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τ Cet (Durre Menthor)



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Differential Radial Velocities and Stellar Parameters of Nearby Young Stars
Radial velocity searches for substellar-mass companions have focusedprimarily on stars older than 1 Gyr. Increased levels of stellaractivity in young stars hinders the detection of solar system analogs,and therefore until recently there has been a prejudice againstinclusion of young stars in radial velocity surveys. Adaptive opticssurveys of young stars have given us insight into the multiplicity ofyoung stars, but only for massive, distant companions. Understanding thelimit of the radial velocity technique, restricted to high-mass,close-orbiting planets and brown dwarfs, we began a survey of youngstars of various ages. While the number of stars needed to carry outfull analysis of the problems of planetary and brown dwarf populationand evolution is large, the beginning of such a sample is included here.We report on 61 young stars ranging in age from the β Pictorisassociation (~12 Myr) to the Ursa Major association (~300 Myr). Thisinitial search resulted in no stars showing evidence of companionslarger than ~1MJup-2MJup in short-period orbits atthe 3 σ level. We also present derived stellar parameters, as mosthave unpublished values. The chemical homogeneity of a cluster, andpresumably of an association, may help to constrain true membership, sowe present [Fe/H] abundances for the stars in our sample.

The NICMOS Polarimetric Calibration
An accurate knowledge of the absolute calibration of the polarizingelements in the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer(NICMOS) becomes especially important when conducting studies thatrequire measuring degrees of polarization of close to 1% in thenear-infrared. We present a comprehensive study of all previouslyobserved polarimetric standards using the NIC2 camera on NICMOS.Considering both pre- and post-NICMOS Cooling System observations, wefind variations in the polarimetry consistent with the effects ofsubpixel misalignments and the point-spread function. We also measurenonzero results from unpolarized standards, indicating an instrumentalpolarization of p~1.2%, θ~88deg. The lack of polarizedand unpolarized standard stars with which to perform a comprehensivecalibration study means that we cannot be confident that the currentcalibration will be effective for a number of recent large NICMOS GOprograms. Further observations of polarimetric standards are needed inorder to fully characterize the behavior of NICMOS at around p=1%.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescopeobtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Precise Spectroscopic Radial Velocity Measurements Using Telluric Lines
Telluric absorption inside our coudé spectrograph is used as areference spectrum for precise radial velocity measurement. The opticalpath for this telluric absorption is stable and is not compromised byatmospheric disturbances, such as the jet stream. As an added bonus, thetelluric fiducial spectrum is free; i.e., one does not need toconstruct, regulate, maintain, or suffer throughput losses from acaptive-gas absorption cell. The telluric and stellar spectra span thesame portion of the detector and are observed sequentially, but indifferent diffraction orders. In this way the stellar line profiles arenot contaminated by the telluric spectrum and can therefore be used fornormal astrophysical line profile analyses, as well as radial velocitystudies. However, precise measurements of the temperature and pressureare needed for differential corrections between orders, because theindex of refraction of the air in the spectrograph is wavelengthdependent. Precision in radial velocity of ~25 m s-1 isdemonstrated.

Planets and asteroids in the γ Cephei system
The binary star system γ Cephei is unusual in that it harbours astable giant planet around the larger star at a distance only about atenth of that of the stellar separation. Numerical simulations arecarried out into the stability of test particles in the system. Thisprovides possible locations for additional planets and asteroids. Tothis end, the region interior to the planet is investigated in detailand found to permit structured belts of particles. The region betweenthe planet and the secondary star, however, shows almost no stability.The existence of an Edgeworth-Kuiper belt analogue is found to be apossibility beyond 65 au from the barycentre of the system, although itshows almost no structural features. Finally, the region around thesecondary star is studied for the first time. Here, a zone of stabilityis seen out to 1.5 au for a range of inclinations. In addition, a10-Jupiter-mass planet is shown to remain stable about this smallerstar, with the habitability and observational properties of such anobject being discussed.

Metallicity, debris discs and planets
We investigate the populations of main-sequence stars within 25 pc thathave debris discs and/or giant planets detected by Doppler shift. Themetallicity distribution of the debris sample is a very close match tothat of stars in general, but differs with >99 per cent confidencefrom the giant planet sample, which favours stars of above averagemetallicity. This result is not due to differences in age of the twosamples. The formation of debris-generating planetesimals at tens of authus appears independent of the metal fraction of the primordial disc,in contrast to the growth and migration history of giant planets withina few au. The data generally fit a core accumulation model, with outerplanetesimals forming eventually even from a disc low in solids, whileinner planets require fast core growth for gas to still be present tomake an atmosphere.

