-ionization lines, we showthat strong low-ionization cooling lines of X-ray-dominated regions like[Si II] 34.82 μm can alternatively be used as excellentdiscriminants. Finally, the typical target in this sample showsrelatively modest interstellar electron density (~400 cm-3)and obscuration (AV~1.0 mag for a foreground screen),consistent with a lack of dense clumps of highly obscured gas and dustresiding in the emitting regions.

Magnetic Fields in Starburst Galaxies and the Origin of the FIR-Radio Correlation
We estimate minimum energy magnetic fields (Bmin) for asample of galaxies with measured gas surface densities, spanning morethan four orders of magnitude in surface density, from normal spirals toluminous starbursts. We show that the ratio of the minimum energymagnetic pressure to the total pressure in the ISM decreasessubstantially with increasing surface density. For the ultraluminousinfrared galaxy Arp 220, this ratio is ~10-4. Therefore, ifthe minimum energy estimate is applicable, magnetic fields in starburstsare dynamically weak compared to gravity, in contrast to normalstar-forming spiral galaxies. We argue, however, that rapid cooling ofrelativistic electrons in starbursts invalidates the minimum energyestimate. We assess a number of independent constraints on the magneticfield strength in starburst galaxies. In particular, we argue that theexistence of the FIR-radio correlation implies that the synchrotroncooling timescale for cosmic-ray electrons is much shorter than theirescape time from the galactic disk; this in turn implies that the truemagnetic field in starbursts is significantly larger thanBmin. The strongest argument against such large fields isthat one might expect starbursts to have steep radio spectra indicativeof strong synchrotron cooling, which is not observed. However, we showthat ionization and bremsstrahlung losses can flatten the nonthermalspectra of starburst galaxies even in the presence of rapid cooling,providing much better agreement with observed spectra. We furtherdemonstrate that ionization and bremsstrahlung losses are likely to beimportant in shaping the radio spectra of most starbursts at GHzfrequencies, thereby preserving the linearity of the FIR-radiocorrelation. We thus conclude that magnetic fields in starbursts aresignificantly larger than Bmin. We highlight severalobservations that can test this conclusion.

Star Formation and Extinction in Redshift z~2 Galaxies: Inferences from Spitzer MIPS Observations
We use very deep Spitzer MIPS 24 μm observations to examine thebolometric luminosities (Lbol) and UV extinction propertiesof more than 200 spectroscopically identified, optically selected(UnGR) z~2 galaxies, supplemented with near-IR-selected(``BzK'' and ``DRG'') and submillimeter galaxies at similar redshifts,in the GOODS-N field. Focusing on redshifts 1.51012 Lsolar, with a mean~=2×1011 Lsolar. Using24 μm observations as an independent probe of dust extinction, wefind that, as in the local universe, the obscurationLIR/L1600 is strongly dependent on Lboland ranges in value from <1 to ~1000 within the sample considered.However, the obscuration is generally ~10 times smaller at a givenLbol at z~2 than at z~0. We show that the values ofLIR and obscuration inferred from the UV spectral slopeβ generally agree well with the values inferred fromL5-8.5μm for Lbol<1012Lsolar. Using the specific SFRs of galaxies as a proxy forcold gas fraction, we find a wide range in the evolutionary state ofgalaxies at z~2, from galaxies that have just begun to form stars tothose that have already accumulated most of their stellar mass and areabout to become, or already are, passively evolving.Based, in part, on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute ofTechnology, the University of California, and NASA and was made possibleby the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Alsobased in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope,which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Instituteof Technology, under a contract with NASA.

Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flow in the Nucleus of NGC 1097
We present a model for the accretion flow around the supermassive blackhole in the LINER nucleus of NGC 1097 that fits the optical to X-rayspectral energy distribution (SED). The X-ray segment of the SED isbased on observations with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which arereported here for the first time. The inner part of the flow is modeledas a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF), and the outer partas a standard thin disk. The value of the transition radius(rtr~225RS, where RS=2GM/c2)between the RIAF and the outer thin disk was obtained from our previousfitting of the double-peaked Balmer emission line profile, whichoriginates in the thin disk. The black hole mass was inferred frommeasurements of the stellar velocity dispersion in the host galaxy. Whenthese parameters are used in the accretion flow model, the SED can besuccessfully reproduced, which shows that the line profile model and theaccretion flow model are consistent with each other. A small remainingexcess in the near-UV is accounted for by the contribution of anobscured starburst located within 9 pc from the nucleus, as we reportedin an earlier paper. The radio flux is consistent with synchrotronemission of a relativistic jet modeled by means of the internal shockscenario. In an appendix we also analyze the Chandra X-ray observationsof the ~1 kpc circumnuclear star-forming ring and of an ultraluminouscompact X-ray source located outside the ring.

