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On the evolutionary status of Be stars. I. Field Be stars near the Sun
A sample of 97 galactic field Be stars were studied by taking intoaccount the effects induced by the fast rotation on their fundamentalparameters. All program stars were observed in the BCDspectrophotometric system in order to minimize the perturbationsproduced by the circumstellar environment on the spectral photosphericsignatures. This is one of the first attempts at determining stellarmasses and ages by simultaneously using model atmospheres andevolutionary tracks, both calculated for rotating objects. The stellarages (τ) normalized to the respective inferred time that eachrotating star can spend in the main sequence phase (τ_MS) reveal amass-dependent trend. This trend shows that: a) there are Be starsspread over the whole interval 0  τ/τ_MS  1 of themain sequence evolutionary phase; b) the distribution of points in the(τ/τMS,M/Mȯ) diagram indicates thatin massive stars (M  12~Mȯ) the Be phenomenon ispresent at smaller τ/τ_MS age ratios than for less massive stars(M  12~Mȯ). This distribution can be due to: i)higher mass-loss rates in massive objets, which can act to reduce thesurface fast rotation; ii) circulation time scales to transport angularmomentum from the core to the surface, which are longer the lower thestellar mass.

Interstellar 12C/13C ratios through CH^+λλ 3957,4232 absorption in local clouds: incomplete mixing in the ISM
The 12C/13C isotope ratio is a tracer of stellaryields and the efficiency of mixing in the ISM.12CH+/13CH+ is not affectedby interstellar chemistry, and is the most secure way of measuring12C/13C in the diffuse ISM.R=12C/13C is 90 in the solar system. Previousmeasurements of 12CH+λλ3957.7,4232.3and 13CH+λλ3958.2,4232.0 absorptiontoward nearby stars indicate some variations in12C/13C, with values ranging from 40 to 90suggesting inefficient mixing. Except for the cloud toward ζOph,these R values are strongly affected by noise. With UVES on the VLT wehave improved on the previous interstellar 12C/13Cmeasurements. The weighted 12C/13C ratio in thelocal ISM is 78.27 ± 1.83, while the weighted dispersion of ourmeasurements is 12.7, giving a 6.9σ scatter. Thus we report on a6.9σ detection of 16.2% root-mean-square variations in the carbonisotopic ratio on scales of ~100 pc: R= 74.7 ± 2.3 in theζOph cloud, while R = 88.6 ± 3.0 toward HD 152235 in theLupus clouds, R = 62.2 ± 5.3 towards HD 110432 in the Coalsack,and R = 98.9 ± 10.1 toward HD 170740. The observed variations in13C/12C are the first significant detection ofchemical heterogeneity in the local ISM.

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

Non-radially pulsating Be stars
Based on more than 3000 high-resolution echelle spectra of 27 early-typeBe stars, taken over six years, it is shown that the short-term periodicline profile variability of these objects is due to non-radialpulsation. The appearance of the line profile variability depends mostlyon the projected rotational velocity v sin i and thus, since all Bestars rotate rapidly, on the inclination i. The observed variability ofthe investigated stars is described, and for some of them line profilevariability periods are given for the first time. For two of theinvestigated stars the line profile variability was successfully modeledas non-radial pulsation with l=m=+2 already in previous works. Since Bestars with similarly low v sin i share the same variability properties,these are in general explainable under the same model assumptions. Theline profile variability of stars with higher v sin i is different fromthe one observed in low v sin i stars, but can be reproduced by thesame model, if only the model inclination is modified to more equatorialvalues. Only for a few stars with periodic line profile variability thel=m=2 non-radial pulsation mode is not able to provide a satisfyingexplanation. These objects might pulsate in different modes (e.g.tesseral ones, l != |m|). Almost all stars in the sample show traces ofoutburst-like variability, pointing to an ephemeral nature of themass-loss phenomenon responsible for the formation of the circumstellardisk of early-type Be stars, rather than a steady star-to-disk masstransfer. In addition to the variability due to non-radial pulsationpresent in most stars, several objects were found to show other periodsresiding in the immediate circumstellar environment. The presence ofthese secondary periods is enhanced in the outburst phases. Short-livedaperiodic phenomena were clearly seen in two stars. But, given theunfavourable sampling of our database to follow rapid variability oftransient nature, they might be more common. Only in two out of 27 starsshort-term spectroscopic variability was not detected at all.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory atLa Silla, Chile, 55.D-0502, 56.D-0381, 58.D-0697, 62.H-0319, 63.H-0080,64.H-0548, and 267.D-5702, the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, CalarAlto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg,jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy, and onobservations with the Wendelstein 80-cm and the Ondřejov 2-mtelescopes, both equipped with the HEROS spectrograph provided by theLandessternwarte Heidelberg.