Asteroseismology and interferometry .
Asteroseismology aims at constraining the stellar evolution theory, andallows to determine the age of stars together with other fundamentalparameters. We present recent results obtained by interferometry, andprospects for the future.

Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of IRAS-discovered Debris Disks
We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)5.5-35 μm spectra of 59 main-sequence stars that possess IRAS 60μm excess. The spectra of five objects possess spectral features thatare well-modeled using micron-sized grains and silicates withcrystalline mass fractions 0%-80%, consistent with T Tauri and HerbigAeBe stars. With the exception of η Crv, these objects are youngwith ages <=50 Myr. Our fits require the presence of a cool blackbodycontinuum, Tgr=80-200 K, in addition to hot, amorphous, andcrystalline silicates, Tgr=290-600 K, suggesting thatmultiple parent body belts are present in some debris disks, analogousto the asteroid and Kuiper belts in our solar system. The spectra forthe majority of objects are featureless, suggesting that the emittinggrains probably have radii a>10 μm. We have modeled the excesscontinua using a continuous disk with a uniform surface densitydistribution, expected if Poynting-Robertson and stellar wind drag arethe dominant grain removal processes, and using a single-temperatureblackbody, expected if the dust is located in a narrow ring around thestar. The IRS spectra of many objects are better modeled with asingle-temperature blackbody, suggesting that the disks possess innerholes. The distribution of grain temperatures, based on our blackbodyfits, peaks at Tgr=110-120 K. Since the timescale for icesublimation of micron-sized grains with Tgr>110 K is afraction of a Myr, the lack of warmer material may be explained if thegrains are icy. If planets dynamically clear the central portions ofdebris disks, then the frequency of planets around other stars isprobably high. We estimate that the majority of debris disk systemspossess parent body masses, MPB<1 M⊕. Thelow inferred parent body masses suggest that planet formation is anefficient process.Based on observations with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, which isoperated by the California Institute of Technology for NASA.

Improving the Efficiency of Markov Chain Monte Carlo for Analyzing the Orbits of Extrasolar Planets
Precise radial velocity measurements have led to the discovery of ~170extrasolar planetary systems. Understanding the uncertainties in theorbital solutions will become increasingly important as the discoveryspace for extrasolar planets shifts to planets with smaller masses andlonger orbital periods. The method of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)provides a rigorous method for quantifying the uncertainties in orbitalparameters in a Bayesian framework (Paper I). The main practicalchallenge for the general application of MCMC is the need to constructMarkov chains that quickly converge. The rate of convergence is verysensitive to the choice of the candidate transition probabilitydistribution function (CTPDF). Here we explain one simple method forgenerating alternative CTPDFs that can significantly speed convergenceby 1-3 orders of magnitude. We have numerically tested dozens of CTPDFswith simulated radial velocity data sets to identify those that performwell for different types of orbits and suggest a set of CTPDFs forgeneral application. In addition, we introduce other refinements to theMCMC algorithm for radial velocity planets, including an improvedtreatment of the uncertainties in the radial velocity observations, analgorithm for automatically choosing step sizes, an algorithm forautomatically determining reasonable stopping times, and the use ofimportance sampling for including the dynamical evolution ofmultiple-planet systems. Together, these improvements make it practicalto apply MCMC to multiple-planet systems. We demonstrate theimprovements in efficiency by analyzing a variety of extrasolarplanetary systems.

Frequency of Debris Disks around Solar-Type Stars: First Results from a Spitzer MIPS Survey
We have searched for infrared excesses around a well-defined sample of69 FGK main-sequence field stars. These stars were selected withoutregard to their age, metallicity, or any previous detection of IRexcess; they have a median age of ~4 Gyr. We have detected 70 μmexcesses around seven stars at the 3 σ confidence level. Thisextra emission is produced by cool material (<100 K) located beyond10 AU, well outside the ``habitable zones'' of these systems andconsistent with the presence of Kuiper Belt analogs with ~100 times moreemitting surface area than in our own planetary system. Only one star,HD 69830, shows excess emission at 24 μm, corresponding to dust withtemperatures >~300 K located inside of 1 AU. While debris disks withLdust/L*>=10-3 are rare around oldFGK stars, we find that the disk frequency increases from 2%+/-2% forLdust/L*>=10-4 to 12%+/-5% forLdust/L*>=10-5. This trend in thedisk luminosity distribution is consistent with the estimated dust inour solar system being within an order of magnitude greater or less thanthe typical level around similar nearby stars. Although there is nocorrelation of IR excess with metallicity or spectral type, there is aweak correlation with stellar age, with stars younger than a gigayearmore likely to have excess emission.

