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# HD 21389 (CE Camelopardalis)

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 The Orion Nebula in the Mid-InfraredWe present two wide-field (~5'×3&farcm;5),diffraction-limited (λ/D~=0.5" at 10 μm), broadband 10 and 20μm images of the Orion Nebula, plus six 7-13 μm narrowband(λ/Δλ~=1) images of the BN/KL complex taken at the3.8 m UKIRT telescope with the MPIA MAX camera. The wide-field images,centered on the Trapezium and BN/KL regions, are mosaics of35''×35'' frames obtained with standardchopping and nodding techniques and reconstructed using a newrestoration method developed for this project. They show the filamentarystructure of the dust emission from the walls of the H II region andreveal a new remarkable group of arclike structures ~1' to the south ofthe Trapezium. The morphology of the Ney-Allen Nebula, produced bywind-wind interaction in the vicinity of the Trapezium stars, suggests acomplex kinematical structure at the center of the cluster. We findindications that one of the most massive members of the cluster, theB0.5 V star θ1 Ori D, is surrounded by aphotoevaporated circumstellar disk. Among the four historic Trapezium OBstars, this is the only one without a binary companion, suggesting thatstellar multiplicity and the presence of massive circumstellar disks maybe mutually exclusive. In what concerns the BN/KL complex, we findevidence for extended optically thin silicate emission on top of thedeep 10 μm absorption feature. Assuming a simple two-component model,we map with ~=0.5" spatial resolution the foreground optical depth,color temperature, and mid-IR luminosity of the embedded sources. Weresolve a conspicuous point source at the location of the IRc2-A knot,approximately 0.5" north of the deeply embedded H II region I.'' Weanalyze the spectral profile of the 10 μm silicate absorption featureand find indication for grain crystallization in the harsh nebularenvironment. In the OMC-1 South region, we detect several point sourcesand discuss their association with the mass-loss phenomenology observedat optical and millimeter wavelengths. Finally, we list the position andphotometry of 177 point sources, the large majority of which aredetected for the first time in the mid-IR. Twenty-two of them lack acounterpart at shorter wavelengths and are therefore candidates fordeeply embedded protostars. The comparison of photometric data obtainedat two different epochs reveals that source variability at 10 μm ispresent up to a level of ~1 mag on a timescale of ~2 yr. With thepossible exception of a pair of OB stars, all point sources detected atshorter wavelengths display 10 μm emission well above thephotospheric level, which we attribute to disk circumstellar emission.The recent model of Robberto et al. provides the simplest explanationfor the observed mid-IR excess. Correlations between diffuse interstellar bands and atomic linesWe present and discuss correlations between strengths of the well-known,strong interstellar atomic lines of KI and CaII, and four selected,strong unidentified diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs): 5780, 5797, 5850and 6614. In order to analyse a homogeneous sample of echellehigh-resolution spectra it has been chosen to use measurements fromTerskol Observatory in Northern Caucasus plus a selected number ofhigher resolution observations performed using other instruments. Wedemonstrate that the strength of certain DIBs correlate well withneutral potassium lines and to a much lower degree with ionized calciumlines. This fact suggests that the degree of irradiation of a cloud withUV photons, capable to ionize interstellar atoms, plays a crucial rolein the formation/maintenance of certain molecular species: possiblecarriers of DIBs. The peculiar variable V838 MonocerotisSpectroscopic observations of the peculiar variable V838 Mon during theperiod from the second light outburst until the fast dimming arepresented. We describe high resolution (R≈60 000) high S/N spectraobtained a day before the second light maximum and low resolution(R≈6000) spectra covering the whole period. The temporal run ofintensities and radial velocities of various lines is presented. UsingNa I D IS lines we determine the reddening distance of V838 Mon d>3.1kpc, and kinematic distance d>4 kpc. We estimate that V838 Mon isslightly metal deficient but otherwise has a quite solar-like chemicalcomposition except for enhanced abundances of Li, Ba and La. Toward an adequate method to isolate spectroscopic families of diffuse interstellar bandsWe divide some of the observed diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) intofamilies that appear to have the spectral structure of single species.Three different methods are applied to separate such families, exploringthe best approach for future investigations of this type. Starting witha statistical treatment of the data, we found that statistical methodsby themselves give insufficient results. Two other methods of dataanalysis (averaging equivalent widths' and investigating the figureswith arranged spectrograms') were found to be more useful as tools forfinding the spectroscopic families of DIBs. On the basis of thesemethods, we suggest some candidates as relatives' of 5780- and5797-Å bands. High-Resolution Observations of Interstellar Ca I Absorption-Implications for Depletions and Electron Densities in Diffuse CloudsWe present high-resolution (FWHM~0.3-1.5 km s-1) spectra,obtained with the AAT UHRF, the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m coudéspectrograph, and/or the KPNO coudé feed, of interstellar Ca Iabsorption toward 30 Galactic stars. Comparisons of the column densitiesof Ca I, Ca II, K I, and other species-for individual componentsidentified in the line profiles and also when integrated over entirelines of sight-yield information on relative electron densities anddepletions (dependent on assumptions regarding the ionizationequilibrium). There is no obvious relationship between the ratio N(CaI)/N(Ca II) [equal to ne/(Γ/αr) forphotoionization equilibrium] and the fraction of hydrogen in molecularform f(H2) (often taken to be indicative of the local densitynH). For a smaller sample of sight lines for which thethermal pressure (nHT) and local density can be estimated viaanalysis of the C I fine-structure excitation, the average electrondensity inferred from C, Na, and K (assuming photoionizationequilibrium) seems to be independent of nH andnHT. While the electron density (ne) obtained fromthe ratio N(Ca I)/N(Ca II) is often significantly higher than the valuesderived from other elements, the patterns of relative nederived from different elements show both similarities and differencesfor different lines of sight-suggesting that additional processesbesides photoionization and radiative recombination commonly andsignificantly affect the ionization balance of heavy elements in diffuseinterstellar clouds. Such additional processes may also contribute tothe (apparently) larger than expected fractional ionizations(ne/nH) found for some lines of sight withindependent determinations of nH. In general, inclusion ofgrain-assisted'' recombination does reduce the inferred ne,but it does not reconcile the ne estimated from differentelements; it may, however, suggest some dependence of ne onnH. The depletion of calcium may have a much weakerdependence on density than was suggested by earlier comparisons with CHand CN. Two appendices present similar high-resolution spectra of Fe Ifor a few stars and give a compilation of column density data for Ca I,Ca II, Fe I, and S I. Observations of Rotationally Resolved C3 in Translucent Sight LinesThe rotationally resolved spectrum of theA1Πu<--X1Σ+g000-000 transition of C3, centered at 4051.6 Å, hasbeen observed along 10 translucent lines of sight. To interpret thesespectra, a new method for the determination of column densities andanalysis of excitation profiles involving the simulation and fitting ofobserved spectra has been developed. The populations of lower rotationallevels (J<=14) in C3 are best fitted by thermaldistributions that are consistent with the kinetic temperaturesdetermined from the excitation profile of C2. Just as in thecase of C2, higher rotational levels (J>14) ofC3 show increased nonthermal population distributions inclouds that have been determined to have total gas densities below ~500cm-3. Some Diffuse Interstellar Bands Related to Interstellar C2 MoleculesWe have investigated the correlations between the equivalent widths of21 selected diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) and the correspondinginterstellar column densities N(C2), N(CN), and N(CH), toward53 stars with color excesses 0.11<=E(B-V)<=1.99. The observationaldata were derived primarily from echelle spectra acquired at R=38,000 aspart of our extensive, continuing survey of the bands. All but six ofthe 53 final spectra show signal-to-noise ratios >=800 at 5780Å. The principal result presented here is that seven of the 21bands prove to be examples of the C2 DIBs,'' a class ofweak, narrow bands whose normalized equivalent widthsWλ(X)/Wλ (λ6196) are wellcorrelated specifically with N(C2)/E(B-V) via power laws. Incontrast, the similarly normalized