Autocorrelation Analysis of Hipparcos Photometry of Short-Period Be Stars
We have used Hipparcos epoch photometry and a form of autocorrelationanalysis to investigate the amplitude and timescale of the short-periodvariability of 82 Be stars, including 46 Be stars that were analyzed byHubert & Floquet using Fourier and CLEAN analysis and 36 other Bestars that were suspected of short-period variability. Our method hasgiven useful information for about 84% of these stars; for the rest, thetime distribution of the Hipparcos epoch photometry limits thecapability of our technique.

To Be or not to Be and a 50-cm post-mortem eulogy
Not Available

Short-period line profile and light variations in the Be star λ Eridani
We present three seasons of photometric observations and one season ofintensive high-dispersion spectroscopic observations of the Be starλ Eridani. We show that only one period, P =0.70173d, is presentin the photometry, although there are large light amplitude variationsfrom season to season. We confirm a suspicion that light outburstsrepeat at intervals of about 475d. A total of 348 echelle spectra of thestar were obtained over a 2-week observing run. We show that theperiodic variations are present in the emission wings of the heliumlines, in the emission wings of the Hα line and in the absorptioncores of Hβ and Hγ . Together with the fact that the periodicvariations appear outside the projected rotational velocity limit, thisindicates that they are associated with circumstellar materialimmediately above the photosphere and supports the idea of corotatinggas clouds. We present evidence in support of a true rotational periodof 2P =1.40346d and suggest that the mass loss in Be stars is caused bycentrifugal magnetic acceleration.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectra
We present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033

An atlas of 2.4 to 4.1 mu m ISO/SWS spectra of early-type stars
We present an atlas of spectra of O- and B-type stars, obtained with theShort Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) during the Post-Helium program ofthe Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). This program is aimed at extendingthe Morgan & Keenan classification scheme into the near-infrared.Later type stars will be discussed in a separate publication. Theobservations consist of 57 SWS Post-Helium spectra from 2.4 to 4.1 μm, supplemented with 10 spectra acquired during the nominal mission witha similar observational setting. For B-type stars, this sample providesample spectral coverage in terms of subtype and luminosity class. ForO-type stars, the ISO sample is coarse and therefore is complementedwith 8 UKIRT Larcmin -band observations. In terms of the presence ofdiagnostic lines, the Larcmin -band is likely the most promising of thenear-infrared atmospheric windows for the study of the physicalproperties of B stars. Specifically, this wavelength interval containsthe Bralpha , Pfgamma , and other Pfund lines which are probes ofspectral type, luminosity class and mass loss. Here, we present simpleempirical methods based on the lines present in the 2.4 to 4.1 mu minterval that allow the determination of i) the spectral type of Bdwarfs and giants to within two subtypes; ii) the luminosity class of Bstars to within two classes; iii) the mass-loss rate of O stars and Bsupergiants to within 0.25 dex. Based on observations with ISO, an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The appendix is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin.qcat?J/A+A/384/473