Black Hole Masses of Active Galaxies with Double-peaked Balmer Emission Lines
We have obtained near-IR spectra of five AGNs that exhibit double-peakedBalmer emission lines (NGC 1097, Pictor A, PKS 0921-213, 1E0450.30-1817, and IRAS 0236.6-3101). The stellar velocity dispersions ofthe host galaxies were measured from the Ca II λλ8494,8542, 8662 absorption lines and were found to range from 140 to 200 kms-1. Using the well-known correlation between the black holemass and the stellar velocity dispersion, the black hole masses in thesegalaxies were estimated to range from 4×107 to1.2×108 Msolar. We supplement theobservations presented here with estimates of the black holes masses forfive additional double-peaked emitters (Arp 102B, 3C 390.3, NGC 4579,NGC 4203, and M81) obtained by other authors using similar methods.Using these black hole masses, we infer the ratio of the bolometricluminosity to the Eddington luminosity,(Lbol/LEdd). We find that two objects (Pictor Aand PKS 0921-213) have Lbol/LEdd~0.2, whereas theother objects have Lbol/LEdd<~10-2(nearby, low-luminosity double-peaked emitters are the most extreme,with Lbol/LEdd<~10-4). The physicaltimescales in the outer regions of the accretion disks (atr~103GM/c2) in these objects were also estimatedand range from a few months for the dynamical timescale to severaldecades for the sound crossing timescale. The profile variability inthese objects is typically an order of magnitude longer than thedynamical time, but we note that variability occurring on the dynamicaltimescale has not been ruled out by the observations.Based on observations carried out at Cerro Tololo Inter-AmericanObservatory, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperativeagreement with the National Science Foundation.

Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS Observations of the Interacting Galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207: Clumpy Emission
IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are interacting galaxies that have been wellstudied at optical and radio wavelengths and simulated in numericalmodels to reproduce the observed kinematics and morphological features.Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations reported here show over 200 brightclumps from young star complexes. The brightest IR clump is amorphologically peculiar region of star formation in the western arm ofNGC 2207. This clump, which dominates the Hα and radio continuumemission from both galaxies, accounts for ~12% of the total 24 μmflux. Nearly half of the clumps are regularly spaced along somefilamentary structure, whether in the starburst oval of IC 2163 or inthe thin spiral arms of NGC 2207. This regularity appears to influencethe clump luminosity function, making it peaked at a value nearly afactor of 10 above the completeness limit, particularly in the starburstoval. This is unlike the optical clusters inside the clumps, which havea luminosity function consistent with the usual power-law form. Thegiant IR clumps presumably formed by gravitational instabilities in thecompressed gas of the oval and the spiral arms, whereas the individualclusters formed by more chaotic processes, such as turbulencecompression, inside these larger scale structures.

Streaming Motions toward the Supermassive Black Hole in NGC 1097
We have used GMOS-IFU and high-resolution HST-ACS observations to map,in unprecedented detail, the gas velocity field and structure within the0.7 kpc circumnuclear ring of the SBb LINER/Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1097.We find clear evidence of radial streaming motions associated withspiral structures leading to the unresolved (<3.5 pc) nucleus, whichwe interpret as part of the fueling chain by which gas is transported tothe nuclear starburst and supermassive black hole.

The origin of magnetic fields in galaxies: Observational tests with the Square Kilometre Array
The all-sky survey of Faraday rotation, a Key Science Project of theplanned Square Kilometre Array, will accumulate tens of millions ofrotation measure measurements toward background radio sources and willprovide a unique database for characterizing the overall magneticgeometry of magnetic fields in galaxies and in the intergalactic medium.Deep imaging of the polarized synchrotron emission from a large numberof nearby galaxies, combined with Faraday rotation data, will allow usto test primordial, gas flow, and dynamo models for field origin andamplification. The SKA will find the first magnetic fields in younggalaxies and determine the timescale for building up small-scaleturbulent and large-scale coherent fields. The spectrum of dynamo modes,if existing, will be resolved. The present-day coherent field may keepmemory of the direction of the seed field which can be used for mappingthe structure of the seed field before galaxy formation.