Detection Limits from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search Program
Based on the long-term radial velocity surveys carried out with theMcDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope from 1988 to thepresent, we derive upper limits to long-period giant planet companionsfor 31 nearby stars. Data from three phases of the McDonald Observatory2.7 m planet-search program have been merged together, and for 17objects data from the pioneering Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope radialvelocity program have also been included in the companion-limitsdetermination. For those 17 objects, the baseline of observations is inexcess of 23 yr, enabling the detection or exclusion of giant planets inorbits beyond 8 AU. We also consider the possibility of eccentric orbitsin our computations. At an orbital separation of 5.2 AU, we can excludeon average planets of Msini>~(2.0+/-1.1)MJ (e=0) andMsini>~(4.0+/-2.8)MJ (e=0.6) for 25 of the 31 stars inthis survey. However, we are not yet able to rule out ``true Jupiters,''i.e., planets of Msini~1MJ in 5.2 AU orbits. These limits areof interest for the Space Interferometry Mission, Terrestrial PlanetFinder, and Darwin missions, which will search for terrestrial planetsorbiting nearby stars, many of which are included in this work.

Dwarfs in the Local Region
We present lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundance data for a sample ofnearby dwarfs-a total of 216 stars-including samples within 15 pc of theSun, as well as a sample of local close giant planet (CGP) hosts (55stars) and comparison stars. The spectroscopic data for this work have aresolution of R~60,000, a signal-to-noise ratio >150, and spectralcoverage from 475 to 685 nm. We have redetermined parameters and derivedadditional abundances (Z>10) for the CGP host and comparison samples.From our abundances for elements with Z>6 we determine the meanabundance of all elements in the CGP hosts to range from 0.1 to 0.2 dexhigher than nonhosts. However, when relative abundances ([x/Fe]) areconsidered we detect no differences in the samples. We find nodifference in the lithium contents of the hosts versus the nonhosts. Theplanet hosts appear to be the metal-rich extension of local regionabundances, and overall trends in the abundances are dominated byGalactic chemical evolution. A consideration of the kinematics of thesample shows that the planet hosts are spread through velocity space;they are not exclusively stars of the thin disk.

Precise radial velocities with BOES. Detection of low-amplitude pulsations in the K-giant α Arietis
We present the first results from a high-precision radial velocity studyof the K2 III giant star α Ari. Observationswere acquired over 6 nights in 2004 using the new high-resolutionspectrograph BOES (Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph) of the1.8-m telescope. A high radial-velocity precision was achieved by usingthe high-resolution (R=90 000) mode of BOES and an iodine gas absorptioncell. The radial velocity measurements made during JD = 2 452 948{-}2452 950 show coherent, low-amplitude variations with a period ofP1=0.571 days (or aliases at 0.445 or 0.821 days), and anamplitude of 18.9 m s-1. Observations of τ Cet over thissame interval are constant to within 3 m s-1. Aftersubtracting the contribution of the 0.57-day period, we find evidencefor a second period, P2 = 0.190 days. Observations made on asecond run during JD = 2 452 975{-}2 452 981 show that the radialvelocity variations are indeed present, but on shorter time-scales andwith a lower amplitude. Two probable periods fit the radial velocitymeasurements from the second run reasonably well: 0.185 days or an aliasof 0.256 days. The shorter period coincides with the secondary one foundin the earlier measurements. We conclude that, similar to other K-giantpulsating stars, α Ari shows unstable acousticpulsations or mode switching on time scales of tens of days. Thecalculated pulsation constants for the dominant 0.571-day period isconsistent with third-overtone pulsations, while the secondaryperiodicity found in both data runs corresponds to a high overtone(n≥ 12).

Bisectors of the cross-correlation function applied to stellar spectra. Discriminating stellar activity, oscillations and planets
Context: .Bisectors of strong, single spectral lines, usually the Fe I6252 line, have traditionally been used to examine the velocity fieldsin stellar atmospheres. This requires high S/N often achieved by summingmany individual spectra. Aims: .We investigate whether bisectorsderived from cross-correlation functions (CCF) of single-exposurespectra can be used to provide information on stellar atmospheres, andwhether they can be used to discriminate between radial velocity changescaused by planets, magnetic activity and oscillations. Methods:.Using a sample of bright stars observed with the HARPS spectrograph, weexamine the shapes of the bisectors of individual strong spectral linesin summed spectra, comparing with similar studies in the literature.Moreover, we examine four different quantitative CCF bisector measuresfor correlations with radial velocity and stellar parameters.Results: .We show that CCF bisector measures can be used forquantitative analysis, employing both the absolute values and thevariations. From absolute values, log g and absolute magnitude can beapproximated, and from the correlations with radial velocity one candistinguish between magnetic activity, oscillations and orbiting planetsas the probable cause of radial velocity variations. We confirm thatdifferent isolated spectral lines show different bisector shapes, evenbetween lines of the same element, calling for caution in trying toderive global stellar properties from the bisector of a CCF. For theactive star HR 1362 we suggest from the bisector shape an extraphotospheric heating caused by the chromosphere of several hundreddegrees. We confirm the fill-in of spectral lines of the Sun taken onthe daylight sky caused by Rayleigh-Brillouin and aerosol scattering,and we show for the first time that the fill-in has an asymmetriccomponent.