Short period line profile and light variations in the Be star ω Orionis
We present the results of a multisite spectroscopic and photometriccampaign on the Be star ω Orionis. From the photometry and radialvelocity variation of several spectral lines, we confirm that the staris a variable with period P=0.97d. Only one period can be extracted fromboth the photometric and radial velocity observations. We find that theprojected rotational velocity from the helium lines(vsini=173kms-1) is considerably smaller than from the metallines (vsini=226kms-1). The line profiles show an excessabsorption feature moving from blue to red for half the period and fromred to blue for the other half of the period. Another excess absorptionfeature moves exactly out of phase. The excess absorption features arepresent in photospheric lines as well as in lines which aresignificantly affected by circumstellar material, such as Hβ. Fromthis we conclude that the periodic variations are most probablyassociated with corotating circumstellar material.

Short-period line profile variations in the Be star μ Centauri
We present new intensive photometric observations of the Be star μCen for several seasons which support a period close to 1d. We alsopresent high-resolution spectroscopic data consisting of 302 spectra in1999 and 864 spectra in 2000, all obtained within a two-week observingrun in each season. We use stacked grey-scale plots of spectra, fromwhich the mean line profile has been removed, to examine the profilevariations. We find that most nights show one residual absorptionfeature, moving from blue to red, visible in all helium and metal linesand also clearly visible in Hα and other lines formed in thecircumstellar environment. We therefore conclude that this feature is ofcircumstellar origin. In addition, a residual absorption feature movingfrom red to blue is sometimes seen at irregular intervals. We find thatthe residual absorption feature frequently strays outside the projectedrotational velocity limit and that on occasions it remains well withinthis limit. The radial velocity data reproduce only two of the sixfrequencies previously found in the star. We point out that this by nomeans implies that the star is a multiperiodic, non-radial pulsator.Photometric data obtained over several seasons indicate a period veryclose to 1d and not the 0.5-d period found from the radial velocities.We describe an outburst which occurred during the run and which resultedin increased Hα emission two nights later. It is clear thatoutbursts in Be stars are localized events and that the gas released byoutbursts is probably responsible for localized increased absorption,resulting in periodic light and line profile variations.

Short-period line profile variations in the Be star ɛ Cap
We present new high-dispersion spectroscopic data for the Be starɛ Cap. The purpose of these data is to study the short-periodline profile variations. By using a two-dimensional period-findingtechnique, we confirm that the photometric period of 0.99d is present inthe helium line profiles. We show that the variations are not easilyexplained by non-radial pulsation and suggest that corotatingcircumstellar material is responsible.

Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry of Variable Early-Type Be and B Stars Derived from High-Resolution IUE Data
High-dispersion IUE data encode significant information about aggregateline absorptions that cannot be conveniently extracted from individualstellar spectra. Here we apply a new technique in which fluxes from eachechelle order of a short-wavelength IUE spectrum are binned together toconstruct low-resolution spectra of a rapidly varying B or Be star. Thedivision of binned spectra obtained during a ``bright-star'' phase byspectra from a ``faint-star'' phase leads to a ratioed spectrum thatcontains information about the mechanism responsible for a star'svariability. The most likely candidate mechanisms are either theperiodic or episodic occultations of the star by ejected matter or achange in photospheric structure, e.g., from pulsation. We model thevariations caused by these mechanism by means of model atmosphere andabsorbing-slab codes. Line absorptions strength changes are rathersensitive to physical conditions in circumstellar shells and ``clouds''at temperatures of 8000-13,000 K, which is the regime expected forcircumstellar structures of early B stars. To demonstrate proofs of thisconcept, we construct spectral ratios for circumstellar structuresassociated with flux variability in various Be stars: (1) Vela X-1 has abow-shock wind trailing its neutron star companion; at successive phasesand hence in different sectors, the wind exhibits spectrophotometricsignatures of a 13,000 or 26,000 K medium; (2) 88 Her undergoes episodic``outbursts'' during which its UV flux fades, followed a year later by adimming at visible wavelengths as well; the ratioed spectrum indicatesthe ``phase lag'' is a result of a nearly gray opacity that dominatesall wavelengths as the shell expands from the star and cools, permittingthe absorptions in the visible to ``catch up'' to those in the UV; and(3) ζ Tau and 60 Cyg exhibit periodic spectrum and flux changes,which match model absorptions for occulting clouds but are actually mosteasily seen from selective variations of various resonance lines. Inaddition, ratioed UV spectra of radial and large-amplitude nonradialpulsating stars show unique spectrophotometric signatures, which can besimulated with model atmospheres. An analysis of ratioed spectraobtained for a representative sample of 18 classical Be stars known tohave rapid periodic flux variations indicates that 13 of them haveratioed spectra that are relatively featureless or have signatures ofpulsation. Ratioed spectra of three others in the sample exhibitsignatures that are consistent with the presence of corotating clouds.

