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|A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars|
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i 100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.
|Radial velocity measurements of B stars in the Scorpius-Centaurus association|
We derive single-epoch radial velocities for a sample of 56 B-type starsmembers of the subgroups Upper Scorpius, Upper Centaurus Lupus and LowerCentaurus Crux of the nearby Sco-Cen OB association. The radial velocitymeasurements were obtained by means of high-resolution echelle spectravia analysis of individual lines. The internal accuracy obtained in themeasurements is estimated to be typically 2-3 km s-1, butdepends on the projected rotational velocity of the target. Radialvelocity measurements taken for 2-3 epochs for the targets HD 120307, HD142990 and HD 139365 are variable and confirm that they arespectroscopic binaries, as previously identified in the literature.Spectral lines from two stellar components are resolved in the observedspectra of target stars HD 133242, HD 133955 and HD 143018, identifyingthem as spectroscopic binaries.
|Evolution of interacting binaries with a B type primary at birth|
We revisited the analytical expression for the mass ratio distributionfor non-evolved binaries with a B type primary. Selection effectsgoverning the observations were taken into account in order to comparetheory with observations. Theory was optimized so as to fit best withthe observed q-distribution of SB1s and SB2s. The accuracy of thistheoretical mass ratio distribution function is severely hindered by theuncertainties on the observations. We present a library of evolutionarycomputations for binaries with a B type primary at birth. Some liberalcomputations including loss of mass and angular momentum during binaryevolution are added to an extensive grid of conservative calculations.Our computations are compared statistically to the observeddistributions of orbital periods and mass ratios of Algols. ConservativeRoche Lobe Over Flow (RLOF) reproduces the observed distribution oforbital periods but fails to explain the observed mass ratios in therange q in [0.4-1]. In order to obtain a better fit the binaries have tolose a significant amount of matter, without losing much angularmomentum.
|Catalog of Galactic β Cephei Stars|
We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic β Cepheistars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview ofobservational characteristics of all known β Cephei stars, coveringinformation until 2004 June. Ninety-three stars could be confirmed to beβ Cephei stars. We use data from more than 250 papers publishedover the last nearly 100 years, and we provide over 45 notes onindividual stars. For some stars we reanalyzed published data orconducted our own analyses. Sixty-one stars were rejected from the finalβ Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be β Cepheistars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmedβ Cephei stars is also presented.We analyze the β Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributionsof their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radialvelocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm thatthe majority of the β Cephei stars are multiperiodic pulsators. Weshow that, besides two exceptions, the β Cephei stars with highpulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. Those higher amplitude starshave angular rotational velocities in the same range as thehigh-amplitude δ Scuti stars (Prot>~3 days).We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93β Cephei stars are main-sequence objects. We discuss theobservational boundaries of β Cephei pulsation and the physicalparameters of the stars. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modesare near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show thatthe mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 Msolar. Wepoint out that the theoretical instability strip of the β Cepheistars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt toexplain this observation.