equivalent widths of the 14 other,well-known DIBs analyzed here are uncorrelated, or weaklyanticorrelated, with N(C2)/E(B-V), to within theobservational uncertainties. Thus, the polyatomic molecule(s) presumedto cause these seven C2 DIBs may bear a direct chemicalrelation to C2 that is not shared by the polyatomic moleculesputatively responsible for the other 14 bands. The C2 DIBsalso show positive correlations with N(CN)/E(B-V) and N(CH)/E(B-V) inour particular sample of light paths, although generally with shallowerslopes in the case of N(CN) and with greater scatter in the case ofN(CH). Eleven additional C2 DIBs are also identified but arenot analyzed here. Among the 18 C2 DIBs identified, fourapparently have not been previously detected. The λ4963 band isgenerally the strongest of the 18 C2 DIBs, while theλ4734 band shows the most sensitive correlation withN(C2).Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium. Merged catalogue of reflection nebulaeSeveral catalogues of reflection nebulae are merged to create a uniformcatalogue of 913 objects. It contains revised coordinates,cross-identifications of nebulae and stars, as well as identificationswith IRAS point sources.The catalogue is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/399/141 Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 Spectrum Variability of the A-Type Supergiant Star HD 223960HD 223960, an A0 Ia-type supergiant in the Cas OB5 association, isunusual among Galactic supergiants of its class in having an Hαprofile with double-peaked emission entirely above the continuum. Weanalyzed 12 high-resolution échelle spectra obtained in 1993-1995and in 1999 with the 1 m telescope of Ritter Observatory. The radialvelocities of photospheric Si, C, He, Ne, and S lines were found to beconstant to within +/-2 km s-1, but the data suggestvariability in the equivalent widths of Si II λλ6347, 6371and several other photospheric lines. The radial velocities andequivalent widths and, especially, the ratio V/R of the Hαcomponents vary. The present data do not indicate a binary explanationfor the double-peaked emission feature. Alternative explanations areconsidered, but none is completely satisfactory. The available evidenceis consistent with the star having a weak, fast wind. Absorption Wavelengths and Bandwidths for Interstellar Searches of C60 in the 2400-4100 Å RegionLow-temperature gas-phase wavelengths and bandwidths for astronomicalsearches for C60 in the 2400-4100 Å region aredetermined from the absorption spectra of C60 in rare gasmatrices at 4 K, coupled with information on the dependence of thevibronic transition frequencies of this fullerene on the Lorentz-Lorenzpolarizability parameter of matrices and solvents. These bandwidthsincrease from 25+/-5 cm-1 for the 11T1u-1 1Ag band at4024.0+/-0.5 Å to 2300+/-200 cm-1 for the 61T1u-1 1Ag band at 2488+/-8Å. Spectral observations of astrophysical objects considered to belikely sites of C60 have been examined in the context of thewavelengths and bandwidths of bands of the allowed transitions ofC60 which we recommend for searches of this species. Nocertain positive assignment of a C60 band has been made inthe 2400-4100 Å spectral region of these objects. The physicalorigin of the observed C60 absorption bandwidths is analyzedand discussed in an appendix. The Stars in Camelopardalis OB1: Their Distance and Evolutionary HistoryAn investigation is undertaken of the optically identified Population Iobjects in the Cam OB1 region. From the analysis of these objects it isdetermined that the distance to the Cam OB1 stars is 975+/-90 pc. Atheoretical H-R diagram for the Cam OB1 stars reveals that starformation has been going on in the region for1×106-1×108 yr. At present, the mostactive site of star formation is Cam R1, which shows an asymmetry in thedistribution of optically identified Population I objects. The majorityof the pre-main-sequence stars lie in the northern half of theassociation, while the main-sequence stars and evolved stars lie in thesouthern half. A possible sets of diffuse bands originating at the same carrierThis paper discusses measurements of eight selected diffuse interstellarbands (DIBs): lambda lambda 5793, 5809, 5819, 5828, 6196, 6397, 6614 and6660 performed in high resolution, high S/N spectra of 41 reddenedstars. Central depths, considered less error-prone than equivalentwidths, are measured and mutual correlations between the selected DIBsare analyzed. Tight correlations between the DIBs: 5809, 6196, 6614 and6660 may suggest their common origin despite their widths differing by afactor of up to 2. The performed simulations prove that this fact doesnot preclude a common, molecular carrier of such features. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Helium and Carbon Abundances in Late-B and Early-A SupergiantsThe abundances of carbon and helium were determined for representativelate-B and early-A supergiants based on the C I lines (9078, 9089, 9095,9112) in the near-IR, C II lines (4267, 6151), and the He I 6678 line,in an aim to investigate the nature of the envelope-mixing in theseevolved stars based on the anomaly (if any) of these elements combinedwith that of N and O published before. It turned out that N tends toincrease with a decrease in C, showing a tendency of conserving the sumof C+N nuclei, which suggests that the anomaly of C and N may bereasonably interpreted as being due to mixing of the CN-processedmaterial. However, this increase/decrease in N/C, indicative ofdredge-up of the H-burning product, is not accompanied by anyHe-enrichment. Even surprisingly, the observed tendency is just theopposite, i.e., [He/H] appears to decrease progressively in accordancewith a lowering of [C/H]. Instead of regarding this apparentcharacteristics as being real, we tentatively speculate that someactivity-related line-weakening mechanism (e.g., irradiance of X-rays)might act on the formation of He I lines, the extent of which isindirectly related to the efficiency of envelope mixing via stellarrotation. On the identification of the C60+ interstellar featuresThe identity of the carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) isone of the most fascinating puzzles of modern spectroscopy. Over thelast few years the number of known DIBs has grown substantially. In thispaper we discuss the two recently discovered near-infrared weakinterstellar features which have already been proposed as fingerprintsof the buckminsterfullerene [formmu2] We present and discussmeasurements of the two related DIBs within a larger sample of reddenedtargets, observed with different spectrometers, telescopes and siteconditions. We provide additional arguments in favour of theinterstellar origin of the two bands. We find evidence around the9577-Å DIB of far-wing structures, which may affect broad-bandmeasurements. We estimate corrections and errors for telluric andstellar blends, and show that the cores of the two DIBs are wellcorrelated with a ratio near unity within 20per cent. Finally, wediscuss their relation to the laboratory spectra of [formmu3] and thesearch for two expected weaker [formmu4] transitions. The Star Clusters in the Starburst Irregular Galaxy NGC 1569We examine star clusters in the irregular starburst galaxy NGC 1569 fromHubble Space Telescope images taken with filters F336W, F555W, andF814W. In addition to the two super-star clusters that are well known,we identify 45 other clusters that are compact but resolved. IntegratedUVI colors of the clusters span a large range, and comparison withcoeval evolutionary models suggests that the ages range from 2-3 Myr to1 Gyr. Most of the clusters have colors consistent with ages of <=30Myr, placing them at the end of the recent burst of star formation. Weexamine the radial surface brightness profiles of four of the clustersand fit King models to three of them. The colors of the clusters areapproximately constant with radius. The four clusters have half-lightradii and core radii that are in the range observed in present-dayglobular clusters in our Galaxy. However, they are somewhat lessconcentrated than the average globular cluster. The two well-knownsuper-star clusters have luminosities (and one has a known mass) thatare comparable to those of typical globular clusters. The other twoclusters and likely numerous others in the sample are similar to a smallglobular cluster and to R136 in the LMC. The conditions that producedthe recent starburst, therefore, have also been those necessary forproducing compact bright star clusters. We examine resolved stars in theouter parts of the super-star clusters. We find that cluster A containsmany bright blue stars. Some of the blue stars are bright enough to beevolved massive stars. There is also a small population of redsupergiants. Components A1 and A2 within cluster A have similar colors,and a two-dimensional color map does not offer evidence that onecomponent is dominated by red supergiants and the other is not. Theapparent contradiction of the presence of red supergiants withWolf-Rayet stars is allowed by the evolution of massive stars or mayinstead be due to an age spread within cluster A. The stars that weresolve around cluster B, on the other hand, contain a small populationof more normal blue massive