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# 89 Aqr (c3 Aqr)

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 New and Confirmed Triple Systems with Luminous Cool Primaries and Hot CompanionsIn the course of comparing parameters of evolved cool star plus hotmain-sequence star binaries with theoretical isochrones, somediscrepancies are found between implied stellar masses and thespectroscopic binary mass function or the measured angular separation.These are naturally explained if there is a third star in the system.Multiplicity is also required to explain some comparisons of cool plushot binary'' IUE and optical spectral energy distribution analysis withmeasured flux ratios, especially Tycho's two-color photometry ofseparate components. Out of a sample of 136 cool-plus-hot binary starsystems under study, measurements are now indicating several systemsconsidered double (HD 5373, 23089, 26673, 29094, 49126, 71129, 149379,179002, 187299), and probably a few others (including HD 136415), tohave at least three stellar components. Several other cases of suspectedtriple systems are confirmed. For comparison, there are eight knowntriples included in the project. In all, about 25% of the systemscontain three or more components within a few arcseconds. Estimatedseparations are provided, which may be of use when not known frominterferometry. In general, the triple systems have onepost-main-sequence component and two upper main-sequence components,usually revolving around each other. One new triple system, HD 149379,has as its middle component an F giant in the brief first crossing ofthe Hertzsprung gap. Analysis of eight subgiant spectraThe atmospheric parameters, masses and abundances of 29 elements in 8subgiants (among them 4 candidates in SMR stars) were determined. Thespectra of the stars were obtained at the 1.93-m telescope of the HauteProvence observatory (France) equipped with the echelle-spectrometerELODIE. The run of abundances with metallicity in SMR and disk stars wasanalyzed. The lithium and carbon abundances undergo a change along thesubgiant branch. The behaviour of other elements in SMR stars followsthat in the thin disk stars, and it differs appreciably from that inthick disk stars. The investigated SMR stars are probably stars of thethin disk, and their [Fe/H] values can be accepted as the uppermetallicity limit for disk stars. Judging by our sample of stars, thepicture of the enrichment of interstellar medium at metallicities [Fe/H]> 0 may differ from that at [Fe/H]  0. It is characterized,relative to the solar abundances, by a deficit of oxygen, Naoverabundance, a slight overabundance of Ni and Co, and a lowerabundance of neutron capture elements. Spectral Classification of the Hot Components of a Large Sample of Stars with Composite Spectra, and Implication for the Absolute Magnitudes of the Cool Supergiant Components.A sample of 135 stars with composite spectra has been observed in thenear-UV spectral region with the Aurélie spectrograph at theObservatoire de Haute-Provence. Using the spectral classifications ofthe cool components previously determined with near infrared spectra, weobtained reliable spectral types of the hot components of the samplesystems. The hot components were isolated by the subtraction methodusing MK standards as surrogates of the cool components. We also derivedthe visual magnitude differences between the components usingWillstrop's normalized stellar flux ratios. We propose a photometricmodel for each of these systems on the basis of our spectroscopic dataand the Hipparcos data. We bring to light a discrepancy for the Gsupergiant primaries between the visual absolute magnitudes deduced fromHipparcos parallaxes and those tabulated by Schmidt-Kaler for the GIbstars: we propose a scale of Mv-values for these stars incomposite systems. By way of statistics, about 75% of the hot componentsare dwarf or subgiant stars, and 25% should be giants. The distributionin spectral types is as follows: 41% of B-type components, 57% of typeA, and 2% of type F; 68% of the hot components have a spectral type inthe range B7 to A2. The distribution of the ΔMv-valuesshows a maximum near 0.75 mag. Binary Star Orbits. II. Preliminary First Orbits for 117 SystemsOrbital elements are presented for 117 binary systems with no previousorbit calculation. For nearly all of these systems, these elements mustbe regarded as preliminary, but the ephemerides presented here should berelatively accurate over the next several decades. Further, the analysisof these systems should highlight the need for their continuedobservation by dedicated programs to improve the veracity of theseelements. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XXIII. Measurements during 1982-1997 from Six Telescopes, with 14 New OrbitsWe present 2017 observations of 1286 binary stars, observed by means ofspeckle interferometry using six telescopes over a 15 year period from1982 April to 1997 June. These measurements constitute the 23dinstallment in CHARA's speckle program at 2 to 4 m class telescopes andinclude the second major collection of measurements from the MountWilson 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope. Orbital elements are alsopresented for 14 systems, seven of which have had no previouslypublished orbital analyses. Lithium and rotation on the subgiant branch. II. Theoretical analysis of observationsLithium abundances and rotation, determined for 120 subgiant stars inLèbre et al. (1999) are analyzed. To this purpose, theevolutionary status of the sample as well as the individual masses havebeen determined using the HIPPARCOS trigonometric parallax measurementsto locate very precisely our sample stars in the HR diagram. We look atthe distributions of A_Li and Vsini with mass when stars evolve from themain sequence to the subgiant branch. For most of the stars in oursample we find good agreement with the dilution predictions. However,the more massive cool stars with upper limits of Li abundances show asignificant discrepancy with the theoretical predictions, even if theNon-LTE effects are taken into account. For the rotation behaviour, ouranalysis confirms that low mass stars leave the main sequence with a lowrotational rate, while more massive stars are slowed down only whenreaching the subgiant branch. We also checked the connection between theobserved rotation behaviour and the magnetic braking due to thedeepening of the convective envelope. Our results shed new light on thelithium and rotation discontinuities in the evolved phase. Non-LTE analysis of the atmospheric sodium abundances of peculiar disk starsHigh-resolution CCD spectra are used to determine the sodium abundancesin the atmospheres of 12 peculiar disk stars with sodium excesses,taking into account deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Insome cases, the non-LTE corrections reach 0.2 dex, and it is necessaryto calculate them in each individual case. On average, however, themagnitude of these corrections does not exceed 0.1 dex, and the sodiumexcesses for most of the stars are not eliminated by taking thesecorrections into account. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Radial velocities of HIPPARCOS southern B8-F2 type starsRadial velocities have been determined for a sample of B8-F2 type starsobserved by the Hipparcos satellite. Observations were obtained withinthe framework of an ESO key-program. Radial velocities have beenmeasured using a cross-correlation method, the templates being a grid ofsynthetic spectra. The obtained precision depends on effectivetemperature and projected rotational velocity of the star as well as ona possible asymmetry of the correlation peak generally due to secondarycomponents. New spectroscopic binaries have been detected from theseasymmetries and the variability of the measured radial velocity.Simulations of binary and triple systems have been performed. Forbinaries our results have been compared with Hipparcos binary data.Adding the variable radial velocities, the minimum binary fraction hasbeen found 60% for physical systems. Radial velocities have beendetermined for 581 B8-F2 stars, 159 being new. Taking into accountpublished radial velocities, 39% south A-type stars with V magnitudelower than 7.5 have a radial velocity. Based on observations obtained atthe European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile) and on datafrom the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.}\fnmsep \thanks{Tables 7, 8and 9 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K starsA catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Spectral classifications in the near infrared of stars with composite spectra. III. Study of a sample of 137 objects with the Aurelie spectrographWe provide spectral classifications for a sample of 137 stars mentionedas having composite spectra. The classifications were carried out on 33Angstroms /mm spectra in the region 8370 - 8870 Angstroms. Of these 137objects, 115 correspond in the infrared to cool stars (G, K or M) ofluminosity classes III, II and I; for 22 stars, we find only hot spectraof types B, A, F or Am, so that they do not fulfil our definition ofcomposite spectra. We detect four new Am stars, and one Am star (HD70826) turns out to be a composite spectrum object. As in Paper II, thecool components of composite spectra show a strong concentration in thevicinity of G8III. Based upon observations carried out at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Lithium and rotation on the subgiant branch. I. Observations and spectral analysisWe have obtained new high resolution spectroscopic observations of thelithium line at 6707.81 Angstroms and derived lithium abundances (A_Li )by spectral synthesis for a sample of about 120 F-, G- and