Adaptive Optics Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei: Zooming into the Central Parsec Region
First results from the AGN-Heidelberg program aimed at resolving thecentral pc region of the closest Active Galactic Nuclei in the IR arepresented. The core region of prototype active nuclei are clearlyunveiled at IR waves and at distances from the nucleus - few pc- wherecircumnuclear starforming regions appear not to be present. Within thatperspective, classical active nuclei as Circinus and NGC 1097, revealwith unprecedented detail clear channels of material being driven to thecore whereas others as Centaurus A and NGC 1566, show a `clean' coreenvironment. At the very center, a central compact region of about 2 pcscale is resolved in Circinus but not in the other cases challengingthus the universal presence of the putative obscuring torus.

Astrophysics in 2004
In this 14th edition of ApXX,1 we bring you the Sun (§ 2) and Stars(§ 4), the Moon and Planets (§ 3), a truly binary pulsar(§ 5), a kinematic apology (§ 6), the whole universe(§§ 7 and 8), reconsideration of old settled (§ 9) andunsettled (§ 10) issues, and some things that happen only on Earth,some indeed only in these reviews (§§ 10 and 11).

The centre of the active galaxy NGC 1097.
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Molecular hydrogen and [FeII] in active galactic nuclei - II. Results for Seyfert 2 galaxies
Near-infrared spectroscopy is used to study the kinematics andexcitation mechanisms of H2 and [FeII] lines in a sampledominated by Seyfert 2 galaxies. The spectra simultaneously cover theJHK bands, allowing us to compare line fluxes emitted in the interval0.8-2.4 μm and avoiding aperture and seeing effects. TheH2 lines are systematically narrower than the narrow-lineregion lines, suggesting that, very likely, the H2 does notoriginate from the same parcel of gas that forms the narrow-line region.Emission-line ratios between H2 lines favour thermalexcitation mechanisms for the molecular gas in active galactic nuclei.It was found that non-thermal excitation contributes, at most, 30 percent of the observed H2. Thermal excitation is also confirmedby the rather similar vibrational and rotational temperatures in theobjects (~2000 K). The mass of hot H2 ranges from102 to 103Msolar, with nearly half ofobjects showing values of <500 Msolar. It shows that thefraction of molecular mass present in the nuclear region and emitting inthe near-infrared is a very small fraction of the warm molecular masspresent in the centre. A diagnostic diagram composed of the line ratiosH2/Brγ and [FeII]/Paβ proves to be a useful toolin the near-infrared for separating emission-line objects by theirdegree of nuclear activity. We found that active galactic nuclei arecharacterized by H2 2.121 μm/Brγ and [FeII] 1.257μm/Paβ flux ratios between 0.6 and 2. Starburst/HII galaxiesdisplay line ratios <0.6 while low-ionization nuclear emission-lineregions are characterized by values larger than 2 in either ratio.

Correlations among multiwavelength luminosities of star-forming galaxies
It has been known for two decades that a tight correlation existsbetween global far-infrared (FIR) and radio continuum (1.4 and 4.8 GHz)fluxes/luminosities from star-forming galaxies, which may be explainedby formation activities of massive stars in these galaxies. For thisvery reason, a correlation might also exist between X-ray and FIR/radioglobal luminosities of galaxies. We analyse data from the ROSAT All-SkySurvey and from IRAS to show that such correlation does indeed existbetween FIR (42.5-122.5μm) and soft X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminositiesLX and LFIR in 17 normal star-forming galaxies(NSFGs), including 16 late-type galaxies and one host-dominant Seyfertgalaxy, as well as in 14 active star-forming galaxies (ASFGs) consistingof starburst-dominant Seyfert galaxies. The quantitative difference insuch correlations in NSFGs and in ASFGs may be interpreted in terms ofevolutionary variations from classic starburst galaxies tostarburst-dominant Seyfert galaxies. Meanwhile, some low-luminosityactive galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) tend to exhibit such a correlation thatwe infer for star-forming galaxies, implying that star-formingactivities might be more dominant in LLAGNs. In contrast, AGN-dominantSeyfert galaxies do not show such a LX versus LFIRcorrelation; this is most likely related to accretions towardssupermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei. In order toestablish a physical connection between theLX-LFIR correlation and global star formation rate(SFR) in galaxies, we empirically derive bothLX-LB and LFIR-LB relationswith the blue-band luminosity LB roughly representing themass of a galaxy. It appears that the more massive galaxies are, themore star formation regions exist in these galaxies. The global SFR isnot only associated with the mass of a galaxy but also closely relatedto the level of star-forming activities therein. We propose a relationbetween soft X-ray luminosity and SFR in star-forming galaxies. In orderto probe the LX-LFIR relation, we construct anempirical model in which both FIR and X-ray emissions consist of twocomponents with one being closely associated with star formation and theother one not. Based on this model, we infer a linear relation betweenFIR/soft X-ray in star formation regions and radio luminosities, and geta linear relation between LX and LFIR forstar-forming regions.