|Local interstellar medium kinematics towards the Southern Coalsack and Chamaeleon-Musca dark clouds|
We present the results of a spectroscopic programme aiming toinvestigate the kinematics of the local interstellar medium componentstowards the Southern Coalsack and Chamaeleon-Musca dark clouds. Theanalysis is based upon high-resolution (R~ 60000) spectra of theinterstellar Na I D absorption lines towards 63 B-type stars (d<= 500pc) selected to cover these clouds and the connecting area defined bythe Galactic coordinates: 308°>=l>= 294° and-22°<=b<= 5°. The radial velocities, column densities,velocity dispersions, colour excess and photometric distances to thestars are used to understand the kinematics and distribution of theinterstellar cloud components. The analysis indicates that theinterstellar gas is distributed in two extended sheet-like structurespermeating the whole area, one at d<= 60 pc and another around120-150 pc from the Sun. The nearby feature is approaching the localstandard of rest with an average radial velocity of -7 kms-1, has low average column density logNNaI~ 11.2cm-2 and velocity dispersion b~ 5 km s-1. The moredistant feature has column densities between 12.3 <=logNNaI<= 13.2, average velocity dispersion b~ 2.5 kms-1 and seems associated with the dust sheet observed towardsthe Coalsack, Musca and Chamaeleon direction. Its velocity is centredaround 0 km s-1, but there is a trend for increasing from -3km s-1 near b= 1° to 3 km s-1 near b=-18°.The nearby low column density feature indicates a general outflow fromthe Sco-Cen association, in agreement with several independent lines ofdata in the general searched direction. The dust and gas feature around120-150 pc seem to be part of an extended large-scale feature of similarkinematic properties, supposedly identified with the interaction zone ofthe Local and Loop I Bubbles. Assuming that the interface and thering-like volume of dense neutral matter that would have been formedduring the collision of the two bubbles have similar properties, ourresults suggest that the interaction zone between the bubbles is twistedand folded.
|Formation scenarios for the young stellar associations between galactic longitudes l = 280degr - 360degr|
We investigate the spatial distribution, the space velocities and agedistribution of the pre-main sequence (PMS) stars belonging toOphiuchus, Lupus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions (SFRs), and of theyoung early-type star members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association.These young stellar associations extend over the galactic longituderange from 280degr to 360degr , and are at a distance interval ofaround 100 and 200 pc. This study is based on a compilation ofdistances, proper motions and radial velocities from the literature forthe kinematic properties, and of basic stellar data for the constructionof Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams. Although there was no well-known OBassociation in Chamaeleon, the distances and the proper motions of agroup of 21 B- and A-type stars, taken from the Hipparcos Catalogue,lead us to propose that they form a young association. We show that theyoung early-type stars of the OB associations and the PMS stars of theSFRs follow a similar spatial distribution, i.e., there is no separationbetween the low and the high-mass young stars. We find no difference inthe kinematics nor in the ages of these two populations studied.Considering not only the stars selected by kinematic criteria but thewhole sample of young early-type stars, the scattering of their propermotions is similar to that of the PMS stars and all the young starsexhibit a common direction of motion. The space velocities of theHipparcos PMS stars of each SFR are compatible with the mean values ofthe OB associations. The PMS stars in each SFR span a wide range of ages(from 1 to 20 Myr). The ages of the OB subgroups are 8-10 Myr for UpperScorpius (US), and 16-20 Myr for Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL) and forLower Centaurus Crux (LCC). Thus, our results do not confirm that UCL isolder than the LCC association. Based on these results and theuncertainties associated with the age determination, we cannot say thatthere is indeed a difference in the age of the two populations. Weanalyze the different scenarios for the triggering of large-scalestar-formation that have been proposed up to now, and argue that mostprobably we are observing a spiral arm that passes close to the Sun. Thealignment of young stars and molecular clouds and the average velocityof the stars in the opposite direction to the Galactic rotation agreewith the expected behavior of star formation in nearby spiral arms.Tables 1 to 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/404/913
|The mass ratio distribution of B-type visual binaries in the Sco OB2 association|