A Search for High-Velocity Be Stars
We present an analysis of the kinematics of Be stars based uponHipparcos proper motions and published radial velocities. We findapproximately 23 of the 344 stars in our sample have peculiar spacemotions greater than 40 km s-1 and up to 102 kms-1. We argue that these high-velocity stars are the resultof either a supernova that disrupted a binary or ejection by closeencounters of binaries in young clusters. Be stars spun up by binarymass transfer will appear as high-velocity objects if there wassignificant mass loss during the supernova explosion of the initiallymore massive star, but the generally moderate peculiar velocities of BeX-ray binaries indicate that the progenitors lose most of their massprior to the supernova (in accordance with model predictions). Binaryformation models for Be stars predict that most systems bypass thesupernova stage (and do not receive runaway velocities) to createultimately Be+white dwarf binaries. The fraction of Be stars spun up bybinary mass transfer remains unknown, since the post-mass transfercompanions are difficult to detect.

Far-Ultraviolet Spectra of B Stars near the Ecliptic
Spectra of B stars in the wavelength range of 911-1100 Å have beenobtained with the Espectrógrafo Ultravioleta de RadiaciónDifusa (EURD) spectrograph on board the Spanish satellite MINISAT-01with ~5 Å spectral resolution. International Ultraviolet Explorer(IUE) spectra of the same stars have been used to normalize Kuruczmodels to the distance, reddening, and spectral type of thecorresponding star. The comparison of eight main-sequence stars studiedin detail (α Vir, ɛ Tau, λ Tau, τ Tau, αLeo, ζ Lib, θ Oph, and σ Sgr) shows agreement withKurucz models, but observed fluxes are 10%-40% higher than the models inmost cases. The difference in flux between observations and models ishigher in the wavelength range between Lyα and Lyβ. Wesuggest that Kurucz models underestimate the far-ultraviolet (FUV) fluxof main-sequence B stars between these two Lyman lines. Computation offlux distributions of line-blanketed model atmospheres including non-LTEeffects suggests that this flux underestimate could be due to departuresfrom LTE, although other causes cannot be ruled out. We found that thecommon assumption of solar metallicity for young disk stars should bemade with care, since small deviations can have a significant impact onFUV model fluxes. Two peculiar stars (ρ Leo and ɛ Aqr) and twoemission-line stars (ɛ Cap and π Aqr) were also studied. Ofthese, only ɛ Aqr has a flux in agreement with the models. The resthave strong variability in the IUE range and/or uncertain reddening,which makes the comparison with models difficult. Based on thedevelopment and utilization of the Espectrógrafo Ultravioleta deRadiación Difusa, a collaboration of the Spanish InstitutoNacional de Técnica Aeroespacial and the Center for EUVAstrophysics, University of California, Berkeley.

EURD: The Mission and the Stellar Absolute Fluxes of B-Type Stars
We present here stellar spectra of B stars obtained with the EURDspectrograph, one of the three instruments on board MINISAT-01. EURD isa spectrograph specially designed to detect diffuse radiation in thewavelength range between 350 and 1100 Å with 5 Å spectralresolution. EURD main scientific targets are: the spectrum ofinterstellar medium, atmospheric airglow, decaying neutrinos, Moon andearly type stars.

