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Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear Motion
Useful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr).

First results from the ESO VLTI calibrators program
The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is one of the leadinginterferometric facilities. It is equipped with several 8.2 and 1.8 mtelescopes, a large number of baselines up to 200 m, and with severalsubsystems designed to enable high quality measurements and to improvesignificantly the limits of sensitivities currently available tolong-baseline interferometry. The full scientific potential of the VLTIcan be exploited only if a consistent set of good quality calibrators isavailable. For this, a large number of observations of potentialcalibrators have been obtained during the commissioning phase of theVLTI. These data are publicly available. We briefly describe theinterferometer, the VINCI instrument used for the observations, the dataflow from acquisition to processed results, and we present and commenton the volume of observations gathered and scrutinized. The result is alist of 191 calibrator candidates, for which a total of 12 066observations can be deemed of satisfactory quality. We present a generalstatistical analysis of this sample, using as a starting point theangular diameters previously available in the literature. We derive thegeneral characteristics of the VLTI transfer function, and its trendwith time in the period 2001 through mid-2004. A second paper will bedevoted to a detailed investigation of a selected sample, aimed atestablishing a VLTI-based homogeneous system of calibrators.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

A near-infrared stellar spectral library: I. H-band spectra.
This paper presents the H band near-infrared (NIR) spectral library of135 solar type stars covering spectral types O5-M3 and luminosityclasses I-V as per MK classification. The observations were carried outwith 1.2 meter Gurushikhar Infrared Telescope (GIRT), at Mt. Abu, Indiausing a NICMOS3 HgCdTe 256 x 256 NIR array based spectrometer. Thespectra have a moderate resolution of 1000 (about 16 A) at the H bandand have been continuum shape corrected to their respective effectivetemperatures. This library and the remaining ones in J and K bands oncereleased will serve as an important database for stellar populationsynthesis and other applications in conjunction with the newly formedlarge optical coude feed stellar spectral library of Valdes et al.(2004). The complete H-Band library is available online at: http://vo.iucaa.ernet.in/~voi/NIR_Header.html

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
The Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom.

Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrations
In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr).

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

The effective temperature scale of giant stars (F0-K5). III. Stellar radii and the calibration of convection
We present an analysis of radii of giant stars with 6200 K>= T_eff>= 3800 K based on angular diameters obtained by means of the IRFMand distances computed from Hipparcos parallaxes. In order to asses thereliability of IRFM diameters we have considered a selected sample ofstars whose diameters have been directly measured by interferometrictechniques with internal errors below 5%. The intercomparison shows afairly good consistency and no systematic differences againsttemperature are apparent in the analysis. By averaging the individualvalues obtained for a sample of approximately 300 stars, we present meanvalues of linear radii of giants of solar metallicity; the results aretentatively extended to metal-poor giants. We have also devised a methodto derive distance moduli of globular clusters complementary to thestandard Main Sequence (MS) and Horizontal Branch (HB) fitting. Thismethod is based on the fit of observed linear radii and effectivetemperatures of Red Giant Branch stars of a given globular cluster tothe yields of theoretical isochrones. A careful assessment of theuncertainty on the derived distances is provided. As expected, thedistances are critically dependent on the value of the mixing lengthparameter adopted in the stellar models. We have applied the method toprovide a homogeneous distance scale for a representative sample ofGalactic globular clusters. The comparison of these distances with thedistance scale obtained by means of the MS- or HB-fitting permits aconsistent calibration and/or test of the superadiabatic gradient instellar envelopes, independent of the use of colour-T_efftransformations.

Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over more than twocenturies and summarized in the FK5. Part I of the FK6 (abbreviatedFK6(I)) contains 878 basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Suchdirect solutions are appropriate for single stars or for objects whichcan be treated like single stars. From the 878 stars in Part I, we haveselected 340 objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since theirinstantaneous proper motions and mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,199 of the stars in Part I are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives in addition to the SI mode the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(I) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.35 mas/year. This isabout a factor of two better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.67 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(I) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.50 mas/year, which is by a factor of more than 4better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 2.21mas/year (cosmic errors included).