A sample of 115 B-type stars in the Sco OB2 association is examined forexistence of visual companions in the J and K_s bands, using the ADONISnear-infrared adaptive optics system and coronograph. Practically allthe components in the separation range 0farcs3 -6farcs4 (45-900 AU) andmagnitudes down to K = 16 were detected. The K and J - K photometry ofthe primaries and differential photometry and astrometry of the 96secondaries are presented. Ten secondaries are new physical components,as inferred from the photometric and statistical criteria, while therest of the newly detected objects are faint background stars. After asmall correction for detection incompleteness and a conversion of thefluxes into masses, an unbiased distribution of the components massratio q was derived. The power law f(q)~ q-0.5 fits theobservations well, whereas a q-1.8 distribution, whichcorresponds to a random pairing of stars, is rejected. The companionstar fraction is 0.20+/-0.04 per decade of separation which iscomparable to the highest measured binary fraction among low-mass PMSstars and ~ 1.6 times higher than the binary fraction of low-mass dwarfsin the solar neighborhood and in open clusters in the same separationrange. Based on observations collected at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO programme 65.H-0179). Tables 1, 3 andthe full version of Table 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/382/92
|Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Observations of Molecular Hydrogen in Translucent Interstellar Clouds. II. The Line of Sight toward HD 110432|
We report the second study from the FUSE survey of molecular hydrogen intranslucent clouds for the line of sight toward HD 110432. This starlies beyond the Coalsack dark nebula, and, with E(B-V)=0.40 andAV=1.32, this line of sight bridges the gap betweenless-extinguished diffuse-cloud lines of sight with AV~1,such as ζ Ophiuchi, and translucent-cloud lines of sight withAV>~2, such as HD 73882. Through profile fitting and acurve-of-growth analysis, we have derived rotational populations forH2 for J=0-7. The line of sight has a total molecularhydrogen column density, logN(H2)=20.68+/-0.05cm-2, nearly identical to that toward ζ Oph but a factorof 3 less than that toward HD 73882. The ratio of N(J=1) to N(J=0)yields a kinetic temperature Tkin=63+/-7 K, which is similarto other lines of sight with AV>~1. The high-J lines showconsiderable excitation above this temperature. However, the high-Jlines cannot be well fitted to a single excitation temperature, and theeven-J lines of para-hydrogen appear slightly enhanced relative to theodd-J lines of ortho-hydrogen. The high-J excitation is similar to thattoward ζ Oph but is much smaller than that toward HD 73882.Chemical modeling indicates that the physical conditions in the cloud(s)are very similar to those in the cloud(s) toward ζ Oph. An analysisof IUE spectra of the Lyα line gives N(H I)=20.85+/-0.15cm-2. Combined with N(H2), we derive a hydrogenmolecular fraction, fH2=0.58+/-0.12, statisticallyidentical to that found for the lines of sight toward ζ Oph and HD73882. From the FUSE data and a curve-of-growth analysis using the samecomponent structure as H2, we findlogN(HD)=15.2+0.7-0.4 cm-2, which isbetween the values found for ζ Oph and HD 73882. Profile fittingsuggests smaller b values for HD than for H2, andlogN(HD)=16.0+0.2-0.3 cm-2. From FUSEand IUE data, we derive logN(CO)~14.3 cm-2, assuming the samecomponent structure as CH or logN(CO)~14.8 cm-2, if allobserved CO is cospatial with the strongest CH component. From thecombined measurements of hydrogen- and carbon-containing molecules, theline of sight toward HD 110432 appears quite similar to thediffuse-cloud line of sight toward ζ Oph and quite dissimilar tothe translucent-cloud line of sight toward HD 73882. Upcoming FUSEobservations will further explore the transition between diffuse andtranslucent clouds.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|High S/N Echelle spectroscopy in young stellar groups. II. Rotational velocities of early-type stars in SCO OB2.|
We investigate the rotational velocities of early-type stars in the ScoOB2 association. We measure v.sin(i) for 156 established and probablemembers of the association. The measurements are performed with threedifferent techniques, which are in increasing order of expectedv.sin(i): 1) converting the widths of spectral lines directly tov.sin(i), 2) comparing artificially broadened spectra of low v.sin(i)stars to the target spectrum, 3) comparing the HeI λ4026 lineprofile to theoretical models. The sample is extended with literaturedata for 47 established members of Sco OB2. Analysis of the v.sin(i)distributions shows that there are no significant differences betweenthe subgroups of Sco OB2. We find that members of the binary populationof Sco OB2 on the whole rotate more slowly than the single stars. Inaddition, we find that the B7-B9 single star members rotatesignificantly faster than their B0-B6 counterparts. We test varioushypotheses for the distribution of v.sin(i) in the association. Theresults show that we cannot clearly exclude any form of randomdistribution of the direction and/or magnitude of the intrinsicrotational velocity vector. We also investigate the effects of rotationon colours in the Walraven photometric system. We show that positions ofB7-B9 single dwarfs above the main sequence are a consequence ofrotation. This establishes the influence of rotation on the Walravencolours, due primarily to surface gravity effects.