High and intermediate-resolution spectroscopy of Be stars 4481 lines
We present an atlas of Hγ , He i lambda 4471 and Mg ii lambda 4481line profiles obtained in a 10 year observation period of 116 Be stars,which enabled many of them to be observed at quite different emissionepochs. From the best fit of the observed He i lambda 4471 line profileswith non-LTE, uniform (Teff,log g) and full limb-darkenedmodel line profiles, we determined the V sin i of the program stars. Toaccount, to some degree, for the line formation peculiarities related tothe rapid rotation-induced non-uniform distributions of temperature andgravity on the stellar surface, the fit was achieved by considering(Teff,log g) as free parameters. This method produced V sin iestimations that correlate with the rotational velocities determined bySlettebak (1982) within a dispersion sigma <= 30 km s-1and without any systematic deviation. They can be considered as given inthe new Slettebak's et al. (1975) system. Only 13 program stars havediscrepant V sin i values. In some objects, this discrepancy could beattributed to binary effects. Using the newly determined V sin iparameters, we found that the ratio of true rotational velocitiesV/Vc of the program Be stars has a very low dispersion aroundthe mean value. Assuming then that all the stars are rigid rotators withthe same ratio V(/lineω)/Vc, we looked for the value of/line ω that better represents the distribution of V sini/Vc for randomly oriented rotational axes. We obtained/lineω = 0.795. This value enabled us to determine the probableinclination angle of the stellar rotation axis of the program stars. Inthe observed line profiles of Hγ , He i lambda 4471, Mg ii lambda4481 and Fe ii lambda 4351 we measured several parameters related to theabsorption and/or emission components, such as: equivalent width,residual emission and/or absorption intensity, FWHM, emission peakseparations, etc. The parameters related to the Hγ line emissionprofiles were used to investigate the structure of the nearbyenvironment of the central star. From the characteristics of thecorrelations between these quantities and the inferred inclinationangle, we concluded that in most of cases the Hγ line emissionforming regions may not be strongly flattened. Using a simplerepresentation of the radiation flux emitted by the star+envelopesystem, we derived first order estimates of physical parameterscharacterizing the Hγ line emission formation region. Thus, weobtained that the total extent of the Hγ region is Rf=~ 2.5 +/- 1.0 R* and that the density distribution in theselayers can be mimicked with a power law rho ~ R-alpha , wherealpha =2.5+2.2-0.6. The same approach enabled usto estimate the optical depth of the Hγ line emission formationregion. From its dependence with the aspect angle, we concluded thatthese regions are caracterized by a modest flattening and that the rho(equator)/rho (pole) density contrast of the circumstellar envelope nearthe star should be two orders of magnitude lower than predicted bymodels based on a priori disc-shaped circumstellar envelopes. We foundthat the separation between the emission peaks, Deltap, andthe full width at half maximum, Delta 1/2, of the Hγline emission are not only sensitive to kinematic effects, but to lineoptical depth as well. This finding agrees with previous theoreticalpredictions and confirms that Huang's (1972) relation overestimates theextent of the Hγ line emission formation region. Data obtained atCASLEO operated under agreement between the CONICET and the NationalUniversities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina, at ESOLa Silla, Chile and at OHP, France.}\fnmsep\thanks{Tables 2 to 7 andFigs. 1 and 2 are only available in full in electronic form at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/378/861}} \subtitle{Anatlas of Hγ , He {\fontsize {10pt}{12pt}\selectfont I} 4471 and Mg{\fontsize {10pt}{12pt}\selectfont II