stars and a large population of redsupergiants. The presence of the red supergiants is consistent with theview that cluster B is in its red supergiant phase. The presence of thered supergiant stars in clusters A and B is also verified innear-infrared spectra, where we find strong stellar CO absorptionfeatures. The various age indicators are consistent with a picture inwhich cluster B is of order 10-20 Myr old, the older stars in cluster Aare >=7 Myr old. The timescale to form the holes seen in Hα andH I is comparable to the age of cluster B. Based on observations withthe NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space TelescopeScience Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universitiesfor Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. A new survey of diffuse interstellar bands (5650 - 6865 Å)This paper presents a new systematic survey of diffuse interstellarbands in the optical wavelength range from 5650 to 6865 Ä based onechelle spectra of medium-reddened early-type stars acquired at McDonaldObservatory. Adding up interstellar spectra of the same type (as it wasdone by Krełowski et al. \cite{K97}) we reached a very highsignal-to-noise ratio. In this spectral range 89 new features have beendiscovered, 62 of them certain. In the whole spectral range of thissurvey we have found 240 features, 213 of them certain. Figure~4 is onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands: A SurveyWe discuss the proposal relating the origin of some of the diffuseinterstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) present in interstellar clouds. Laboratory spectraof several PAHs, isolated at low temperature in inert gas matrices, arecompared with the spectra of five reddened early-type stars selectedfrom an extensive set of astronomical spectra. From this comparison, itis concluded that PAH ions are good candidates to explain some of theDIBs. Unambiguous assignments are difficult, however, because of theshift in wavelengths and the band broadening induced in the laboratoryspectra by the solid matrix. This situation is illustrated by acomparison with the gas-phase spectra made available recently for twoPAH ions. Definitive band assignments and, ultimately, the test of theproposal that PAH ions carry some of the DIBs must await theavailability of a larger set of gas-phase measurements in thelaboratory. The present assessment offers a guideline for futurelaboratory experiments by allowing the preselection of promising PAHmolecules to be studied in jet expansions. Observations of H^+_3 in Dense Molecular CloudsH^+_3 has been detected using infrared absorption spectroscopy along thelines of sight to six infrared sources in dense molecular clouds: AFGL2136, W33A, Mon R2 IRS 3, AFGL 961E, AFGL 2591, and AFGL 490. Upperlimits to the column densities of H^+_3 are reported for an additionalnine sources. The column densities of CO toward Mon R2 IRS 3 and AFGL961E have been determined from observations of the first-overtone linesof CO. For the six sources toward which H^+_3 was detected, a simplemodel of H^+_3 chemistry has been used together with column densities ofH_2 derived from infrared CO measurements to estimate column lengths,mean number densities, and temperatures of molecular clouds. The derivedcolumn lengths are on the order of a parsec, the number densities are10^4-10^5 cm^-3, and the temperatures are ~25-50 K. CCD spectra of MK standards and a preliminary extension of the MK classification to the yellow-red region.Not Available Understanding A-type supergiants. I. Ultraviolet and visible spectral atlasThis paper is the first of a series whose aim is to perform a systematicstudy of A-type supergiant atmospheres and winds. Here we present aspectral atlas of 41 A-supergiants observed by us in high and mediumresolution in the visible and ultraviolet. The atlas consists ofprofiles of the Hα , Hβ , Hγ , Hdelta , Hepsilon , CaII (H and K), Na I (D1 and D2), Mg II4481, Mg II [uv1] and FeII [uv1, uv2, uv3, uv62, uv63, uv161] lines for 41 stars with spectraltypes ranging from B9 to A9 and luminosity classes Ia, Iab and Ib, andprovides the basic data for a thoughtful study of these stars. Theoverall characteristics of the sample as well as the data reductionprocedures are described. We also present some examples of spectralvariability. Figures 1-3 are only available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com} of A-type supergiants\fnmsep\thanks{Based onobservations made with the INT and JKT telescopes operated on the islandof La Palma by the RGO in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de LosMuchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, with the 2.2~mtelescope at Calar Alto Observatory, Spain, with the Bernard Lyot 2~mtelescope at Pic Du Midi Observatory, France and observations collectedat the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. Catalogue of H-alpha emission stars in the Northern Milky WayThe `Catalogue of Stars in the Northern Milky Way Having H-alpha inEmission" appears in Abhandlungen aus der Hamburger Sternwarte, Band XIin the year 1997. It contains 4174 stars, range {32degr <= l() II< 214degr , -10degr < b() II < +10degr } having the Hαline in emission. HBH stars and stars of further 99 lists taken from theliterature till the end of 1994 were included in the catalogue. We givethe cross-identification of stars from all lists used. The catalogue isalso available in the Centre de Données, Strasbourg ftp130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr and at the HamburgObservatory via internet. Transitional YSOs: candidates from flat-spectrum IRAS sourcesWe are searching for Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) near the boundarybetween protostars and pre-main-sequence objects, what we termTransitional YSOs. We have identified a sample of 125 objects ascandidate transitional YSOs on the basis of IRAS colors and the opticalappearance on POSS plates. We have obtained optical and near-IR imagingof 82 objects accessible from the Northern Hemisphere and optical imagesof 62 sources accessible from the South. We also created deconvolved 60mu m IRAS images of all sources. We have classified the objects on thebasis of their morphology in the optical and near-IR images. We findthat the majority of our objects are associated with star-formingregions, confirming our expectation that the bulk of these objects areYSOs. Of the 125 objects, 28 have a variety of characteristics verysimilar to other transitional YSOs, while another 22 show some of thesecharacteristics. Furthermore we have found seven objects to be goodcandidates for members of the Herbig Ae/Be stellar group, of which threeare newly identified as such. We have placed a set of images for each ofthe objects in the archives of the Centre de Données astronomiquede Strasbourg (CDS). Based on observations collected at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. On correlations between diffuse interstellar bandsOne way to better apprehend the problem of diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) is to search for correlations between the bands in a large sampleof spectra towards various lines of sight: a strict correlation mayimply that a common carrier is at the origin of the bands, whereas anon-correlation means that different species are involved. We proposethis observational test for 10 DIBs collected in up to 62 Galactic linesof sight. Strong DIBs do not strictly correlate, and sometimes thecorrelation is very poor. Only one example of a strict correlation hasbeen found in our sample between the DIBs at 6614 and 6196 Ä, thatcould signify a single carrier for those two bands. The general absenceof strict correlations is discussed in the context of molecular carriersfor the DIBs. Suprathermal rotation of PAHs in the ISM II. Observational evidence for the rotational broadening of lambda 5797 DIB in reflection nebulae - implication for the carrier sizeIn a previous paper, we described a model which can explain thelambda5797 diffuse interstellar band (DIB) profile as seen in absorptionin the diffuse interstellar medium and in emission in the Red Rectangle(RR), as a rotational envelope of electronic transitions where themolecular carrier is a free PAH of size ~ 40 atoms. One of the strongestpredictions is the behaviour of the rotational temperature of PAH in thecase of regions rich in UV such as Reflection Nebulae: it must besuprathermal with respect to the gas temperature but clamped to ~ 100 Kfor any PAH size. The width of the DIB, in such regions, can then bebroader than in the classical ISM (T_rot ~ 30 K) if the values of themolecular transition are favorable. In order to test this prediction, wehave obtained high resolution spectra of 27 reddened early type stars,mostly in reflection nebulae, in order to compare their lambda 5797 DIBwidth to those of stars in classical diffuse interstellar medium. Thesespectra were made for several DIBs such as lambda 5797, lambda6379 andlambda6613 , with a spectral resolving power of about 60 000. Theanalysis of the results agrees with our predic tion since the width ofthe lambda 5797 DIB is broader in a majority of areas with strong UVradiation. Moreover, the broadening is not observed on DIBs lambda6379and