|The Pulkovo Spectrophotometric Catalog of Bright Stars in the Range from 320 TO 1080 NM|
A spectrophotometric catalog is presented, combining results of numerousobservations made by Pulkovo astronomers at different observing sites.The catalog consists of three parts: the first contains the data for 602stars in the spectral range of 320--735 nm with a resolution of 5 nm,the second one contains 285 stars in the spectral range of 500--1080 nmwith a resolution of 10 nm and the third one contains 278 stars combinedfrom the preceding catalogs in the spectral range of 320--1080 nm with aresolution of 10 nm. The data are presented in absolute energy unitsW/m(2) m, with a step of 2.5 nm and with an accuracy not lower than1.5--2.0%.
|OB Stellar Associations in Crux. II. Analysis and Discussion|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111..306T&db_key=AST
|OB Stellar Associations in Crux. I. Observations With the Glazar Space Telescope|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111..299T&db_key=AST
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|The determination of T_eff_ of B, A and F main sequence stars from the continuum between 3200 A and 3600 A.|
A method of determination of the effective temperature of B, A and Fmain sequence stars is proposed, using the slope of the continuumbetween 3200A and 3600A. The effective temperature calibration is basedon a sample of stars with energy distributions known from UV to the red.We have determined the Balmer jump and the effective temperatures for235 main sequence stars. The temperatures found have been compared withthose derived by Underhill et al. (1979), Kontizas & Theodossiou(1980), Theodossiou (1985), Morossi & Malagnini (1985). Thecomparison showed good agreement for most of the stars in common. On theother hand, the temperatures derived from the reddening-free colourfactor QUV, from the colour index (m1965-V) and from (B-V), given inGulati et al. (1989), are systematically lower than our temperatures,however the differences are within one-sigma error.
|An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars|
About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are usedto measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars fallingin the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-fourdetected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it isestimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to theX-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition tosummarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant opticaldata, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process andanalyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completenessand IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-rayemission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quitecommon in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless ofluminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes lesscommon, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.
|Close binaries observed polarimetrically|
|Walraven photometry of nearby southern OB associations|
Homogeneous Walraven (VBLUW) photometry is presented for 5260 stars inthe regions of five nearby southern OB associations: Scorpio Centaurus(Sco OB2), Orion OB1, Canis Major OB1, Monoceros OB1, and Scutum OB2.Derived V and (B - V) in the Johnson system are included.
|Mixing in close binaries|
Consideration is given to mixing of matter in radiative zones ofmain-sequence stars which enter close synchronized binary systems. Themixing is created by slow circulation currents which maintain thethermal balance and may be responsible for the excesses of N-14 and H-4and the deficit of C-12 observed in the surface layers of close binarycomponents.
|The relationship between the chemical abundance in the atmospheres ofbinary stars and dynamic parameters of the systems.|
|The volume filling factor of the infrared cirrus IS 0.2|
The filling factor of the infrared cirrus in which luminous stars areembedded is estimated. The stars are assumed to be randomly situatedwith respect to the cirrus. A direct ratio of the number of stars withassociated cirrus emission to those which in principle could be detectedindicates that the cirrus filling factor is roughly 0.2.