The stellar populations of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei - III. Spatially resolved spectral properties
In a recently completed survey of the stellar population properties oflow-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) and LINER/HIItransition objects (TOs), we have identified a numerous class ofgalactic nuclei which stand out because of their conspicuous108-9 yr populations, traced by high-order Balmer absorptionlines and other stellar indices. These objects are called `young-TOs',because they all have TO-like emission-line ratios. In this paper weextend this previous work, which concentrated on the nuclear properties,by investigating the radial variations of spectral properties inlow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our analysis is based onhigh signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectra in the 3500-5500Å interval for a sample of 47 galaxies. The data probe distancesof typically up to 850 pc from the nucleus with a resolution of ~100 pc(~1 arcsec) and S/N ~ 30. Stellar population gradients are mapped by theradial profiles of absorption-line equivalent widths and continuumcolours along the slit. These variations are further analysed by meansof a decomposition of each spectrum in terms of template galaxiesrepresentative of very young (<=107 yr), intermediate age(108-9 yr) and old (1010 yr) stellar populations.This study reveals that young-TOs also differ from old-TOs andold-LINERs in terms of the spatial distributions of their stellarpopulations and dust. Specifically, our main findings are as follows.(i) Significant stellar population gradients are found almostexclusively in young-TOs. (ii) The intermediate age population ofyoung-TOs, although heavily concentrated in the nucleus, reachesdistances of up to a few hundred pc from the nucleus. Nevertheless, thehalf width at half-maximum of its brightness profile is more typically100 pc or less. (iii) Objects with predominantly old stellar populationspresent spatially homogeneous spectra, be they LINERs or TOs. (iv)Young-TOs have much more dust in their central regions than otherLLAGNs. (v) The B-band luminosities of the central <~1 Gyr populationin young-TOs are within an order of magnitude of MB=-15,implying masses of the order of ~107-108Msolar. This population was 10-100 times more luminous in itsformation epoch, at which time young massive stars would have completelyoutshone any active nucleus, unless the AGN too was brighter in thepast.

Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data Analysis
X-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources.

Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Galaxies
The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is carrying out acomprehensive multiwavelength survey on a sample of 75 nearby galaxies.The 1-850 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are presented usingbroadband imaging data from Spitzer, 2MASS, ISO, IRAS, and SCUBA. Theinfrared colors derived from the globally integrated Spitzer data aregenerally consistent with the previous generation of models that weredeveloped using global data for normal star-forming galaxies, althoughsignificant deviations are observed. Spitzer's excellent sensitivity andresolution also allow a detailed investigation of the infrared SEDs forvarious locations within the three large, nearby galaxies NGC 3031(M81), NGC 5194 (M51), and NGC 7331. A wide variety of spectral shapesis found within each galaxy, especially for NGC 3031, the closest of thethree targets and thus the galaxy for which the smallest spatial scalescan be explored. Strong correlations exist between the local starformation rate and the infrared colors fν(70μm)/fν(160 μm) and fν(24μm)/fν(160 μm), suggesting that the 24 and 70 μmemission are useful tracers of the local star formation activity level.Preliminary evidence indicates that variations in the 24 μm emission,and not variations in the emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsat 8 μm, drive the variations in the fν(8.0μm)/fν(24 μm) colors within NGC 3031, NGC 5194, andNGC 7331. If the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in SEDs seen in our sampleare representative of the range present at high redshift, thenextrapolations of total infrared luminosities and star formation ratesfrom the observed 24 μm flux will be uncertain at the factor of 5level (total range). The corresponding uncertainties using theredshifted 8.0 μm flux (e.g., observed 24 μm flux for a z=2source) are factors of 10-20. Considerable caution should be used wheninterpreting such extrapolated infrared luminosities.