Optical polarimetry of infrared excess stars
We present UBRVI polarimetry measurements for a group of 38 IRASinfrared excess stars and complement these observations with V-band datataken from the literature for 87 additional objects. After correctingthe observed values by the interstellar contribution, we find that 48%of the analyzed sample has polarization excess. In addition, thepolarization of these stars may correlate with infrared color excesses,particularly at 60 and 100 μm. We caution, however, that poor IRASdata quality at longer wavelengths affects this correlation. We analyzethe wavelength dependence of the linear polarization of 15 polarizedobjects in relation to Serkowski's empirical interstellar law. We findthat for 6 to 7 objects (depending on the interstellar model) themeasured polarization differs significantly from the empiricalinterstellar law, suggesting an intrinsic origin. We analyze thepolarimetry distribution of IRAS infrared excess objects in relation tothe Exoplanet host stars (i.e., stars associated with at least onelikely planetary mass object). The corresponding polarimetrydistributions are different within a high confidence level. Finally, wecompare the metallicity distributions of F and G IRAS infrared excess,Exoplanet host and field main sequence stars, and find that F-G IRASinfrared excess objects have metallicities quite similar (although notidentical) to field main sequence stars and significantly different fromthe Exoplanet host group.

Multi-aperture photometry of extended IR sources with ISOPHOT. I. The nature of extended IR emission of planetary Nebulae
Context: .ISOPHOT multi-aperture photometry is an efficient method toresolve compact sources or to detect extended emission down torelatively faint levels with single detectors in the wavelength range 3to 100 μm. Aims: .Using ISOPHOT multi-aperture photometry andcomplementary ISO spectra and IR spectral energy distributions wediscuss the nature of the extended IR emission of the two PNe NGC 6543and NGC 7008. Methods: .In the on-line appendix we describe thedata reduction, calibration and interpretation methods based on asimultaneous determination of the IR source and background contributionsfrom the on-source multi-aperture sequences. Normalized profiles enabledirect comparison with point source and flat-sky references. Modellingthe intensity distribution offers a quantitative method to assess sourceextent and angular scales of the main structures and is helpful inreconstructing the total source flux, if the source extends beyond aradius of 1 arcmin. The photometric calibration is described and typicalaccuracies are derived. General uncertainty, quality and reliabilityissues are addressed, too. Transient fitting to non-stabilised signaltime series, by means of combinations of exponential functions withdifferent time constants, improves the actual average signals andreduces their uncertainty. Results: .The emission of NGC 6543 inthe 3.6 μm band coincides with the core region of the optical nebulaand is homogeneously distributed. It is comprised of 65% continuum and35% atomic hydrogen line emission. In the 12 μm band a resolved butcompact double source is surrounded by a fainter ring structure with allemission confined to the optical core region. Strong line emission of[ArIII] at 8.99 μm and in particular [SIV] at 10.51 μm shapes thisspatial profile. The unresolved 60 μm emission originates from dust.It is described by a modified (emissivity index β = 1.5) blackbodywith a temperature of 85 K, suggesting that warm dust with a mass of 6.4× 10-4 Mȯ is mixed with the ionisedgas. The gas-to-dust mass ratio is about 220. The 25 μm emission ofNGC 7008 is characterised by a FWHM of about 50´´ with anadditional spot-like or ring-like enhancement at the bright rim of theoptical nebula. The 60 μm emission exhibits a similar shape, but isabout twice as extended. Analysis of the spectral energy distributionsuggests that the 25 μm emission is associated with 120 K warm dust,while the 60 μm emission is dominated by a second dust component with55 K. The dust mass associated with this latter component amounts to 1.2× 10-3 Mȯ, significantly higher thanpreviously derived. The gas-to-dust mass ratio is 59 which, compared tothe average value of 160 for the Milky Way, hints at dust enrichment bythis object.

