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Angular diameter amplitudes of bright Cepheids.
Expected mean angular diameters and amplitudes of angular diametervariations are estimated for all monoperiodic Classical Cepheidsbrighter than < V > = 8.0 mag. The catalog is intended to helpselecting best Cepheid targets for interferometric observations.

Cepheid distances from interferometry .
Long baseline interferometry is now able to resolve the pulsationalchange of the angular diameter of a significant number of Cepheids inthe solar neighborhood. This allows the application of a new version ofthe Baade-Wesselink (BW) method to measure their distance, for which wedo not need to estimate the star's temperature. Using angular diametermeasurements from the VLT Interferometer, we derived the distances tofour nearby Cepheids. For three additional stars, we obtained averagevalues of their angular diameters. Based on these new measurements andalready existing data, we derived calibrations of the Period-Luminosityand Period-Radius relations. We also obtained reliable surfacebrightness-color relations, that can be employed for the infraredsurface brightness version of the BW method.

Extended envelopes around Galactic Cepheids. I. ℓ Carinae from near and mid-infrared interferometry with the VLTI
We present the results of long-baseline interferometric observations ofthe bright southern Cepheid ℓ Carinae in the infrared N (8-13 μm)and K (2.0-2.4 μm) bands, using the MIDI and VINCI instruments of theVLT Interferometer. We resolve in the N band a large circumstellarenvelope (CSE) that we model with a Gaussian of 3 Rstar(≈500 Rȯ ≈ 2-3 AU) half width at half maximum. Thesignature of this envelope is also detected in our K band data as adeviation from a single limb darkened disk visibility function. Thesuperimposition of a Gaussian CSE on the limb darkened disk model of theCepheid star results in a significantly better fit of our VINCI data.The extracted CSE parameters in the K band are a half width at halfmaximum of 2 Rstar, comparable to the N band model, and atotal brightness of 4% of the stellar photosphere. A possibility is thatthis CSE is linked to the relatively large mass loss rate of ℓ Car.Though its physical nature cannot be determined from our data, wediscuss an analogy with the molecular envelopes of RV Tauri, redsupergiants and Miras.

A spectroscopic study of bright southern Cepheids - a high-resolution view of Cepheid atmospheres
We present high-resolution spectroscopic observations andspecies-by-species radial velocities of a number of southern Cepheids.The stars (BP Cir, V350 Sgr, AX Cir, V636 Sco, W Sgr, S Mus, β Dor,TT Aql, Y Oph, YZ Car, SW Vel, X Pup, T Mon and l Car) were observed aspart of a long-term programme at Mt John University Observatory. Radialvelocities were determined with the line bisector technique, and have aprecision of ~300 ms-1. Velocity differences as large as 30kms-1 were found for Hα and CaII when referenced to themetallic line velocity curves, but more subtle variations (of 1-2kms-1) were also detected in many other species. Pulsationalphase anticorrelations are found between lines of SiII and BaII,confirming the propagation time delay between line-forming layersproducing these two species. We find that the amplitude and phasedifferences between the various species increase with period.

Predicting accurate stellar angular diameters by the near-infrared surface brightness technique
I report on the capabilities of the near-infrared (near-IR) surfacebrightness technique to predict reliable stellar angular diameters asaccurate as <~2 per cent using standard broad-band Johnson photometryin the colour range -0.1 <= (V-K)O<= 3.7 includingstars of A, F, G, K spectral type. This empirical approach is fast toapply and leads to estimated photometric diameters in very goodagreement with recent high-precision interferometric diametermeasurements available for non-variable dwarfs and giants, as well asfor Cepheid variables. Then I compare semi-empirical diameters predictedby model-dependent photometric and spectrophotometric (SP) methods withnear-IR surface brightness diameters adopted as empirical referencecalibrators. The overall agreement between all these methods is withinapproximately +/-5 per cent, confirming previous works. However, on thesame scale of accuracy, there is also evidence for systematic shiftspresumably as a result of an incorrect representation of the stellareffective temperature in the model-dependent results. I also comparemeasurements of spectroscopic radii with near-IR surface brightnessradii of Cepheids with known distances. Spectroscopic radii are found tobe affected by a scatter as significant as >~9 per cent, which is atleast three times greater than the formal error currently claimed by thespectroscopic technique. In contrast, pulsation radii predicted by theperiod-radius (PR) relation according to the Cepheid period result aresignificantly less dispersed, indicating a quite small scatter as aresult of the finite width of the Cepheid instability strip, as expectedfrom pulsation theory. The resulting low level of noise stronglyconfirms our previous claims that the pulsation parallaxes are the mostaccurate empirical distances presently available for Galactic andextragalactic Cepheids.