Mid-Infrared Spectra of Classical AGNs Observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope
Full low-resolution (65

Molecular Hydrogen Excitation around Active Galactic Nuclei
We report R~3000 Very Large Telescope ISAAC K-band spectroscopy of thenuclei (i.e., central 100-300 pc) of nine galaxies hosting an activegalactic nucleus. For five of these we also present spectra of thecircumnuclear region out to 1 kpc. We have measured a number ofmolecular hydrogen lines in the ν=1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 vibrationaltransitions, as well as the Brγ and He I recombination lines andthe Na I stellar absorption feature. Although only three of the galaxiesare classified as type 1 Seyfert galaxies in the literature, broadBrγ (FWHM>~1000 km s-1) is seen in seven of theobjects. The ν=1-0 emission appears thermalized at temperaturesT~1000 K. However, the ν=2-1 and ν=3-2 emission show evidence ofbeing radiatively excited by far-ultraviolet photons. Thephotodissociation region models that fit the data best are, as for theultraluminous infrared galaxies in Davies et al., those for which theH2 emission arises in dense clouds illuminated by intensefar-ultraviolet radiation. The Na I stellar absorption line is clearlyseen in six of the nuclear spectra of these AGNs, indicating thepresence of a significant population of late-type stars. It is possiblethat these stars are a result of the same episode of star formation thatgave rise to the stars heating the photodissociation regions. It seemsunlikely that the AGN is the dominant source of excitation for thenear-infrared H2 emission: in two of the nuclear spectraH2 was not detected at all, and in general we find noevidence of suppression of the 2-1 S(3) line, which may occur inX-ray-irradiated gas. Our data do not reveal any significant differencebetween the nuclear and circumnuclear line ratios, suggesting that thephysical conditions of the dominant excitation mechanism are similarboth near the AGN and in the larger scale environment around it, andthat star formation is an important process even in the central 100 pcaround AGNs.Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory VLT(69.B-0075).

Evidence of a Starburst within 9 Parsecs of the Active Nucleus of NGC 1097
We report evidence of a recent burst of star formation located within 9pc of the active nucleus of NGC 1097. The observational signatures ofthe starburst include UV absorption lines and continuum emission fromyoung stars observed in a small-aperture Hubble Space Telescopespectrum. The burst is <= a few × 106 yr old, has amass of ~106 Msolar, an observed luminosity of1.5×107 Lsolar, and is obscured byAV~3 mag. The importance of this finding is twofold: (1) theproximity of the starburst to the active nucleus and thus its possibleassociation with it, and (2) its obscuration by and apparent associationwith a dusty absorbing medium, while the broad emission lines appearunobscured, suggesting that the starburst could be embedded in acircumnuclear torus as predicted in the unified model of active galacticnuclei.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at theSpace Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contractNAS5-26555.

Feedback Heating with Slow Jets in Cooling Flow Clusters
We propose a scenario in which a large fraction or even most of the gascooling to low temperatures of T<104 K in cooling flowclusters gains energy directly from the central black hole. Most of thecool gas is accelerated to nonrelativistic high velocities,vj~=103-104 km s-1, afterflowing through, or close to, an accretion disk around the central blackhole. A poorly collimated wind (or a pair of poorly collimated oppositejets) is formed. According to the proposed scenario, this gas inflatessome of the X-ray-deficient bubbles, such that the average gastemperature inside these bubbles (cavities) in cooling flow clusters iskTb<~100 keV. A large fraction of these bubbles will bevery faint or undetectable in the radio. The bright rims of these weaksmaller bubbles will appear as ripples. We suggest that the X-rayripples observed in the Perseus cluster, for example, are not soundwaves but rather the rims of radio-faint weak bubbles that are onlyslightly hotter than their environment. This scenario is incorporatedinto the moderate cooling flow model; although not a necessaryingredient in that model, it brings it to better agreement withobservations. A cooling flow does exist in the moderate cooling flowmodel, but the mass cooling rate is <~10% of that in old versions ofcooling flow models.