K-typePopulation I subgiant stars. For each of these stars, high precisionrotational velocity obtained with the CORAVEL spectrometer is available.We present the behavior of the lithium abundance as a function ofeffective temperature, which shows a sort of discontinuity around 5600K, somewhat later than the well known rotational discontinuity. based onobservations collected at the Observatoire de Haute--Provence (France)and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla (Chile). The chemical compositions of two stars with enhanced metallicitiesStudies of the two stars HD 121370 (8 Boo) and HD 218640 (89 Aqr) withmetallicity excesses based on spectra with resolution R = 25 000 andsignal-to-noise ratios of more than 100 are presented. The spectra wereobtained using the echelle spectrometer of the 6-m telescope of theSpecial Astrophysical Observatory. Atomic and molecular spectra are usedto determine the abundances for 25 elements, including Li and elementsof the CNO group. The metallicities [Fe/H] for the stars are +0.23 +/-0.15 (8 Boo) and +0.19 +/- 0.19 (89 Aqr). These values are close to theupper limit of [Fe/H] for dwarf stars in the Galactic disk. Ultraviolet and Optical Studies of Binaries with Luminous Cool Primaries and Hot Companions. V. The Entire IUE SampleWe have obtained or retrieved IUE spectra for over 100 middle- andlate-type giant and supergiant stars whose spectra indicate the presenceof a hot component earlier than type F2. The hot companions areclassified accurately by temperature class from their far-UV spectra.The interstellar extinction of each system and the relative luminositiesof the components are derived from analysis of the UV and opticalfluxes, using a grid of UV intrinsic colors for hot dwarfs. We find thatthere is fair agreement in general between current UV spectralclassification and ground-based hot component types, in spite of thedifficulties of assigning the latter. There are a few cases in which thecool component optical classifications disagree considerably with thetemperature classes inferred from our analysis of UV and opticalphotometry. The extinction parameter agrees moderately well with otherdeterminations of B-V color excess. Many systems are worthy of furtherstudy especially to establish their spectroscopic orbits. Further workis planned to estimate luminosities of the cool components from the dataherein; in many cases, these luminosities' accuracies should becomparable to or exceed those of the Hipparcos parallaxes. A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Spectral classifications in the near infrared of stars with composite spectra. II. Study of a sample of 180 starsA sample of 180 supposedly composite-spectrum stars has been studied onthe basis of spectra obtained in the near infrared (8370-8780 Angstroms)at a dispersion of 33 Anstroms/mm. The objective was to study the coolercomponents of the systems. Of our sample, 120 are true compositespectra, 35 are hot spectra of types B, F and 25 are Am stars. We find astrong concentration of the cooler components of the composite spectraaround G8III. In view of the difficulty of classifying compositespectra, because of the super position of an early type dwarf and a latetype giant or supergiant spectrum, we have made several tests to controlthe classification based upon the infrared region. Since all tests gavepositive results, we conclude that our classifications can be consideredas being both reliable and homogeneous. Table \ref{tab1} is alsoavailable electronically at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstracts.html} Based upon observationscarried out at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS). Supermetallicity at the Quarter-Century Mark: A Conservative Statistician's Review of the EvidenceAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJS..102..105T&db_key=AST ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XIII. Measurements During 1989- 1994 From the Cerro Tololo 4 M TelescopeAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111..936H&db_key=AST The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Stroemgren photometry of F- and G-type stars brighter than V = 9.6. I. UVBY photometryWithin the framework of a large photometric observing program, designedto investigate the Galaxy's structure and evolution, Hβ photometryis being made for about 9000 stars. As a by-product, supplementary uvbyphotometry has been made. The results are presented in a cataloguecontaining 6924 uvby observations of 6190 stars, all south ofδ=+38deg. The overall internal rms errors of one observation(transformed to the standard system) of a program star in the interval6.5 Ultraviolet and optical studies of binaries with luminous cool primaries and hot companions. IV - Further IUE detectionsWe have obtained IUE spectra for 31 middle and late-type giant andsupergiant stars whose TD-1 fluxes or ground-based spectra indicate thepresence of a hot component, or whose radial velocities indicate anunseen component. Stellar components earlier than type F1 were detectedin 22 cases. While 20 of the hot secondaries are seen weakly in opticalspectra, two are UV discoveries: HD 58134 and HD 183864. The hotcompanions are classified accurately by temperature class from theirfar-UV spectra. The interstellar extinction of each system and therelative luminosities of the components are derived from the UV andoptical fluxes, using a new grid of UV intrinsic colors for hot dwarfs.We find that many giant stars apparently have companions which are toohot and hence too luminous for consistency with the primary's spectralclassification. ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. VIII - Measurements during 1989-1991 from the Cerro Tololo 4 M telescopeOne-thousand eighty-eight observations of 947 binary star systems,observed by means of speckle interferometry with the 4 m telescope onCerro Tololo, are presented. These measurements, made during the period1989-1991, comprise the second installment of results stemming from theexpansion of our speckle program to the southern hemisphere. Newly identified main-sequence A stars with circumstellar dustThe IRAS Faint Source Survey data base and the ADDSCAN/SCANPI softwareare used to search for systems with circumstellar dust in two samples:all of the 62 A stars in Woolley's catalog, which lie near the mainsequence and are typically within 25 pc of the sun, and all A stars inthe Bright Star Catalogue with mV in the range 4-5 and v sin i not lessthan 100 km/s. In the first sample, 11 nearby A stars having (12)-(25)and (25)-(60) colors consistent with circumstellar dust are found. Theanalysis of the second sample demonstrates that the use of the FSS database increases the likelihood of identifying A stars with circumstellardust fainter than mV = 4. Three more new dusty systems are found in thissample. Beta Pictoris (A5 IV-V) is the only star within 25 pc of the sunthat displays IR colors indicative of both warm and cool dust. It isinferred from the absence of cool dust in the vast majority of thesystems that the dust disks of these stars are much less extended thanthat seen around Beta Pictoris. Micrometric measurements of visual binaries (5th list)The data resulting from 596 micrometric measurements of 152 binaries areset forth which represent observations taken on the GPO astrograph(described by Scardia, 1990). The traditional declination method is usedto track star position, and some of the measurements are related toprevious work by the author (1990). The data given include O-Cmeasurements corresponding to the Worley and Heintz catalogue (1984) andother relevant data. High-resolution spectroscopic survey of 671 GK giants. I - Stellar atmosphere parameters and abundancesA high-resolution spectroscopic survey of 671 G and K field giants isdescribed. Broad-band Johnson colors have been calibrated againstrecent, accurate effective temperature, T(eff), measurements for starsin the range 3900-6000 K. A table of polynomial coefficients for 10color-T(eff) relations is presented. Stellar atmosphere parameters,including T(eff), log g, Fe/H, and microturbulent velocity, are computedfor each star, using the high-resolution spectra and various publishedphotometric catalogs. For each star, elemental abundances for a varietyof species have been computed using a LTE spectrum synthesis program andthe adopted atmosphere parameters. Observations of double stars and new pairs. XIVResults of a continuing survey of visual double stars are presented,including 4880 measurements made from February 1987 to November 1989.The positions in WDS format and Durchmusterung numbers are given for 194pairs first reported here. Micrometer measurements of 1142 doubles madewith the Swarthmore 61 cm refractor are presented. Magnitudes areestimated for some of the objects. Plate measurements, plateorientations, position angles, number of nights, and measured exposuresare given. Visual observations of 342 pairs obtained in May 1989 atCerro Tololo, mostly with the 1.0 m reflector, are reported. ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. IV - Measurements during 1986-1988 from the Kitt Peak 4 M telescopeOne thousand five hundred and fifty measurements of 1006 binary starsystems observed mostly during 1986 through mid-1988 by means of speckleinterferometry with the KPNO 4-m telescope are presented. Twenty-onesystems are directly resolved for the first time, including newcomponents to the cool supergiant Alpha Her A and the Pleiades shellstar Pleione. A continuing survey of The Bright Star Catalogue yieldedeight new binaries from 293 bright stars observed. Corrections tospeckle measures from the GSU/CHARA ICCD speckle camera previouslypublished are presented and discussed.
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