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High resolution spectroscopy over lambda lambda 8500-8750 Å for GAIA. IV. Extending the cool MK stars sample
A library of high resolution spectra of MK standard and reference stars,observed in support to the GAIA mission, is presented. The aim of thispaper is to integrate the MK mapping of Paper I of this series as wellas to consider stars over a wider range of metallicities. Radialvelocities are measured for all the target stars.The spectra are available in electronic form (ASCII format) at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/995 and from the webpage http://ulisse.pd.astro.it/MoreMK/, where further bibliographicalinformation for the target stars is given.

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutions
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included).

Dating Ptolemy's star catalogue through proper motions : the Hipparchan epoch.
Not Available

Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem HIPPARCOS Binaries
The ESA Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 12,000 doublestars and discovered 3406 new systems. In addition to these, 4706entries in the Hipparcos Catalogue correspond to double star solutionsthat did not provide the classical parameters of separation and positionangle (rho,theta) but were the so-called problem stars, flagged ``G,''``O,'' ``V,'' or ``X'' (field H59 of the main catalog). An additionalsubset of 6981 entries were treated as single objects but classified byHipparcos as ``suspected nonsingle'' (flag ``S'' in field H61), thusyielding a total of 11,687 ``problem stars.'' Of the many ground-basedtechniques for the study of double stars, probably the one with thegreatest potential for exploration of these new and problem Hipparcosbinaries is speckle interferometry. Results are presented from aninspection of 848 new and problem Hipparcos binaries, using botharchival and new speckle observations obtained with the USNO and CHARAspeckle cameras.

Spectral classification of the cool giants in symbiotic systems
We derive the spectral types of the cool giants in about 100 symbioticsystems. Our classification is mainly based on near IR spectra in orderto avoid the contamination of the spectrum by the nebula and the hotcomponent in the visual region. The accuracy of our spectral types isapproximately one spectral subclass, similar to previous near IRclassification work, and much better than visual spectral typeestimates. Strong, intrinsic spectral type variations (>2 spectralsubtypes) are only seen in systems containing pulsating mira variables.We present a catalogue of spectral types for cool giants in symbioticsystems which also includes determinations taken from the literature.The catalogue gives spectral types for the cool giants in about 170systems which is nearly the full set of confirmed symbiotics. Based onour classifications we discuss the distribution of spectral types of thecool giants in galactic symbiotic binaries. We find that the spectraltypes cluster strongly between M3 and M6, with a peak at M5. Thedistribution of systems with a mira variable component peaks even later,at spectral types M6 and M7. This is a strong bias towards late spectraltypes when compared to red giants in the solar neighbourhood. Also thefrequency of mira variables is much larger among symbiotic giants. Thispredominance of very late M-giants in symbiotic systems seems toindicate that large mass loss is a key ingredient for triggeringsymbiotic activity on a white dwarf companion. Further we find forsymbiotic systems a strong correlation between the spectral type of thecool giant and the orbital period. In particular we find a tightrelation for the minimum orbital period for symbiotic systems with redgiants of a given spectral type. This limiting line in the spectral type- orbital period diagram seems to be equivalent with the relationR<=l_1/2, where R is the radius of the red giant and l_1 the distancefrom the center of the giant to the inner Lagrangian point L_1. Thiscorrelation possibly discloses that symbiotic stars are - with probablyonly one exception in our sample - well detached binary systems. Basedon observations obtained with the 1.52~m and 3.6~m telescopes of theEuropean Southern Observatory (ESO), the 1.93~m telescope of theObservatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), the 2.3~m telescope of theAustralian National University (ANU) at Siding Spring, and the WilliamHerschel Telescope (WHT) at La Palma. This research has made use of theAFOEV database, operated at CDS, France.

Probing the {Na} BT I D and {K} BT I lambda 7699 resonance lines sensitivity to background opacity in late-type stars
We have measured the equivalent width WK of the K i resonanceline at 7699 Angstroms for a large sample of low activity late-typestars observed with high spectral resolution and we have verified thatthe relation WK vs. Teff is monotonicallydecreasing, for both dwarf and giant stars. This behaviour is differentfrom that of the Na I D lines for stars of the same type, which showedthat the relation WNa vs. Teff has a maximum forTeff ~ 4000 K, which is better defined for giants than fordwarfs (Tripicchio et al. 1997). The fit of the observed K I equivalentwidths by means of a NLTE spectral line synthesis using conventionalbackground opacity shows that, for dwarf stars, the adopted modelsoverestimate the observed WK for temperatures <~ 4000 K.This result is similar to that discussed for the Na I D lines in ourprevious paper. On the other hand, for giant stars with Teff<~ 3800 K these models in general underestimate WK. Thediscrepancies between observed and computed WK andWNa for cool stars are much stronger than the variations dueto uncertainties in either atmospheric model or line parameters, likeeffective temperature and surface gravity, or Van der Waals broadening.For M dwarf stars, the most convincing explanation for the disagreementis the lack of atomic and molecular line opacity in the adopted models.In fact, a NLTE spectral synthesis including an additional backgroundopacity reproduces with a good level of accuracy the equivalent widths,as well as the general shape of the profiles for both the Na I D and K Ilines, in a subsample of early-M dwarfs. Based on observations collectedat the European Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, and at theMcDonald Observatory, Mt. Locke, Texas, USA