First high spectral resolution VUV full-Sun spectrum compared to cool stars
This paper reports the first full-Sun vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emissionline profile originating from the transition region from thechromosphere to the corona. It is based on a raster scan of the wholesolar disk using SUMER/SOHO. The full-Sun spectrum has a spectralresolution which allows an investigation of details in the line profileas well as a thorough comparison to stellar spectra as obtained, e.g.with FUSE or STIS/HST. The full-Sun spectrum shows enhanced emission inthe wings, and is well described by a double Gaussian fit with a narrowand a broad component. It is shown that the broad component is due tostructures on the solar surface, especially those related to themagnetic chromospheric network. Thus it is proposed that the broadcomponents of other solar-like stars are also a consequence of themixture of surface structures, and not necessarily a signature ofsmall-scale heating processes like explosive events, as it is commonlyargued. A comparison to spectra of luminous cool stars shows that theline asymmetries of these stars might also be a surface structure effectand not or only partly due to opacity effects in their cool dense winds.These comparisons show the potential of high quality full-Sun VUVspectra and their value for the study of solar-stellar connections. Asan example, this study proposes that αCen A has a considerablyhigher amount of magnetic flux concentrated in the chromosphericmagnetic network than the Sun.

Abundances of refractory elements in the atmospheres of stars with extrasolar planets
Aims.This work presents a uniform and homogeneous study of chemicalabundances of refractory elements in 101 stars with and 93 without knownplanetary companions. We carry out an in-depth investigation of theabundances of Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Na, Mg and Al. The newcomparison sample, spanning the metallicity range -0.70< [Fe/H]<0.50, fills the gap that previously existed, mainly at highmetallicities, in the number of stars without known planets.Methods.Weused an enlarged set of data including new observations, especially forthe field "single" comparison stars . The line list previously studiedby other authors was improved: on average we analysed 90 spectral linesin every spectrum and carefully measured more than 16 600 equivalentwidths (EW) to calculate the abundances.Results.We investigate possibledifferences between the chemical abundances of the two groups of stars,both with and without planets. The results are globally comparable tothose obtained by other authors, and in most cases the abundance trendsof planet-host stars are very similar to those of the comparison sample.Conclusions.This work represents a step towards the comprehension ofrecently discovered planetary systems. These results could also beuseful for verifying galactic models at high metallicities andconsequently improve our knowledge of stellar nucleosynthesis andgalactic chemical evolution.

Oxygen abundances in planet-harbouring stars. Comparison of different abundance indicators
We present a detailed and uniform study of oxygen abundances in 155solar type stars, 96 of which are planet hosts and 59 of which form partof a volume-limited comparison sample with no known planets. EWmeasurements were carried out for the [O I] 6300 Å line and the OI triplet, and spectral synthesis was performed for several OH lines.NLTE corrections were calculated and applied to the LTE abundanceresults derived from the O I 7771-5 Å triplet. Abundances from [OI], the O I triplet and near-UV OH were obtained in 103, 87 and 77dwarfs, respectively. We present the first detailed and uniformcomparison of these three oxygen indicators in a large sample ofsolar-type stars. There is good agreement between the [O/H] ratios fromforbidden and OH lines, while the NLTE triplet shows a systematicallylower abundance. We found that discrepancies between OH, [O I] and the OI triplet do not exceed 0.2 dex in most cases. We have studied abundancetrends in planet host and comparison sample stars, and no obviousanomalies related to the presence of planets have been detected. Allthree indicators show that, on average, [O/Fe] decreases with [Fe/H] inthe metallicity range -0.8< [Fe/H] < 0.5. The planet host starspresent an average oxygen overabundance of 0.1-0.2 dex with respect tothe comparison sample.

Disks Around Stars and the Growth of Planetary Systems
Circumstellar disks play a vital evolutionary role, providing a way tomove gas inward and onto a young star. The outward transfer of angularmomentum allows the star to contract without breaking up, and theremnant disk of gas and particles is the reservoir for forming planets.High-resolution spectroscopy is uncovering planetary dynamics and motionwithin the remnant disk, and imaging at infrared to millimeterwavelengths resolves disk structure over billions of years of evolution.Most stars are born with a disk, and models of planet formation need toform such bodies from the disk material within the disk's10-million-year life-span.

Shapes of Spectral Line Bisectors for Cool Stars
The shape of the line bisector for the prototype spectral line Fe Iλ6253 was measured for an array of 54 stars on the cool half ofthe HR diagram. These bisectors are given in tables along with theirerrors. The classic C shape is shown by only a rather restricted rangein effective temperature and luminosity. The detailed change in bisectorshape with effective temperature and luminosity is documented moreprecisely than in previous work. The most blueward point on the bisectorchanges its height systematically with luminosity and can be used as aluminosity or gravity discriminant. The wide range of bisector shapescontains significant information about the velocity fields in theatmospheres of these stars, but extracting that information may requireextensive modeling.