Statistical analysis of intrinsic polarization, IR excess and projected rotational velocity distributions of classical Be stars
We present the results of statistical analyses of a sample of 627 Bestars. The parameters of intrinsic polarization (p*),projected rotational velocity (v sin i), and near IR excesses have beeninvestigated. The values of p* have been estimated for a muchlarger and more representative sample of Be stars (~490 objects) thanpreviously. We have confirmed that most Be stars of early spectral typehave statistically larger values of polarization and IR excesses incomparison with the late spectral type stars. It is found that thedistributions of p* diverge considerably for the differentspectral subgroups. In contrast to late spectral types (B5-B9.5), thedistribution of p* for B0-B2 stars does not peak at the valuep*=0%. Statistically significant differences in the meanprojected rotational velocities (/line{vsin i}) are found for differentspectral subgroups of Be stars in the sense that late spectral typestars (V luminosity class) generally rotate faster than early types, inagreement with previously published results. This behaviour is, however,not obvious for the III-IV luminosity class stars. Nevertheless, thecalculated values of the ratio vt/vc of the truerotational velocity, vt, to the critical velocity forbreak-up, vc, is larger for late spectral type stars of allluminosity classes. Thus, late spectral type stars appear to rotatecloser to their break-up rotational velocity. The distribution of nearIR excesses for early spectral subgroups is bi-modal, the position ofthe second peak displaying a maximum value E(V-L)~ 1 . m 3for O-B1.5 stars, decreasing to E(V-L)~0. m8 for intermediatespectral types (B3-B5). It is shown that bi-modality disappears for latespectral types (B6-B9.5). No correlations were found betweenp* and near IR excesses and between E(V-L) and vsin i for thedifferent subgroups of Be stars. In contrast to near IR excesses, arelation between p* and far IR excesses at 12 mu m is clearlyseen. A clear relation between p* and vsin i (as well asbetween p* and /line{vsin i}/vc) is found by thefact that plots of these parameters are bounded by a ``triangular"distribution of p*: vsin i, with a decrease of p*towards very small and very large vsin i (and /line{vsini}/vc) values. The latter behaviour can be understood in thecontext of a larger oblateness of circumstellar disks for the stars witha rapid rotation. From the analysis of correlations between differentobservational parameters we conclude that circumstellar envelopes forthe majority of Be stars are optically thin disks with the range of thehalf-opening angle of 10degr

NaI and HI 3-D density distribution in the solar neighbourhood
A study of the local interstellar medium (LISM) using a robust inversionmethod, similar to current tomography techniques, is applied to compileddata on neutral interstellar absorbers and Hipparcos parallaxes. Wepresent here the 3-D distribution of two neutral species, NaI and HI.Our analysis enables us to obtain a reliable 3-D density distribution ofthe IS matter in the solar neighbourhood, providing a new basis for thediscussion of origin, present state and evolution of the LISM. We showthat neutral IS matter is distributed in compact clouds or in cloudcomplexes with cavities between them. It is now easy to distinguish theso-called Local Bubble and the Loop I cavities and also two tunnelslinking the Local Bubble to the outer regions of the galaxy, away fromthe galactic plane. Better accuracy is achieved for NaI, as to a largernumber of lines-of-sight and target stars than are available for HI. Arather detailed NaI 3-D density distribution is obtained with a 40 pcsmoothing length. The extended high-density regions in the NaI and HImaps are correlated which is not the case for the diffuse regions. Thedensity ratio rho_HI /rho_NaI is lower or equal to 9.1.108+/- 3.108 for extended high density clouds. Usingobservations from the ESA Hipparcos space astrometry mission.

Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutions
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included).