Stellar radii of M giants
We determine the stellar radii of the M giant stars in the Hipparcoscatalogue that have a parallax measured to better than 20% accuracy.This is done with the help of a relation between a visual surfacebrightness parameter and the Cousins (V - I) colour index, which wecalibrate with M giants with published angular diameters.The radii of(non-Mira) M giants increase from a median value of 50 R_Sun at spectraltype M0 III to 170 R_Sun at M7/8 III. Typical intermediate giant radiiare 65 R_Sun for M1/M2, 90 R_Sun for M3, 100 R_Sun for M4, 120 R_Sun forM5 and 150 R_Sun for M6. There is a large intrinsic spread for a givenspectral type. This variance in stellar radius increases with latertypes but in relative terms, it remains constant.We determineluminosities and, from evolutionary tracks, stellar masses for oursample stars. The M giants in the solar neighbourhood have masses in therange 0.8-4 M_Sun. For a given spectral type, there is a close relationbetween stellar radius and stellar mass. We also find a linear relationbetween the mass and radius of non-variable M giants. With increasingamplitude of variability we have larger stellar radii for a given mass.

The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

The NaI resonance lines as a spectroscopic test of late-type stellar atmospheres.
We have tested current models for the atmospheres (including photosphereand low chromosphere) of late-type stars using the D resonance lines ofneutral sodium as a diagnostic. To this end, we have measured theequivalent widths of the D lines for a sample of 39 dwarf and 45 giantlate-type stars observed with high spectral resolution. We constructedphotospheric models over a grid in effective temperature and surfacegravity spanning the spectral types F to M, and luminosity classes V andIII of the sample stars. The model photospheres were extended into thechromosphere by assuming a suitable scaling from the Sun, andtheoretical Nai D equivalent widths were computed over the grid ofmodels including the deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Bytaking into account both the experimental errors and the possiblevariations of stellar parameters (effective temperature, surfacegravity, sodium abundance and microturbulence), the comparison betweenobserved and computed equivalent widths allows us to state that themodel atmospheres we have used can reproduce the observations for thetwo luminosity classes and for all the spectral types except for theM-type stars. We have discussed the importance of line blanketing in thespectral analysis of these stars, but at present we cannot conclude thatthis effect would reduce the discrepancy.

H-alpha measurements for cool giants
The H-alpha line in a cool star is usually an indication of theconditions in its chromosphere. I have collected H-alpha spectra of manynorthern G-M stars, which show how the strength and shape of the H-alphaline change with spectral type. These observations detect surprisinglittle variation in absoption-line depth (Rc approximately0.23 +/- 0.08), linewidth (FWHD approximately 1.44 +/- 0.22 A), orequivalent width (EW approximately 1.12 +/- 0.17 A) among G5-M5 IIIgiants. Lines in the more luminous stars tend to be broader and strongerby 30%-40% than in the Class III giants, while the H-alpha absorptiontends to weaken among the cooler M giants. Velocities of H-alpha andnearby photospheric lines are the same to within 1.4 +/- 4.4 km/s forthe whole group. To interpret these observations, I have calculatedH-alpha profiles, Ly-alpha strengths, and (C II) strengths for a seriesof model chromospheres representing a cool giant star like alpha Tau.Results are sensitive to the mass of the chromosphere, to chromospherictemperature, to clumping of the gas, and to the assumed physics of lineformation. The ubiquitous nature of H-alpha in cool giants and the greatdepth of observed lines argue that chromospheres of giants cover theirstellar disks uniformly and are homogeneous on a large scale. This isquite different from conditions on a small scale: To obtain a highenough electron density with the theoretical models, both to explain theexitation of hydrogen and possibly also to give the observed C IImultiplet ratios, the gas is probably clumped. The 6540-6580 A spectraof 240 stars are plotted in an Appendix, which identifies the date ofobservation and marks positions of strong telluric lines on eachspectrum. I assess the effects of telluric lines and estimates that thestrength of scattered light is approximately 5% of the continuum inthese spectra. I give the measurements of H-alpha as well as equivalentwidths of two prominent photospheric lines, Fe I lambda 6546 and Ca Ilambda 6572, which strengthen with advancing spectral type.