Astrophysics in 2004
In this 14th edition of ApXX,1 we bring you the Sun (§ 2) and Stars(§ 4), the Moon and Planets (§ 3), a truly binary pulsar(§ 5), a kinematic apology (§ 6), the whole universe(§§ 7 and 8), reconsideration of old settled (§ 9) andunsettled (§ 10) issues, and some things that happen only on Earth,some indeed only in these reviews (§§ 10 and 11).

Lithium Abundances of F-, G-, and K-Type Stars: Profile-Fitting Analysis of the Li I 6708 Doublet
An extensive profile-fitting analysis was performed for the Li(+Fe)6707-6708Å feature of nearby 160 F-K dwarfs/subgiants (including27 planet-host stars) in the Galactic disk ( 7000 K ≳Teff ≳ 5000 K, -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.4), in orderto establish the photospheric lithium abundances of these stars. Thenon-LTE effect (though quantitatively insignificant) was taken intoaccount based on our statistical equilibrium calculations, which werecarried out on an adequate grid of models. Our results confirmed most ofthe interesting observational characteristics revealed by recentlypublished studies, such as the bimodal distribution of the Li abundancesfor stars at Teff ≳ 6000 K, the satisfactory agreementof the upper envelope of the A(Li) vs. [Fe/H] distribution with thetheoretical models, the existence of a positive correlation betweenA(Li) and the stellar mass, and the tendency of lower lithium abundancesof planet-host stars (as compared to stars without planets) at thenarrow ``transition'' region of 5900 K ≳ Teff ≳5800 K. The solar Li abundance derived from this analysis is 0.92 (H =12.00), which is by 0.24dex lower than the widely referenced standardvalue of 1.16.

Spectroscopic Study on the Atmospheric Parameters of Nearby F--K Dwarfs and Subgiants
Based on a collection of high-dispersion spectra obtained at OkayamaAstrophysical Observatory, the atmospheric parameters (Teff,log g, vt, and [Fe/H]) of 160 mid-F through early-K starswere extensively determined by the spectroscopic method using theequivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines along with the numericaltechnique of Takeda et al. (2002, PASJ, 54, 451). The results arecomprehensively discussed and compared with the parameter values derivedby different approaches (e.g., photometric colors, theoreticalevolutionary tracks, Hipparcos parallaxes, etc.) as well as with thepublished values found in various literature. It has been confirmed thatour purely spectroscopic approach yields fairly reliable and consistentresults.

Recent astrophysical results from the VLTI.
Not Available

Predicting accurate stellar angular diameters by the near-infrared surface brightness technique
I report on the capabilities of the near-infrared (near-IR) surfacebrightness technique to predict reliable stellar angular diameters asaccurate as <~2 per cent using standard broad-band Johnson photometryin the colour range -0.1 <= (V-K)O<= 3.7 includingstars of A, F, G, K spectral type. This empirical approach is fast toapply and leads to estimated photometric diameters in very goodagreement with recent high-precision interferometric diametermeasurements available for non-variable dwarfs and giants, as well asfor Cepheid variables. Then I compare semi-empirical diameters predictedby model-dependent photometric and spectrophotometric (SP) methods withnear-IR surface brightness diameters adopted as empirical referencecalibrators. The overall agreement between all these methods is withinapproximately +/-5 per cent, confirming previous works. However, on thesame scale of accuracy, there is also evidence for systematic shiftspresumably as a result of an incorrect representation of the stellareffective temperature in the model-dependent results. I also comparemeasurements of spectroscopic radii with near-IR surface brightnessradii of Cepheids with known distances. Spectroscopic radii are found tobe affected by a scatter as significant as >~9 per cent, which is atleast three times greater than the formal error currently claimed by thespectroscopic technique. In contrast, pulsation radii predicted by theperiod-radius (PR) relation according to the Cepheid period result aresignificantly less dispersed, indicating a quite small scatter as aresult of the finite width of the Cepheid instability strip, as expectedfrom pulsation theory. The resulting low level of noise stronglyconfirms our previous claims that the pulsation parallaxes are the mostaccurate empirical distances presently available for Galactic andextragalactic Cepheids.