Simulating the Spitzer Mid-Infrared Color-Color Diagrams
We use a simple parameterization of the mid-IR spectra of a wide rangeof galaxy types in order to predict their distribution in the InfraredArray Camera (IRAC) 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm and MultibandPhotometer for Spitzer 24 μm color-color diagrams. We distinguishthree basic spectral types by the energetically dominant component inthe 3-12 μm regime: stellar-dominated, polycyclic aromatichydrocarbon (PAH)-dominated, and continuum-dominated. We use a Markovchain Monte Carlo approach to arrive at a more systematic and robustrepresentation of the mid-IR spectra of galaxies than do moretraditional approaches. We find that IRAC color-color plots are wellsuited to distinguishing the above spectral types, while the addition of24 μm data allows us to suggest practical three-color cuts thatpreferentially select higher redshift sources of a specific type. Wecompare our simulations with the color-color plot obtained by theSpitzer First Look Survey and find reasonable agreement. Lastly, wediscuss other applications as well as future directions for this work.

Feeding the Monster: The Nucleus of NGC 1097 at Subarcsecond Scales in the Infrared with the Very Large Telescope
Near-IR images of the prototype LINER/Seyfert type 1 galaxy NGC 1097observed with the Very Large Telescope using adaptive optics disclosewith unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentarystructure spiraling down to the center of the galaxy. The structure,consisting of several spiral arms, some almost completing a revolutionabout the center, is most prominent within a radius of about 300 pc. Gasand dust may be channelled to the center of NGC 1097 along this centralspiral. Some filaments can be traced farther out, where they seem toconnect with the nuclear star-forming ring at a 0.7 kpc radius. Straightprincipal shocks running along the primary large-scale bar of NGC 1097,seen in the optical images as prominent dust lanes, curve into thisring, but radio polarization vectors cross the nuclear ring at a ratherlarge angle. Here we attempt to explain this morphology in terms ofthree-dimensional gas flow in a barred galaxy. In our scenario, parts ofthe principal shock that propagate in the off-plane gas can cross thenuclear star-forming ring and excite waves inward from it. If thedispersion relation of the excited waves allows for their propagation,they will naturally take the shape of the observed central spiral. Thenuclear region of NGC 1097 remains unresolved at subarcsecond scales inthe near-IR, with an upper size limit of <10 pc FWHM. Thus, anyputative central dusty torus or gaseous disk envisaged by the activegalactic nucleus (AGN) unified schemes has to be smaller than 10 pc indiameter at near-IR wavelengths. The extinction in the region betweenthe nuclear star-forming ring and the nucleus increases very moderately,reaching Av~1 at the immediate surroundings of the nucleus.Thus, if the nuclear filaments are tracing cold dust, they contribute toa very low extinction in the line of sight and are likely to bedistributed in a rather thin disk.

Magnetic fields in barred galaxies. IV. NGC 1097 and NGC 1365
We present λ3.5 cm and λ6.2 cm radio continuum maps intotal and polarized intensity of the barred galaxies NGC 1097 (at2´´-15´´ resolution) and NGC 1365 (at9´´-25´´ resolution). A previously unknown radiogalaxy southwest of NGC 1097 is reported. Apart from a smooth faintenvelope and a bright central region, both galaxies exhibit radio ridgesroughly overlapping with the massive dust lanes in the bar region. Thecontrast in total intensity across the radio ridges is compatible withcompression and shear of an isotropic random magnetic field, where thegas density compression ratio is approximately equal to 4 and the cosmicray density is constant across the ridges. The contrast in polarizedintensity is significantly smaller than that expected from compressionand shearing of the regular magnetic field; this could be the result ofdecoupling of the regular field from the dense molecular clouds. Theregular field in the ridge is probably strong enough to reducesignificantly shear in the diffuse gas (to which it is coupled) andhence to reduce magnetic field amplification by shearing. Thiscontributes to the misalignment of the observed field orientation withrespect to the velocity vectors of the dense gas. Our observations, forthe first time, indicate that magnetic forces can control the flow ofthe diffuse interstellar gas at kiloparsec scales. The total radiointensity reaches its maximum in the circumnuclear starburst regions,where the equipartition field strength is about 60 μG, amongst thestrongest fields detected in spiral galaxies so far. The regular fieldin the inner region has a spiral shape with large pitch angle,indicating the action of a dynamo. Magnetic stress leads to mass inflowtowards the centre, sufficient to feed the active nucleus in NGC 1097. -We detected diffuse X-ray emission, possibly forming a halo of hot gasaround NGC 1097.