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High-Mass Triple Systems: The Classical Cepheid Y Carinae
We have obtained a Hubble Space Telescope STIS ultraviolethigh-dispersion echelle-mode spectrum of the binary companion of thedouble-mode classical Cepheid Y Car. The velocity measured for the hotcompanion from this spectrum is very different from reasonablepredictions for binary motion, implying that the companion is itself ashort-period binary. The measured velocity changed by 7 kms-1 during the 4 days between two segments of theobservation, confirming this interpretation. We summarize ``binary''Cepheids that are in fact members of a triple system and find that atleast 44% are triples. The summary of information on Cepheids withorbits makes it likely that the fraction is underestimated.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc.

Mean Angular Diameters and Angular Diameter Amplitudes of Bright Cepheids
We predict mean angular diameters and amplitudes of angular diametervariations for all monoperiodic PopulationI Cepheids brighter than=8.0 mag. The catalog is intended to aid selecting mostpromising Cepheid targets for future interferometric observations.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

Cepheid pulsations resolved by the VLTI.
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The orbits of southern binary Cepheids
High-resolution spectroscopic observations have been made of a number ofsouthern Cepheids. The stars studied were part of a long-term programmeto observe southern variable stars and to complete a data base of radialvelocities over a long time interval. The radial velocities have aprecision of ~300 m s-1, allowing the detection of velocitydifferences of ~1 km s-1 with confidence. Our new dataprovide a consistent set of data against which other sources of data canbe compared.Masses were determined for two systems, the 9-d Cepheid S Mus (6.2 +/-0.2 Msolar) and the 5-d Cepheid V350 Sgr (6.0 +/- 0.9Msolar). For another seven Cepheids (Y Car, YZ Car, AX Cir,BP Cir, V636 Sco, W Sgr and T Mon), new or improved orbital solutionswere found.New results presented here include the first orbital solution for AXCir, a completely revised orbital solution for YZ Car, which establishedits eccentricity and orbital motion, and a new pulsation period (2.39819 d) for BP Cir. The pulsational mass determinations provide furtherconfirmation of the convergence of mass determinations between dynamicaland evolutionary methods.

Period-luminosity relations for Galactic Cepheid variables with independent distance measurements
In this paper, we derive the period-luminosity (PL) relation forGalactic Cepheids with recent independent distance measurements fromopen cluster, Barnes-Evans surface brightness, interferometry and HubbleSpace Telescope astrometry techniques. Our PL relation confirms theresults from recent works, which showed that the Galactic Cepheidsfollow a different PL relation to their Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)counterparts. Our results also show that the slope of the Galactic PLrelation is inconsistent with the LMC slope with more than 95 per centconfidence level. We apply this Galactic PL relation to find thedistance to NGC 4258. Our result of μo= 29.49 +/- 0.06 mag(random error) agrees at the ~1.4σ level with the geometricaldistance of μgeo= 29.28 +/- 0.15 mag from water masermeasurements.

A new Period-Radius relation for Galactic Classical Cepheids
We discuss a new Period-Radius (PR) relation for Galactic ClassicalCepheids, obtained by means of a new version of the CORS method whichhas been modified in order to be run with the Strömgren photometricsystem. The major change consists in the calibration of the SurfaceBrightness as a function of the two ``reddening free'' colourindexes [c1] and [m1], by means of the model atmospheres by Castelli etal. (1997). In this contribution we first briefly discuss somenumerical experiments performed on the basis of synthetic Cepheid lightcurves to test the accuracy of the method, and then report thePeriod-Radius relation for Classical Cepheids obtained by applying thethe new method to a sample of Galactic Cepheids.

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Phase-dependent Variation of the Fundamental Parameters of Cepheids. I. Periods from 6 to 10 Days
We present the results of a detailed multiphase spectroscopic analysisof 10 classical Cepheids with pulsation periods between 6 and 10 days.For each star, we have derived phased values of effective temperature,surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and elemental abundances. Weshow that the elemental abundance results for intermediate-periodCepheids are consistent for all pulsational phases.

Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry. III. Calibration of the surface brightness-color relations
The recent VINCI/VLTI observations presented in Paper I have nearlydoubled the total number of available angular diameter measurements ofCepheids. Taking advantage of the significantly larger color rangecovered by these observations, we derive in the present paper highprecision calibrations of the surface brightness-color relations usingexclusively Cepheid observations. These empirical laws make it possibleto determine the distance to Cepheids through a Baade-Wesselink typetechnique. The least dispersed relations are based on visible-infraredcolors, for instance FV(V-K) = -0.1336 ± 0.0008 (V-K)+ 3.9530 ± 0.0006}. The convergence of the Cepheid (this work)and dwarf star (Kervella et al. \cite{kervella04c}) visible-infraredsurface brightness-color relations is strikingly good. The astrophysicaldispersion of these relations appears to be very small, and below thepresent detection sensitivity.Table \ref{table_measurements1} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry. II. Calibration of the period-radius and period-luminosity relations
Using our interferometric angular diameter measurements of sevenclassical Cepheids reported in Kervella et al. (\cite{kervella04},A&A, 416, 941 - Paper I), complemented by previously existingmeasurements, we derive new calibrations of the Cepheid period-radius(P-R) and period-luminosity (P-L) relations. We obtain a P-R relation oflog R = [0.767 ± 0.009] log P + [1.091 ± 0.011], only 1σ away from the relation obtained by Gieren et al.(\cite{gieren98}, ApJ, 496, 17). We therefore confirm their P-R relationat a level of Δ(log R) = ± 0.02. We also derive an originalcalibration of the P-L relation, assuming the slopes derived by Gierenet al. (\cite{gieren98}) from LMC Cepheids, αK = -3.267± 0.042 and αV = -2.769 ± 0.073. With aP-L relation of the form Mλ =αλ (log P - 1) + βλ, weobtain log P = 1 reference points of βK = -5.904± 0.063 and βV = -4.209 ± 0.075. Ourcalibration in the V band is statistically identical to the geometricalresult of Lanoix et al. (\cite{lanoix99}, MNRAS, 308, 969).

Improvement of the CORS method for Cepheids radii determination based on Strömgren photometry
In this paper we present a modified version of the CORS method based ona new calibration of the Surface Brightness function in theStrömgren photometric system. The method has been tested by meansof synthetic light and radial velocity curves derived from nonlinearpulsation models. Detailed simulations have been performed to take intoaccount the quality of real observed curves as well as possible shiftsbetween photometric and radial velocity data. The method has been thenapplied to a sample of Galactic Cepheids with Strömgren photometryand radial velocity data to derive the radii and a new PR relation. As aresult we find log R = (1.19 ± 0.09) + (0.74 ± 0.11) logP (rms = 0.07). The comparison between our result and previous estimatesin the literature is satisfactory. Better results are expected from theadoption of improved model atmosphere grids.

The metallicity dependence of the Cepheid PL-relation
A sample of 37 Galactic, 10 LMC and 6 SMC cepheids is compiled for whichindividual metallicity estimates exist and BVIK photometry in almost allcases. The Galactic cepheids all have an individual distance estimateavailable. For the MC objects different sources of photometry arecombined to obtain improved periods and mean magnitudes. Amulti-parameter Period-Luminosity relation is fitted to the data whichalso solves for the distance to the LMC and SMC. When all three galaxiesare considered, without metallicity effect, a significant quadratic termin log P is found, as previously observed and also predicted in sometheoretical calculations. For the present sample it is empiricallydetermined that for log P < 1.65 linear PL-relations may be adopted,but this restricts the sample to only 4 LMC and 1 SMC cepheid.Considering the Galactic sample a metallicity effect is found in thezero point in the VIWK PL-relation (-0.6 ± 0.4 or -0.8 ±0.3 mag/dex depending on the in- or exclusion of one object), in thesense that metal-rich cepheids are brighter. The small significance ismostly due to the fact that the Galactic sample spans a narrowmetallicity range. The error is to a significant part due to the errorin the metallicity determinations and not to the error in the fit.Including the 5 MC cepheids broadens the observed metallicity range anda metallity effect of about -0.27 ± 0.08 mag/dex in the zeropoint is found in VIWK, in agreement with some previous empiricalestimates, but now derived using direct metallicity determinations forthe cepheids themselves.

Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry. I. VINCI/VLTI observations of seven Galactic Cepheids
We report the angular diameter measurements of seven classical Cepheids,X Sgr, η Aql, W Sgr, ζ Gem, β Dor, Y Oph and ℓ Carthat we have obtained with the VINCI instrument, installed at ESO's VLTInterferometer (VLTI). We also present reprocessed archive data obtainedwith the FLUOR/IOTA instrument on ζ Gem, in order to improve thephase coverage of our observations. We obtain average limb darkenedangular diameter values of /line{θLD}[X Sgr] = 1.471± 0.033 mas, /line{θLD[η Aql] = 1.839± 0.028 mas, /line{θLD}[W Sgr] = 1.312 ±0.029 mas, /line{θLD}[β Dor] = 1.891 ±0.024 mas, /line{θLD}[ζ Gem] =1.747 ±0.061 mas, /line{θLD}[Y Oph] = 1.437 ± 0.040mas, and /line{θLD}[ℓ Car] = 2.988 ± 0.012mas. For four of these stars, η Aql, W Sgr, β Dor, and ℓCar, we detect the pulsational variation of their angular diameter. Thisenables us to compute directly their distances, using a modified versionof the Baade-Wesselink method: d[η Aql] =276+55-38 pc, d[W Sgr] =379+216-130 pc, d[β Dor] =345+175-80 pc, d[ℓ Car] =603+24-19 pc. The stated error bars arestatistical in nature. Applying a hybrid method, that makes use of theGieren et al. (\cite{gieren98}) Period-Radius relation to estimate thelinear diameters, we obtain the following distances (statistical andsystematic error bars are mentioned): d[X Sgr] = 324 ± 7 ±17 pc, d[η Aql] = 264 ± 4 ± 14 pc, d[W Sgr] = 386± 9 ± 21 pc, d[β Dor] = 326 ± 4 ± 19pc, d[ζ Gem] = 360 ± 13 ± 22 pc, d[Y Oph] = 648± 17 ± 47 pc, d[ℓ Car] = 542 ± 2 ± 49pc.Tables 3 to 10 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

J - K DENIS photometry of a VLTI-selected sample of bright southern stars
We present a photometric survey of bright southern stars carried outusing the DENIS instrument equipped with attenuating filters. Theobservations were carried out not using the survey mode of DENIS, butwith individual target pointings. This project was stimulated by theneed to obtain near-infrared photometry of stars to be used in earlycommissioning observations of the ESO Very Large TelescopeInterferometer, and in particular to establish a network of brightcalibrator sources.We stress that near-infrared photometry is peculiarly lacking for manybright stars. These stars are saturated in 2MASS as well as in regularDENIS observations. The only other observations available for brightinfrared stars are those of the Two Micron Sky Survey dating from overthirty years ago. These were restricted to declinations above≈-30°, and thus cover only about half of the sky accessible fromthe VLTI site.We note that the final 2MASS data release includes photometry of brightstars, obtained by means of point-spread function fitting. However, thismethod only achieves about 30% accuracy, which is not sufficient formost applications.In this work, we present photometry for over 600 stars, each with atleast one and up to eight measurements, in the J and K filters. Typicalaccuracy is at the level of 0\fm05 and 0\fm04 in the J and K_s bands,respectively.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/413/1037

A Revised Calibration of the MV-W(O I 7774) Relationship using Hipparcos Data: Its Application to Cepheids and Evolved Stars
A new calibration of the MV-W(O I 7774) relationship hasbeen calculated using better reddening and distance estimates for asample of 27 calibrator stars of spectral types A to G, based onaccurate parallaxes and proper motions from the Hipparcos and Tychocatalogues. The present calibration predicts absolute magnitude withaccuracies of +/-0.38mag for a sample covering a large range ofMV, from -9.5 to +0.35 mag. The color term included in aprevious paper has been dropped since its inclusion does not lead to anysignificant improvement in the calibration. The variation of the O I7774 feature in the classical cepheid SS Sct has been studied. Wecalculated a phase-dependent correction to random phase OI featurestrengths in Cepheids, such that it predicts mean absolute magnitudesusing the above calibration. After applying such a correction, we couldincrease the list of calibrators to 58 by adding MV and O Itriplet strength data for 31 classical Cepheids. The standard error ofthe calibration using the composite sample was comparable to thatobtained from the primary 27 calibrators, showing that it is possible tocalculate mean Cepheid luminosities from random phase observations ofthe O I 7774 feature. We use our derived calibrations to estimateMV for a set of evolved objects to be able to locate theirpositions in the HR diagram.

Cepheid Variables in the AAVSO International Database
There are 205,500 visual observations for 148 Cepheids as well as 182photoelectric observations for 7 Cepheids in the AAVSO InternationalDatabase. These data were reduced with Hertzprung's method and 2,010times of maximum brightness were obtained. O-C diagrams for 21well-observed Cepheids are presented and results obtained are comparedwith existing data.

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Sodium enrichment of the stellar atmospheres. II. Galactic Cepheids
The present paper is a continuation of our study of the sodium abundancein supergiant atmospheres (Andrievsky et al. 2002a). We present theresults on the NLTE abundance determination in Cepheids, and the derivedrelation between the sodium overabundance and their masses.