Statistical Cataloging of Archival Data for Luminosity Class IV-V Stars. III. The Epoch 2004 [Fe/H] and Temperature Catalogs
In this paper, an updated catalog containing averaged values of [Fe/H]is presented for FGK stars on and near the main sequence. The input datafor the catalog are values of [Fe/H] derived from weak and moderatelystrong lines and published before 2005 July 1. Those data are correctedto a uniform temperature scale, and a statistical analysis is thenapplied to a subset of the data that did not contribute to a previousversion of the catalog. In this way, it is found that an accurate zeropoint for the catalog can be established with an rms error of 0.005 dex.After corrections are applied to a number of the newly added data, it isshown that those corrections help to produce satisfactory zero-pointcoherence among the catalog entries. Standard errors that are derivedfor the catalog data are shown to be accurate. It is also shown thatthose standard errors are based on pervasive scatter in the input data,as is expected if those data are affected by genuine random effects.Samples of the metallicity catalog and an accompanying temperaturecatalog are displayed and discussed. To make possible an effectiveextension of the catalog to stars without catalog entries, a databasecontaining photometric metallicities derived by Nordström et al. isconsidered. Standard errors for those metallicities are derived, andzero-point corrections required to put those data on the catalog zeropoint are presented.

Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search Programs
We present a uniform catalog of stellar properties for 1040 nearby F, G,and K stars that have been observed by the Keck, Lick, and AAT planetsearch programs. Fitting observed echelle spectra with synthetic spectrayielded effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projectedrotational velocity, and abundances of the elements Na, Si, Ti, Fe, andNi, for every star in the catalog. Combining V-band photometry andHipparcos parallaxes with a bolometric correction based on thespectroscopic results yielded stellar luminosity, radius, and mass.Interpolating Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the luminosity, effectivetemperature, metallicity, and α-element enhancement of each staryielded a theoretical mass, radius, gravity, and age range for moststars in the catalog. Automated tools provide uniform results and makeanalysis of such a large sample practical. Our analysis method differsfrom traditional abundance analyses in that we fit the observed spectrumdirectly, rather than trying to match equivalent widths, and wedetermine effective temperature and surface gravity from the spectrumitself, rather than adopting values based on measured photometry orparallax. As part of our analysis, we determined a new relationshipbetween macroturbulence and effective temperature on the main sequence.Detailed error analysis revealed small systematic offsets with respectto the Sun and spurious abundance trends as a function of effectivetemperature that would be inobvious in smaller samples. We attempted toremove these errors by applying empirical corrections, achieving aprecision per spectrum of 44 K in effective temperature, 0.03 dex inmetallicity, 0.06 dex in the logarithm of gravity, and 0.5 kms-1 in projected rotational velocity. Comparisons withprevious studies show only small discrepancies. Our spectroscopicallydetermined masses have a median fractional precision of 15%, but theyare systematically 10% higher than masses obtained by interpolatingisochrones. Our spectroscopic radii have a median fractional precisionof 3%. Our ages from isochrones have a precision that variesdramatically with location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We planto extend the catalog by applying our automated analysis technique toother large stellar samples.

Stellar Lyα Emission Lines in the Hubble Space Telescope Archive: Intrinsic Line Fluxes and Absorption from the Heliosphere and Astrospheres
We search the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive for previouslyunanalyzed observations of stellar H I Lyα emission lines, ourprimary purpose being to look for new detections of Lyα absorptionfrom the outer heliosphere and to also search for analogous absorptionfrom the astrospheres surrounding the observed stars. The astrosphericabsorption is of particular interest because it can be used to studysolar-like stellar winds that are otherwise undetectable. We find andanalyze 33 HST Lyα spectra in the archive. All the spectra weretaken with the E140M grating of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph(STIS) instrument on board HST. The HST STIS spectra yield four newdetections of heliospheric absorption (70 Oph, ξ Boo, 61 Vir, and HD165185) and seven new detections of astrospheric absorption (EV Lac, 70Oph, ξ Boo, 61 Vir, δ Eri, HD 128987, and DK UMa), doubling theprevious number of heliospheric and astrospheric detections. Whencombined with previous results, 10 of 17 lines of sight within 10 pcyield detections of astrospheric absorption. This high detectionfraction implies that most of the ISM within 10 pc must be at leastpartially neutral, since the presence of H I within the ISM surroundingthe observed star is necessary for an astrospheric detection. Incontrast, the detection percentage is only 9.7% (3 out of 31) for starsbeyond 10 pc. Our Lyα analyses provide measurements of ISM H I andD I column densities for all 33 lines of sight, and we discuss someimplications of these results. Finally, we measure chromosphericLyα fluxes from the observed stars. We use these fluxes todetermine how Lyα flux correlates with coronal X-ray andchromospheric Mg II emission, and we also study how Lyα emissiondepends on stellar rotation.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