On the Variability of O4-B5 Luminosity Class III-V Stars
We investigate the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of O4-B5 luminosityclass III-V stars. Some for which further study is desirable areidentified. These stars in general are more variable than cooler stars

Do All BA II Stars Have White Dwarf Companions?
With the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Goddard High ResolutionSpectrograph (GHRS) we have observed four barium stars, three mildbarium stars, and one weak G-band star in the ultraviolet spectralregion. One barium star was observed with HST and the Space TelescopeImaging Spectrograph (STIS). The aim was to check the hypothesis thatall these peculiar stars have white dwarf (WD) companions, which attheir asymptotic giant branch phase transferred mass with peculiarelement abundances to the present barium and CH peculiar stars. Assumingthat the ultraviolet continua of the cool giants, including the bariumstars, are generated in their chromospheres and that the relationsbetween the continua and the emission lines created in the chromospheresand transition layers are similar in field giants and barium stars, wefound that, indeed, most of our target barium and weak barium starsappear to have excess flux in the UV when compared to standard giantstars. For most of the stars the excess flux can be attributed to WDcompanions with temperatures between 10,000 and 12,000 K, if the WD massis about 0.6 Msolar. Cooling times for the WDs were derivedfrom their effective temperatures and model calculations by M. Wood. Thecalculated cooling times are longer than the lifetimes of the bariumstars on the giant branch. For our target stars the mass transfertherefore happened while they were still on the main sequence. For twoof the mild barium stars and one or perhaps two barium stars the derivedcooling times for the WD companions come out to be longer than the totalevolutionary times of the barium stars as calculated by Schaller et al.If our derivations are correct (the error bars are rather large) theneither evolutionary models with larger convective overshoot have to beused for the barium stars or the cooling times of the white dwarfs haveto be revised downward. Possibly an additional (as yet unknown) coolingmechanism has to be considered? The weak G-band star HD 165634, whichhas a carbon underabundance of about a factor of 10, also appears tohave a WD companion. We discuss the implications of this very low carbonabundance. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy.Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

250 GHz observations of Be stars
New 250 GHz flux density measurements with the 30 m telescope at PicoVeleta are presented for 23 Be stars. We suggest that the radio spectralindex is typically close to 1.4 for these stars. We present in adiscusssion of own and literature data some evidence that in few casesslow variations with a time scale of about a year occur. Both evidenceis compatible with the idea that there is no stellar activity type radioemission of Be stars but a maybe slightly modulated quiescent radiationof the outer parts of selfsimilar circumstellar disks. An immediateimprovement of existing models is not possible.

Five-colour photometry of OB-stars in the Southern Hemisphere
Observations of OB-stars, made in 1959 and 1960 at the Leiden SouthernStation near Hartebeespoortdam, South Africa, with the VBLUW photometerattached to the 90 cm light-collector, are given in this paper. They arecompared with photometry obtained by \cite[Graham (1968),]{gra68}\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977),]{wal77} \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} and \cite[Van Genderen et al. (1984).]{gen84} Formulaefor the transformation of the present observations to those of\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977)]{wal77} and \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} are given. Table 4 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Long-term visual spectrophotometric behaviour of Be stars. II. Correlations with fundamental stellar parameters and interpretation
The long-term visual spectrophotometric (SPh) behaviour of Be stars as afunction of fundamental stellar parameters is studied. Some previous SPhresults obtained by other authors are confirmed. Moreover, a tendencyfor temperature and aspect angle dependency of SPh variations is found.From the characteristics of visual SPh behaviour in Be stars we deriveconstraints for models of regions in circumstellar envelopes where thevisual continuum spectrum is formed: (i) The SPh emission and absorptionphases should not imply preferential aspect angles, as they can bothappear whatever the stellar inclination. This phenomenon cannot bealways accounted for by strongly flattened circumstellar envelopes; (ii)Radii of the visible continuum forming regions cannot be larger than afew R_*; (iii) Electron densities of these regions should not exceed N_e~ 10(13) cm(-3) ; (iv) Electron temperature of circumstellar layersproducing the SPh emission phases compare with the stellar Balmercontinuum radiation temperature and it is much lower in those producingthe SPh absorption phases. Three scenarios were studied to produce theobserved characteristics of emissions in the V magnitude and in thesecond component of Balmer discontinuity (Delta D) during the SPhemission phases: (a) expansion of a massive circumstellar shell thatpreserves circumstellar envelope flattening; (b) expansion of acircumstellar shell which increases the global flattening, so that adisc-like structure is formed; (c) continuous mass ejection thatincreases the storage of mass in a constant volume with a givenflattening. Mechanisms (a) and (b) produce a double valued (DeltaV,Delta D) SPh relation, while (c) produces a single valued relation.Only mechanisms (a) and (c) can easily produce the observed amounts ofemission Delta V and Delta D without violating the modeling constraintsfrom (i) to (iv) imposed by observations. The model SPh slopes of (DeltaV,Delta D) show the global sin i and T_eff observed dependencies. Thescenarios used to describe the double valued (Delta V,Delta D) suggestanother possible way how to build up circumstellar envelopes around Bestars.