Dust properties of UV bright galaxies at z ~ 2
We investigate the properties of the extinction curve in the rest-frameUV for a sample of 34 UV-luminous galaxies at 2 < z < 2.5,selected from the FORS Deep Field (FDF) spectroscopic survey. A newparametric description of the rest-frame UV spectral energy distributionis adopted; its sensitivity to properties of the stellar populations orof dust attenuation is established with the use of models. The latterare computed by combining composite stellar population models andcalculations of radiative transfer of the stellar and scatteredradiation through the dusty interstellar medium (ISM) for a dust/starsconfiguration describing dust attenuation in local starbursts. In thefavoured configuration the stars are enveloped by a shell with atwo-phase, clumpy, dusty ISM. The distribution of the z ˜ 2UV-luminous FDF galaxies in several diagnostic diagrams shows that theirextinction curves range between those typical of the Small and LargeMagellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC, respectively). For the majority ofstrongly reddened objects having a UV continuum slope β > -0.4 asignificant 2175 Å absorption feature (or "UV bump") is inferred,indicating an LMC-like extinction curve. On the other hand, the UVcontinua of the least reddened objects are mostly consistent withSMC-like extinction curves, lacking a significant UV bump, as for thesample of local starbursts investigated by Calzetti and collaborators.Furthermore, the most opaque (⠘ 0) and, thus (for ourmodels), dustiest UV-luminous FDF galaxies tend to be among the mostmetal-rich, most massive, and largest systems at z ˜ 2, indicating< Z > ˜ 0.5 {-} 1 Zȯ, < Mstars> ˜ 6 × 1010 Mȯ, and ˜ 4 kpc, respectively. The presence of the UVbump does not seem to depend on the total metallicity, as given by theequivalent width (EW) of the C IV doublet. Conversely, it seems to beassociated with a large average EW of the six most prominentinterstellar low-ionisation absorption lines falling in the FORSspectra. The average EW of these saturated lines offers a proxy for theISM topology. We interpret these results as the evidence for adifference in the properties of the dusty ISM among the most evolvedUV-luminous, massive galaxies at z ˜ 2.

Dissecting the spiral galaxy M 83: mid-infrared emission and comparison with other tracers of star formation
We present a detailed mid-infrared study of the nearby, face-on spiralgalaxy M 83 based on ISOCAM data. M 83 is a unique case study, since awide variety of MIR broad-band filters as well as spectra, covering thewavelength range of 4 to 18 μm, were observed and are presented here.Emission maxima trace the nuclear and bulge area, star-formation regionsat the end of the bar, as well as the inner spiral arms. The fainterouter spiral arms and interarm regions are also evident in the MIR map.Spectral imaging of the central 3 arcmin × 3 arcmin (4 kpc×4 kpc) field allows us to investigate five regions of differentenvironments. The various MIR components (very small grains, polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, ionic lines) are analyzed fordifferent regions throughout the galaxy. In the total λ4 μm to18 μm wavelength range, the PAHs dominate the luminosity,contributing between 60% in the nuclear and bulge regions and 90% in theless active, interarm regions. Throughout the galaxy, the underlyingcontinuum emission from the small grains is always a smallercontribution in the total MIR wavelength regime, peaking in the nuclearand bulge components. The implications of using broad-band filters onlyto characterize the mid-infrared emission of galaxies, a commonly usedISOCAM observation mode, are discussed. We present the firstquantitative analysis of new Hα and λ6 cm VLA+Effelsbergradio continuum maps of M 83. The distribution of the MIR emission iscompared with that of the CO, HI, R band, Hα and λ6 cmradio. A striking correlation is found between the intensities in thetwo mid-infrared filter bands and the λ6 cm radio continuum. Toexplain the tight mid-infrared-radio correlation we propose theanchoring of magnetic field lines in the photoionized shells of gasclouds.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:02h46m18.90s
Aparent dimensions:10′ × 6.166′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Nameswanda colman
NGC 2000.0NGC 1097

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