The Effective Temperature Scale of FGK Stars. II. Teff:Color:[Fe/H] Calibrations
We present up-to-date metallicity-dependent temperature versus colorcalibrations for main-sequence and giant stars based on temperaturesderived with the infrared flux method (IRFM). Seventeen colors in thephotometric systems UBV, uvby, Vilnius, Geneva, RI(Cousins), DDO,Hipparcos-Tycho, and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) have beencalibrated. The spectral types covered by the calibrations range from F0to K5 (7000K>~Teff>~4000K) with some relationsextending below 4000 K or up to 8000 K. Most of the calibrations arevalid in the metallicity range -3.5>~[Fe/H]>~0.4, although some ofthem extend to as low as [Fe/H]~-4.0. All fits to the data have beenperformed with more than 100 stars; standard deviations range from 30 to120 K. Fits were carefully performed and corrected to eliminate thesmall systematic errors introduced by the calibration formulae. Tablesof colors as a function of Teff and [Fe/H] are provided. Thiswork is largely based on the study by A. Alonso and collaborators; thus,our relations do not significantly differ from theirs except for thevery metal-poor hot stars. From the calibrations, the temperatures of 44dwarf and giant stars with direct temperatures available are obtained.The comparison with direct temperatures confirms our finding in Paper Ithat the zero point of the IRFM temperature scale is in agreement, tothe 10 K level, with the absolute temperature scale (that based onstellar angular diameters) within the ranges of atmospheric parameterscovered by those 44 stars. The colors of the Sun are derived from thepresent IRFM Teff scale and they compare well with those offive solar analogs. It is shown that if the IRFM Teff scaleaccurately reproduces the temperatures of very metal-poor stars,systematic errors of the order of 200 K, introduced by the assumption of(V-K) being completely metallicity independent when studying verymetal-poor dwarf stars, are no longer acceptable. Comparisons with otherTeff scales, both empirical and theoretical, are also shownto be in reasonable agreement with our results, although it seems thatboth Kurucz and MARCS synthetic colors fail to predict the detailedmetallicity dependence, given that for [Fe/H]=-2.0, differences as highas approximately +/-200 K are found.

The Effective Temperature Scale of FGK Stars. I. Determination of Temperatures and Angular Diameters with the Infrared Flux Method
The infrared flux method (IRFM) has been applied to a sample of 135dwarf and 36 giant stars covering the following regions of theatmospheric parameter space: (1) the metal-rich ([Fe/H]>~0) end(consisting mostly of planet-hosting stars), (2) the cool(Teff<~5000 K) metal-poor (-1<~[Fe/H]<~-3) dwarfregion, and (3) the very metal-poor ([Fe/H]<~-2.5) end. These starswere especially selected to cover gaps in previous works onTeff versus color relations, particularly the IRFMTeff scale of A. Alonso and collaborators. Our IRFMimplementation was largely based on the Alonso et al. study (absoluteinfrared flux calibration, bolometric flux calibration, etc.) with theaim of extending the ranges of applicability of their Teffversus color calibrations. In addition, in order to improve the internalaccuracy of the IRFM Teff scale, we recomputed thetemperatures of almost all stars from the Alonso et al. work usingupdated input data. The updated temperatures do not significantly differfrom the original ones, with few exceptions, leaving the Teffscale of Alonso et al. mostly unchanged. Including the stars withupdated temperatures, a large sample of 580 dwarf and 470 giant stars(in the field and in clusters), which cover the ranges3600K<~Teff<~8000K and -4.0<~[Fe/H]<~+0.5, haveTeff homogeneously determined with the IRFM. The meanuncertainty of the temperatures derived is 75 K for dwarfs and 60 K forgiants, which is about 1.3% at solar temperature and 4500 K,respectively. It is shown that the IRFM temperatures are reliable in anabsolute scale given the consistency of the angular diameters resultingfrom the IRFM with those measured by long baseline interferometry, lunaroccultation, and transit observations. Using the measured angulardiameters and bolometric fluxes, a comparison is made between IRFM anddirect temperatures, which shows excellent agreement, with the meandifference being less than 10 K for giants and about 20 K for dwarfstars (the IRFM temperatures being larger in both cases). This resultwas obtained for giants in the ranges 3800K

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:01h44m04.10s
Apparent magnitude:3.5
Distance:3.647 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:0
B-T magnitude:4.38
V-T magnitude:3.572

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesDurre Menthor
Bayerτ Cet
Flamsteed52 Cet
HD 1989HD 10700
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 5855-2292-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0675-00616501
BSC 1991HR 509

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