Central quasi-emission peaks in shell spectra and the rotation of disks of Be stars
New high-resolution echelle spectra are presented for all 6 B-type starscurrently known to exhibit so-called central quasi-emission peaks(CQE's). Empirical requirements are derived on the circumstances whichfavour the appearance of such features. The presence of a circumstellardisk seen edge-on is the most important. Furthermore, the disk should beoptically thin in the continuum, have a small spatial extent, and showlittle line broadening. Both this set of conditions and the observedline profiles are compared to a model by Hanuschik (\cite{hanuschik95})for the formation of shell lines in circumstellar disks with Keplerianrotation. This model predicts not only the existence of CQE's, but alsothe same actual circumstances of their occurrence. They result from thelocal minimum at zero radial velocity in the fraction of the stellardisk that is occulted by circumstellar gas in Keplerian orbital motion,i.e. by gas moving perpendicular to the line of sight. In particular,CQE's are in spite of their name not related to any emission process butare a pure absorption phenomenon. All currently available observationsof CQE's are consistent with this model, which appears to haveconsiderable diagnostic potential for the understanding of the structureand dynamics of Be star disks. Only one of the 6 stars (nu Pup) was notpreviously known to ever have displayed shell or only emission lines.But the new Hα and Hβ profiles clearly show the presence ofvariable amounts of circumstellar matter. Previously suggestedphotospheric explanations for CQE's are nevertheless briefly examined.In a given star, CQE's seem to appear with the highest probability attimes when the innermost regions of the disk are being re-supplied withmatter. With the success of Hanuschik's model, CQE's furthermore becomeone of the most important indicators of rotational support of disks ofBe stars. Together with other evidence for rotation compiled from theliterature, this leads to the conclusion that models for the formationof disks need to include a mechanism for sufficient angular momentumtransfer. In the context of Hanuschik's model for CQE's, theconsiderable acceleration inherent to wind-compressed disks (WCD's)presents an additional difficulty for the WCD model in its basic form.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory atLa Silla, Chile, ESO prop.~Nos.~55.D-0502, 56.D-0381, 58.D-0697, and theGerman-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, operated by theMax-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the SpanishNational Commission for Astronomy, Visiting Astronomer TR

The interstellar clouds of ADAMS and Blaauw revisited: an HI absorption study - II.
Not Available

The interstellar clouds of ADAMS and Blaauw revisited: an HI absorption study - I.
Not Available

On the HIPPARCOS photometry of chemically peculiar B, A, and F stars
The Hipparcos photometry of the Chemically Peculiar main sequence B, A,and F stars is examined for variability. Some non-magnetic CP stars,Mercury-Manganese and metallic-line stars, which according to canonicalwisdom should not be variable, may be variable and are identified forfurther study. Some potentially important magnetic CP stars are noted.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are available only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:21h37m04.80s
Apparent magnitude:4.68
Distance:203.252 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:0
B-T magnitude:4.279
V-T magnitude:4.486

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesCastra
Bayerε Cap
Flamsteed39 Cap
HD 1989HD 205637
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 6370-1176-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0675-36529236
BSC 1991HR 8260
HIPHIP 106723

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