|Physical parameters of stars in the Scorpio-Centaurus OB association|
Walraven photometry is presented of established and probable members ofthe Scorpio-Centaurus OB association. For each star, effectivetemperature and surface gravity are derived using Kurucz (1979)atmosphere models. From the Straizys and Kuriliene (1981) tables,absolute magnitudes are calculated. Distance moduli and visualextinctions are determined for all stars. From a comparison of theHR-diagrams of the stars in each subgroup with theoretical isochrones,the ages of the three subgroups are derived. The distances to the threesubgroups are shown to be different; there is a general trend (alsowithin each subgroup) for the distances to be larger at higher galacticlongitudes. The visual extinction in the youngest subgroupUpper-Scorpius, is well correlated with the IRAS 100-micron map. Thedistance toward the Ophiuchus dark clouds is found to be 125 pc, basedon the photometric distances to the stars. Most of the early-type starsin Upper-Scorpius are located at the far side of the dark clouds.
|The nitrogen abundance in the atmospheres of single and binary stars|
The nitrogen abundances for 47 single, 11 visual double, and 41 closebinary stars are obtained from high-dispersion Wlambdadeterminations of nitrogen lines using atmospheric models andtheoretical calculations of N II lines, taking LTE errors into account.The mean value of lg N(N) is found to be 8.05 for single stars, 8.50 forclose binaries, and 8.15 for visual double stars. A correlation is foundbetween the nitrogen abundance and the helium and carbon abundances. Itis suggested that considerable mixing between the central part of starsand the atmosphere occurs in binary stars.
|The eclipsing binary system W CRU|
Photoelectric UBV observations of W Cru were obtained between 1984 and1985 using the 50-cm Edith Winstone Blackwell Cassegrain telescope. Thelight curve presents a continuous 'Beta Lyrae'-like variation, alongwith peculier irregularities of the order of 0.1 mag. The possibility offitting both high-mass and low-mass models to the data is considered.
|A catalog of ultraviolet interstellar extinction excesses for 1415 stars|
Ultraviolet interstellar extinction excesses are presented for 1415stars with spectral types B7 and earlier. The excesses with respect to Vare derived from Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS) 5-channel UVphotometry at central wavelengths of approximately 1550, 1800, 2500, and3300 A. A measure of the excess extinction in the 2200-A extinction bumpis also given. The data are valuable for investigating the systematicsof peculiar interstellar extinction and for studying the character of UVinterstellar extinction in the general direction of stars for which theextinction-curve shape is unknown.
|The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematics|
Published uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter.
|A Note about the Comparison Between the Old and New Slettebak Systems of Axial Rotational Velocities|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984RMxAA...9....9G&db_key=AST
|Evolutionary increase in the nitrogen abundance in the atmospheres of early B stars|
The nitrogen abundance in the atmospheres of 36 stars of the spectralclasses B0-B3 and luminosity classes V-III was evaluated in order totest the tenet of stellar evolution that mixing occurs in a massive starno sooner than when it enters the supergiant phase. The nitrogenabundance in the atmosphere and the mass and age of the star wereobtained from the effective temperature and the acceleration due togravity in the atmosphere; the assumption of local thermodynamicequilibrium was omitted. For all three mass groups tested, the nitrogenabundance increased with increasing time. The rate of increase dependedstrongly on the mass, and the larger the mass, the faster the growth inabundance. The rate of increase was smooth, indicating that the productsof the CNO cycle may be carried into the surface layers of B starsduring the main sequence stage.
|X-ray observations of single-line spectroscopic binaries|
The Einstein Observatory was used to obtain X-ray images of fieldscentered on three very bright single-line spectroscopic binaries, Pi-5Ori, Theta-2 Cru, and 112 Her. Three-sigma upper limits for the X-rayluminosity of these objects greater than about 200 times lower thanearlier estimates are presented and the implications for the presence ofa compact secondary in any of these objects are discussed. None of thethree binaries is detected as an X-ray source, making the presence of acompact secondary highly unlikely. A cluster of galaxies, A 520, hasbeen detected as an X-ray source lying nearly 28 arcmin from Pi-5 Ori.
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