lambda6613 , indicating that the molecular parameters of theelectronic transitions at the origin of the different DIBs are prettyvariable from one DIB to another and confirming that the measuredbroadening on lambda 5797 is not due to an instrumental bias. Thestatistical measurement of the lambda 5797 width in this medium permitsthe derivation of new constraints on the size of the carrier of thisDIB, a molecule that should have 30 to 45 carbon atoms if, as wepropose, it is indeed a PAH. Based on observations made at Observatoirede Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Understanding A-type supergiants. II. Atmospheric parameters and rotational velocities of Galactic A-type supergiantsWe present the second paper of a series whose aim is to perform a globalstudy of Galactic A-supergiants. Very little work has been carried outto determine the stellar parameters of these stars. This is illustratedwith a brief review of some previous works. In this paper we analyze thedetermination of absolute magnitudes, spectral types and atmosphericparameters using the most recent Kurucz LTE blanketed model atmospheresand we discuss the applicability of the calibrations, such as theSchmidt-Kaler's (\cite{Sch-K}) calibration. Rotation is also animportant parameter in A-supergiants but their rotational velocities arepoorly known. We have calculated projected rotational velocities fromthe Fourier analysis of the observed Mg II (4481 Ä) line. Based onobservations made with the INT and JKT telescopes operated on the islandof La Palma by the RGO in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de LosMuchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, with the 2.2mtelescope at Calar Alto Observatory, Spain, with the Bernard Lyot 2mtelescope at Pic Du Midi Observatory, France and observations collectedat the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile Oxygen Abundances in Late-B through F SupergiantsA spectral-synthesis analysis was performed for twenty-six late-Bthrough F supergiants (including Cepheids) in order to determine theirphotospheric oxygen abundances from the O I 6156--8 feature, whiletaking into account the non-LTE effect, which is progressivelyT_eff-dependent from < 0.1 dex for F-type supergiants to ~ 0.4 dexfor late-B ones in terms of the non-LTE abundance correction. Theresulting oxygen abundances show a moderate underabundance relative tothe Sun ([O/H] ~ -0.3) along with a remarkably small scatter (within +/-0.1 dex) over this wide temperature range. Considering the recentevidence that the solar oxygen abundance is mildly enhanced by 0.2--0.3dex relative to that of the galactic gas which forms young stars, weconclude that the original O-composition in the atmosphere of thesesupergiants had suffered almost no appreciable alteration during theirpast evolutionary history, even though signs of significant mixing ofCN-cycle or NeNa-cycle products are evident. This excludes thepossibility of any global-mixing mechanism, such that producing asignificant reduction of oxygen due to a deep dredge-up of considerableON-processed material, whatever the details of the envelope-mixingprocess for these relatively massive stars may be. UBV beta Database for Case-Hamburg Northern and Southern Luminous StarsA database of photoelectric UBV beta photometry for stars listed in theCase-Hamburg northern and southern Milky Way luminous stars surveys hasbeen compiled from the original research literature. Consisting of over16,000 observations of some 7300 stars from over 500 sources, thisdatabase constitutes the most complete compilation of such photometryavailable for intrinsically luminous stars around the Galactic plane.Over 5000 stars listed in the Case-Hamburg surveys still lackfundamental photometric data. Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Physical Conditions that Facilitate the Formation or Preservation of Their CarriersThis paper suggests that the formation and/or preservation of thecarriers of at least some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs)depends on the level of ionization of certain interstellar atoms, suchas potassium and calcium inside H I clouds. The spectral lines of theseelements are apparently well correlated with the narrow diffuse bands,such as 5797 or 6379 Angstroms. Thus, the physical conditions thatfacilitate the growing abundance of neutral alkali atoms also facilitatethe formation or preservation of the carriers of the narrow diffusebands. The broad features, such as 5780 or 6284 Angstroms, apparentlyoriginate in different ionization conditions.
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