The Spectra of Type II Cepheids. II. The Hα Line in Intermediate-Period Stars
We present 98 Hα profiles for 21 pulsating variable stars withperiods from 3 to 8 days. The strength, depth, and shape of Hαvary throughout the cycles of the stars in a way consistent with thetemperature changes. Otherwise, they are quite uniform among all thestars, with a single exception. In FM Del, Hα is weaker and has asmaller central depth than in the other stars. This and the wavelengthshifts of the core are attributed to incipient emission. Thedifferential velocity of Hα relative to the metal lines is lessthan 25 km s-1 for all the stars except QY Cyg, FM Del, andEF Tau. We suggest that this indicates that only these stars are type IICepheids despite the large distances of some of the others from theGalactic plane.Based in part on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the AstrophysicalResearch Consortium.

New Period-Luminosity and Period-Color relations of classical Cepheids: I. Cepheids in the Galaxy
321 Galactic fundamental-mode Cepheids with good B, V, and (in mostcases) I photometry by Berdnikov et al. (\cite{Berdnikov:etal:00}) andwith homogenized color excesses E(B-V) based on Fernie et al.(\cite{Fernie:etal:95}) are used to determine their period-color (P-C)relation in the range 0.4~ 1.4). The latter effect is enhanced by asuggestive break of the P-L relation of LMC and SMC at log P = 1.0towards still shallower values as shown in a forthcoming paper.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/404/423

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Fundamental Parameters of Cepheids. V. Additional Photometry and Radial Velocity Data for Southern Cepheids
I present photometric and radial velocity data for Galactic Cepheids,most of them being in the southern hemisphere. There are 1250 Genevaseven-color photometric measurements for 62 Cepheids, the averageuncertainty per measurement is better than 0.01 mag. A total of 832velocity measurements have been obtained with the CORAVEL radialvelocity spectrograph for 46 Cepheids. The average accuracy of theradial velocity data is 0.38 km s-1. There are 33 stars withboth photometry and radial velocity data. I discuss the possiblebinarity or period change that these new data reveal. I also presentreddenings for all Cepheids with photometry. The data are availableelectronically. Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla.

On the Absolute Calibration of the Cepheid Distance Scale Using Hipparcos Parallaxes
The fundamental Hipparcos parallaxes (HIPP) of 219 Cepheids are used forthe absolute calibration of the Galactic distance scale sampled by amodern Baade-Wesselink (BW) distance indicator, which reliably accountsfor pulsation and thermal properties of Cepheid variable stars. Notablywe map thermal properties into the Johnson-Cousins color (V-I). The BWrealization is found to be much less affected than previously adoptedoptical luminosity laws by intrinsic scatter and systematic errors inrepresenting individual Cepheid distances and thus is best suited for acalibration of the galactic distance scale using the fundamentalHipparcos parallaxes (HIPP). Comparisons between the actual Hipparcoscalibration and three independent ground-based calibrations of the sameBW distance scale show very close agreement at the 0.04 mag level, i.e.,at the 1 σ level of the absolute accuracy claimed for BWrealizations, although the Hipparcos calibration is affected by anuncertainty of +/-0.10 mag due to propagation of parallax errors alone.Comparisons include the zero-age main-sequence calibration by Cepheidsin clusters (Pleiades distance modulus at 5.57 mag), the calibration bypulsation parallaxes of Cepheids, and the calibration by updated modelcalculations of synthetic stellar spectra of Cepheids. Notably, theresulting galactic distance scale is found to be ~0.1 mag shorter thanthe value obtained in the original calibration of Feast & Catchpole.The implications of the actual calibration on the Cepheid-based distanceto the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the extragalactic distance scaleare briefly discussed. A true distance modulus of 18.59+/-0.04 mag ispresently achieved. Evidence from Hipparcos-based calibrations bydifferent methods strongly supports the actual upward revision of0.09+/-0.04 mag for the LMC distance of 18.50 mag adopted in the HubbleSpace Telescope Key Project program, corresponding to no more than a 5%decrease in the value of the Hubble constant.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:18h05m01.30s
Apparent magnitude:4.69
Distance:636.943 parsecs
Proper motion RA:3.4
Proper motion Dec:-4.8
B-T magnitude:5.718
V-T magnitude:4.781

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Bayerγα Sgr
HD 1989HD 164975
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 6854-4373-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0600-30292857
BSC 1991HR 6742
HIPHIP 88567

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