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

Second astrolabe catalogue of Santiago.
Positions for 350 FK5 and 164 FK5 Extension stars as determined with theDanjon astrolabe of Santiago and differences astrolabe-catalogue aregiven for Equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch of eachstar. The average mean error in alpha is +/-0.005s and +/-0.07" indelta. The mean epoch of observation of the catalogue is J1979.96.

The second Quito astrolabe catalogue
The paper contains 515 individual corrections {DELTA}α and 235corrections {DELTA}δ to FK5 and FK5Supp. stars and 50 correctionsto their proper motions computed from observations made with theclassical Danjon astrolabe OPL-13 at Quito Astronomical Observatory ofEcuador National Polytechnical School during a period from 1964 to 1983.These corrections cover the declination zone from -30deg to +30deg. Meanprobable errors of catalogue positions are 0.047" in αcosδand 0.054" in δ. The systematic trends of the catalogue{DELTA}αalpha_cosδ,{DELTA}αdelta_cosδ,{DELTA}δalpha_, {DELTA}δdelta_ arepresented for the observed zone.

Improved Mean Positions and Proper Motions for the 995 FK4 Sup Stars not Included in the FK5 Extension
Not Available

Corrections to the right ascension to be applied to the apparent places of 1217 stars given in "The Chinese Astronomical Almanach" for the year 1984 to 1992.
Not Available

Asymptotic giant branch stars near the sun
Available red and near-infrared photometry and apparent motions of M, S,and C asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Bright Star Catalogueare tabulated and discussed. It is shown that the red and near infraredindices normally used for late-type stars are interchangeable except forcarbon stars. The M-type giants are variable with visual amplitudegreater than 0.05 mag. The reddening-free parameter m2 from Genevaphotometry is essentially a temperature parameter for M giants, whilethe reddening-free parameter d is a sensitive detector of blue stellarcompanions. The space density of AGB stars near the sun decreases by afactor of 35 in a temperature range 3800 to 3400 K. Two of the S starsnear the sun were found to have nearly equal space motions and may becomembers of the Arcturus group.

M Giant Populations and Galactic Structure
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990MNRAS.247..227F&db_key=AST

A list of MK standard stars
Not Available

The Perkins catalog of revised MK types for the cooler stars
A catalog is presented listing the spectral types of the G, K, M, and Sstars that have been classified at the Perkins Observatory in therevised MK system. Extensive comparisons have been made to ensureconsistency between the MK spectral types of stars in the Northern andSouthern Hemispheres. Different classification spectrograms have beengradually improved in spite of some inherent limitations. In thecatalog, the full subclasses used are the following: G0, G5, G8, K0, K1,K2, K3, K4, K5, M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M7, and M8. Theirregularities are the price paid for keeping the general scheme of theoriginal Henry Draper classification.

Lunar occultations of IRAS point sources, 1991-2000
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1989ApJS...69..651C&db_key=AST

The 77-81 intermediate-band photometric system
The 77-81 intermediate-band photometric color system for the study oflate-type stars is defined. The passbands are centered on a region ofTiO absorption at 7750 A (77) and on a region of CN absorption at 8100 A(81). Good agreement is found between measurements made on the 77-81system with different detectors. The 77-81 color is well correlated withM type and reasonably correlated with carbon-richness class. The 77-81,V-I color-color diagram clearly distinguishes M and C types from otherstars. It is also shown that the 77-81 color may be used to measure TiOband strength.

Stellar integrated fluxes in the wavelength range 380 NM - 900 NM derived from Johnson 13-colour photometry
Petford et al. (1988) have reported measured integrated fluxes for 216stars with a wide spread of spectral type and luminosity, and mentionedthat a cubic-spline integration over the relevant Johnson 13-colormagnitudes, converted to fluxes using Johnson's calibration, is inexcellent agreement with those measurements. In this paper a list of thefluxes derived in this way, corrected for a small dependence on B-V, isgiven for all the 1215 stars in Johnson's 1975 catalog with completeentries.

1988 Revised MK Spectral Standards for Stars GO and Later
Not Available

IRAS catalogues and atlases - Atlas of low-resolution spectra
Plots of all 5425 spectra in the IRAS catalogue of low-resolutionspectra are presented. The catalogue contains the average spectra ofmost IRAS poiont sources with 12 micron flux densities above 10 Jy.

1985 revised MK spectral standards : stars GO and later
Not Available

Catalogue of the energy distribution data in spectra of stars in the uniform spectrophotometric system.
Not Available

UBV Photometry of Equatorial Stars
Not Available

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:13h31m57.90s
Apparent magnitude:4.69
Distance:132.45 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-104.7
Proper motion Dec:-43.6
B-T magnitude:6.813
V-T magnitude:4.897

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Flamsteed74 Vir
HD 1989HD 117675
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 4972-1456-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0825-08027532
BSC 1991HR 5095
HIPHIP 66006

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