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 Lifting the Iron Curtain: Toward an Understanding of the Iron Stars XX Oph and AS 325We present new optical, near-infrared, and archival ultravioletobservations of XX Ophiuchi and AS 325, two proposed iron'' stars.These unusual stars have optical spectra dominated by emission linesarising from hydrogen, as well as ionized metals such as iron, chromium,and titanium. Both stars have been classified as iron'' stars, and anumber of exotic models have been presented for their origin. Using 2years of moderately high resolution optical spectroscopy, the first highsignal-to-noise ratio K-band spectroscopy of these sources (whichreveals stellar photospheric absorption lines), and new near-infraredinterferometric observations, we confirm that both systems are composedof two stars, likely binaries, containing a hot Be star with an evolvedlate-type secondary. The hydrogen emission features arise in the hotwind from the Be star, while the corresponding P-Cygni absorption linesare produced from dense material in the expanding, radiation-driven windaround each system. The optical Fe II emission lines are pumped byultraviolet Fe II absorption lines through fluorescence. Contrary tosome claims in the literature, the spectral features of XX Oph and AS325 are quite similar, evidence that they are comparable systems. Weexamine the variability of the spectral morphology and radial velocitymotions of both sources. We also study the variability of XX Oph duringa major photometric event and find that the spectral nature of thesystem varies during the event. A comparison of the velocity of theabsorption-line components in our new spectra with those in theliterature show that the structure of the stellar wind from XX Oph haschanged since the system was observed in 1951. Predicting accurate stellar angular diameters by the near-infrared surface brightness techniqueI report on the capabilities of the near-infrared (near-IR) surfacebrightness technique to predict reliable stellar angular diameters asaccurate as <~2 per cent using standard broad-band Johnson photometryin the colour range -0.1 <= (V-K)O<= 3.7 includingstars of A, F, G, K spectral type. This empirical approach is fast toapply and leads to estimated photometric diameters in very goodagreement with recent high-precision interferometric diametermeasurements available for non-variable dwarfs and giants, as well asfor Cepheid variables. Then I compare semi-empirical diameters predictedby model-dependent photometric and spectrophotometric (SP) methods withnear-IR surface brightness diameters adopted as empirical referencecalibrators. The overall agreement between all these methods is withinapproximately +/-5 per cent, confirming previous works. However, on thesame scale of accuracy, there is also evidence for systematic shiftspresumably as a result of an incorrect representation of the stellareffective temperature in the model-dependent results. I also comparemeasurements of spectroscopic radii with near-IR surface brightnessradii of Cepheids with known distances. Spectroscopic radii are found tobe affected by a scatter as significant as >~9 per cent, which is atleast three times greater than the formal error currently claimed by thespectroscopic technique. In contrast, pulsation radii predicted by theperiod-radius (PR) relation according to the Cepheid period result aresignificantly less dispersed, indicating a quite small scatter as aresult of the finite width of the Cepheid instability strip, as expectedfrom pulsation theory. The resulting low level of noise stronglyconfirms our previous claims that the pulsation parallaxes are the mostaccurate empirical distances presently available for Galactic andextragalactic Cepheids. The Dusty AGB Star RS CrB: First Mid-Infrared Interferometric Observations with the Keck TelescopesWe report interferometric observations of the semiregular variable starRS CrB, a red giant with strong silicate emission features. The datawere among the first long-baseline mid-infrared stellar fringes obtainedbetween the Keck telescopes, using parts of the new nulling beamcombiner. The light was dispersed by a low-resolution spectrometer,allowing simultaneous measurement of the source visibility and intensityspectra from 8 to 12 μm. The interferometric observations allow anonambiguous determination of the dust shell spatial scale and relativeflux contribution. Using a simple spherically symmetric model, in whicha geometrically thin shell surrounds the stellar photosphere, we findthat ~30% to ~70% of the overall mid-infrared flux-depending on thewavelength-originates from 7-8 stellar radii. The derived shell opacityprofile shows a broad peak around 11 μm (τ~=0.06), characteristicof Mg-rich silicate dust particles. Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear MotionUseful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr). Broad-band photometric colors and effective temperature calibrations for late-type giants. I. Z = 0.02We present new synthetic broad-band photometric colors for late-typegiants based on synthetic spectra calculated with the PHOENIX modelatmosphere code. The grid covers effective temperatures T_eff=3000dots5000 K, gravities log g=-0.5dots{+3.5}, and metallicities[M/H]=+0.5dots{-4.0}. We show that individual broad-band photometriccolors are strongly affected by model parameters such as molecularopacities, gravity, microturbulent velocity, and stellar mass. Ourexploratory 3D modeling of a prototypical late-type giant shows thatconvection has a noticeable effect on the photometric colors too, as italters significantly both the vertical and horizontal thermal structuresin the outer atmosphere. The differences between colors calculated withfull 3D hydrodynamical and 1D model atmospheres are significant (e.g.,Δ(V-K)0.2 mag), translating into offsets in effectivetemperature of up to 70 K. For a sample of 74 late-type giants in theSolar neighborhood, with interferometric effective temperatures andbroad-band photometry available in the literature, we compare observedcolors with a new PHOENIX grid of synthetic photometric colors, as wellas with photometric colors calculated with the MARCS and ATLAS modelatmosphere codes. We find good agreement of the new synthetic colorswith observations and published T_eff-color and color-color relations,especially in the T_eff-(V-K), T_eff-(J-K) and (J-K)-(V-K) planes.Deviations from the observed trends in the T_eff-color planes aregenerally within ±100 K for T_eff=3500 to 4800 K. Syntheticcolors calculated with different stellar atmosphere models agree to±100 K, within a large range of effective temperatures andgravities. The comparison of the observed and synthetic spectra oflate-type giants shows that discrepancies result from the differencesboth in the strengths of various spectral lines/bands (especially thoseof molecular bands, such as TiO, H2O, CO) and the continuum level.Finally, we derive several new T_eff-log g-color relations for late-typegiants at solar-metallicity (valid for T_eff=3500 to 4800 K), based bothon the observed effective temperatures and colors of the nearby giants,and synthetic colors produced with PHOENIX, MARCS and ATLAS modelatmospheres. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclustersThe availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165} Improved Baade-Wesselink surface brightness relationsRecent, and older accurate, data on (limb-darkened) angular diameters iscompiled for 221 stars, as well as BVRIJK[12][25] magnitudes for thoseobjects, when available. Nine stars (all M-giants or supergiants)showing excess in the [12-25] colour are excluded from the analysis asthis may indicate the presence of dust influencing the optical andnear-infrared colours as well. Based on this large sample,Baade-Wesselink surface brightness (SB) relations are presented fordwarfs, giants, supergiants and dwarfs in the optical and near-infrared.M-giants are found to follow different SB relations from non-M-giants,in particular in V versus V-R. The preferred relation for non-M-giantsis compared to the earlier relation by Fouqué and Gieren (basedon 10 stars) and Nordgren et al. (based on 57 stars). Increasing thesample size does not lead to a lower rms value. It is shown that theresiduals do not correlate with metallicity at a significant level. Thefinally adopted observed angular diameters are compared to thosepredicted by Cohen et al. for 45 stars in common, and there isreasonable overall, and good agreement when θ < 6 mas.Finally, I comment on the common practice in the literature to average,and then fix, the zero-point of the V versus V-K, V versus V-R and Kversus J-K relations, and then rederive the slopes. Such a commonzero-point at zero colour is not expected from model atmospheres for theV-R colour and depends on gravity. Relations derived in this way may bebiased. Determination of fundamental characteristics for stars of the F, G, and K spectral types. The surface gravities and metallicity parameters.Not Available High-Precision Stellar Radial Velocities in the Galactic CenterWe present radial velocities for 85 cool stars projected onto thecentral parsec of the Galaxy. The majority of these velocities haverelative errors of ~1 km s-1, or a factor of ~30-100 smallerthan those previously obtained with proper-motion or other radialvelocity measurements for a similar stellar sample. The error in atypical individual stellar velocity, including all sources ofuncertainty, is 1.7 km s-1. Two similar data sets wereobtained 1 month apart, and the total error in the relative velocitiesis 0.80 km s-1 in the case where an object is common to bothdata sets. The data are used to characterize the velocity distributionof the old population in the Galactic center. We find that the starshave a Gaussian velocity distribution with a mean heliocentric velocityof -10.1+/-11.0 km s-1 (blueshifted) and a standard deviationof 100.9+/-7.7 km s-1 the mean velocity of the sample isconsistent with no bulk line-of-sight motion with respect to the localstandard of rest. At the 1 σ level, the data are consistent with asymmetric velocity distribution about any arbitrary axis in the plane ofthe sky. We find evidence for a flattening in the distribution oflate-type stars within a radius of ~0.4 pc and infer a volume densitydistribution of r-1/4 in this region. Finally, we establish afirst epoch of radial velocity measurements that can be compared withsubsequent epochs to measure small accelerations (1 km s-1yr-1), corresponding to the magnitude expected over a timespan of several years for stars nearest to Sgr A*.Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, whichis operated as a scientific partnership among the California Instituteof Technology, the University of California, and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possibleby the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The Evolutionary State of Stars in the NGC 1333S Star Formation RegionWe present 2 μm near-IR spectroscopic observations of a sample of 33objects in the NGC 1333S active star-forming cluster centered on thepre-main-sequence star SSV 13. We have previously studied this regionphotometrically in the optical and near-IR, and with the addition ofthese near-IR spectra, we further probe the pre-main-sequence clustermembership and evolutionary state. From the atomic and molecularabsorption features observed, together with the earlier photometry, wederive spectral types, effective temperatures, masses, and ages of thestars and conclude that almost all (90%) the stars observed in thissample are pre-main-sequence objects. This result significantly refinesthe evolutionary information obtained from photometric evidence alone.Comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracks and isochrones suggeststhat our survey has sampled sources with masses in the range 0.2-2Msolar and stellar ages between 7×104 and1×108 yr with a preponderance of sources around3×106 yr. This implies the presence of low- tointermediate-mass T Tauri stars of evolutionary designation Class I toClass III. We conclude that star formation seems to have occurred inlikely several bursts rather than occurring coevally. Star formation insuch a region as NGC 1333S is likely significantly affected by the largenumber of active molecular outflows in the region, which could provide amechanism for cloud turbulence and the onset of subsequent starformation. CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included). Solving the kilosecond quasi-periodic oscillation problem of the intermediate polar GK PerseiWe detect the likely optical counterpart to previously reported X-rayQPOs in spectrophotometry of the intermediate polar GK Per during the1996 dwarf nova outburst. The characteristic time-scales range between4000 and 6000 s. Although the QPOs are an order of magnitude longer thanthose detected in the other dwarf novae we show that a new QPO model isnot required to explain the long time-scale observed. We demonstratethat the observations are consistent with oscillations being the resultof normal time-scale QPOs beating with the spin period of the whitedwarf. We determine the spectral class of the companion to be consistentwith its quiescent classification and find no significant evidence forirradiation over its inner face. We detect the white dwarf spin periodin line fluxes, V/R ratios and Doppler-broadened emission profiles. Determination of the characteristics of stars of spectral types F,G,K. The effective temperatures.Not Available Library of Medium-Resolution Fiber Optic Echelle Spectra of F, G, K, and M Field Dwarfs to Giant StarsWe present a library of Penn State Fiber Optic Echelle (FOE)observations of a sample of field stars with spectral types F to M andluminosity classes V to I. The spectral coverage is from 3800 to 10000Å with a nominal resolving power of 12,000. These spectra includemany of the spectral lines most widely used as optical and near-infraredindicators of chromospheric activity such as the Balmer lines (Hαto Hepsilon), Ca II H & K, the Mg I b triplet, Na I D_1, D_2, He ID_3, and Ca II IRT lines. There are also a large number of photosphericlines, which can also be affected by chromospheric activity, andtemperature-sensitive photospheric features such as TiO bands. Thespectra have been compiled with the goal of providing a set of standardsobserved at medium resolution. We have extensively used such data forthe study of active chromosphere stars by applying a spectralsubtraction technique. However, the data set presented here can also beutilized in a wide variety of ways ranging from radial velocitytemplates to study of variable stars and stellar population synthesis.This library can also be used for spectral classification purposes anddetermination of atmospheric parameters (T_eff, logg, [Fe/H]). A digitalversion of all the fully reduced spectra is available via ftp and theWorld Wide Web (WWW) in FITS format. A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 StarsUltraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories. Radii and Effective Temperatures for G, K, and M Giants and SupergiantsInterferometrically determined angular diameters obtained at the PalomarTestbed Interferometer (PTI) for 69 giant and supergiant stars arepresented. Spectral types of the 59 giant stars generally lie between G6and M6, although a B7 giant is included; the nine bright giants andsupergiants have spectral types between F5 and M5. Comparison of theresults to those from the IR Optical Telescope Array interferometerindicate no statistically significant difference between the two datasets. The use of Hipparcos parallaxes allows us to measure linear sizesdirectly for these stars, which range in size from 10 to 260 solarradii. In conjunction with previous results as reported by Dyck et al.,the total of 113 giant stars provides empirically determineddependencies of effective temperature and linear radius upon spectraltype and V-K color. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K starsA catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html A reliable transformation of HIPPARCOS H_p magnitudes into Johnson V and B magnitudesA comparison of accurate UBV magnitudes, derived from numerousobservations at Hvar and SkalnatePleso, and of the mean Hipparcos \hpmagnitudes for a number of constant stars showed a very good mutualcorrespondence of these two data sets. Simple transformation formul\ae\are presented which allow calculating Johnson V and B magnitudes fromthe \hp magnitude and known B-V and U-B colours. For constant stars withwell-known values of both colours the accuracy of the transformation isclearly better than 0\m01. At the same time, the transformation is notcritically sensitive to the exact values of B-V and U-B. It isapplicable over a wide range of colours (B-V between -0\m25 and 2\m0)and works well also for reddened stars. However, since it was definedfor stars brighter than about 8\m0 and for reddenings smaller than about1\m0, its application outside these limits should be made with somecaution and further tested. Since the B-V and U-B colours are known forthe majority of brighter stars and since there are many classes ofvariable stars which do change colours only very mildly during theirlight changes (like the majority of Be stars) or for which theinstantaneous colours can be predicted or estimated from existingoptical observations, the transformations presented here may turn out tobe very useful for many researchers who need to combine Hipparcos andoptical photometry into one homogeneous data set. The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circleThe sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30. Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution SpectraIRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed. Medium-Resolution Spectra of Normal Stars in the K BandAn Atlas of 115 medium-resolution K-band (2.0--2.4 mu m) stellarspectra, spanning spectral types O--M and luminosity types I--V, ispresented. K-band spectra are also presented for one N- and one J-typecarbon star. A time series of spectra is presented for an S-type Miravariable. All the spectra are at a resolution of ~3000 (1.4 cm-1) andhave had the terrestrial absorption removed by dividing by a featurelessspectrum. The spectra are plotted with the major spectral featuresidentified and are available digitally. On a Rapid Lithium Enrichment and Depletion of K Giant StarsA model scenario has recently been introduced by de la Reza andcolleagues to explain the presence of very strong Li lines in thespectra of some low-mass K giant stars. In this scenario all ordinary,Li-poor, K giants become Li rich during a short time (~105 yr) whencompared to the red giant phase of 5 x 107 yr. In this "Li period," alarge number of the stars are associated with an expanding thincircumstellar shell supposedly triggered by an abrupt internal mixingmechanism resulting in a surface new 7Li enrichment. This Letterpresents nearly 40 Li-rich K giants known up to now. The distribution ofthese Li-rich giants, along with 41 other observed K giants that haveshells but are not Li rich, in a color-color IRAS diagram confirms thisscenario, which indicates, also as a new result, that a rapid Lidepletion takes place on a timescale of between ~103 and 105 yr. Thismodel explains the problem of the presence of K giants with far-infraredexcesses presented by Zuckerman and colleagues. Other present and futuretests of this scenario are briefly discussed. A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Transformations from Theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams to Color-Magnitude Diagrams: Effective Temperatures, B-V Colors, and Bolometric CorrectionsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...469..355F&db_key=AST Lithium Enrichment--Mass-Loss Connection in K Giant StarsBased on observed far-infrared properties of K giant stars, we propose ascenario linking the high Li abundances of some of these stars to theevolution of circumstellar shells. In this model, every K giant withmasses between 1.0 and 2.5 Mȯ become Li rich during the red giantbranch stage, and the internal mechanism responsible for the Lienrichment will initiate a prompt mass-loss event. The evolutionarypaths of the detached shells are compatible with observations for lowexpansion velocities of the order of 2 km s-1 and mass loss of (2--5) x10-8 Mȯ yr-1. This modest mass loss is, however, 2 orders ofmagnitude larger than those of normal, Li-poor K giants. A "Li time" ofthe order of 80,000 yr or somewhat larger is possible. This Li phase is,nevertheless, not related to the 12C/13C ratio which appears to evolve,for these low-mass stars, over a much longer time. This model requires arapid internal process of Li enrichment and depletion. New argumentsappearing in the literature concerning this internal process arediscussed. Reference is also made to the importance of these stars tothe Galactic Li evolution. The Li K giant starsNot Available
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