Photometric modelling of starspots - I. A Barnes-Evans-like surface brightness-colour relation using (Ic-K)
In the first part of this work, the empirical correlation of stellarsurface brightness FV with (Ic-K) broad-bandcolour is investigated by using a sample of stars cooler than the Sun. Abilinear correlation is found to represent well the brightness of G, Kand M giant stars. The change in slope occurs at (Ic-K)~2.1or at about the transition from K to M spectral types. The samerelationship is also investigated for dwarf stars and found to bedistinctly different from that of the giants. The dwarf star correlationdiffers by an average of -0.4 in (Ic-K) or by a maximum inFV of ~-0.1, positioning it below that of the giants, withboth trends tending towards convergence for the hotter stars in oursample. The flux distribution derived from theFV-(Ic-K) relationship for the giant stars,together with that derived from an FV-(V-K) relationship andthe blackbody flux distribution, is then utilized to compute syntheticlight V and colour (V-R)c, (V-I)c and (V-K) curvesof cool spotted stars. We investigate the effects on the amplitudes ofthe curves by using these FV-colour relations and by assumingthe effective gravity of the spots to be lower than the gravity of theunspotted photosphere. We find that the amplitudes produced by using theFV-(Ic-K) relationship are larger than thoseproduced by the other two brightness correlations, meaning smallerand/or warmer spots.

Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem HIPPARCOS Binaries
The ESA Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 12,000 doublestars and discovered 3406 new systems. In addition to these, 4706entries in the Hipparcos Catalogue correspond to double star solutionsthat did not provide the classical parameters of separation and positionangle (rho,theta) but were the so-called problem stars, flagged ``G,''``O,'' ``V,'' or ``X'' (field H59 of the main catalog). An additionalsubset of 6981 entries were treated as single objects but classified byHipparcos as ``suspected nonsingle'' (flag ``S'' in field H61), thusyielding a total of 11,687 ``problem stars.'' Of the many ground-basedtechniques for the study of double stars, probably the one with thegreatest potential for exploration of these new and problem Hipparcosbinaries is speckle interferometry. Results are presented from aninspection of 848 new and problem Hipparcos binaries, using botharchival and new speckle observations obtained with the USNO and CHARAspeckle cameras.

The effective temperature scale of giant stars (F0-K5). II. Empirical calibration of Teff versus colours and [Fe/H]
We present calibrations of the effective temperatures of giant starsversus [Fe/H] and colours (U-V), (B-V), (R-I), (V-R), (V-I), (V-K),(J-H), (J-K), (I-K), (V-L'), (b-y) and (u-b). These calibrations arebased on a large sample of field and globular cluster stars whichroughly cover spectral types from F0 to K5. Their effectivetemperatures, scaled to direct Teff determinations viareliable angular diameter measurements, were derived by applying theinfrared flux method. The empirical relations have been fitted topolynomials of the form theta_ {eff} = P(colour,[Fe/H]) by using theleast squares method. The precision of the fits ranges from 40 K for(V-K) to 170 K for (J-H). We tabulate intrinsic colours of giant starsin the ranges: 3500 K <= Teff <= 8000 K; -3.0 <=[Fe/H] <= +0.5. We also present the calibration of BC(V) as afunction of log(Teff) and metallicity. Finally, we comparethe resulting scale of temperatures with previous works.

The effective temperature scale of giant stars (F0-K5). I. The effective temperature determination by means of the IRFM
We have applied the InfraRed Flux Method (IRFM) to a sample ofapproximately 500 giant stars in order to derive their effectivetemperatures with an internal mean accuracy of about 1.5% and a maximumuncertainty in the zero point of the order of 0.9%. For the applicationof the IRFM, we have used a homogeneous grid of theoretical modelatmosphere flux distributions developed by \cite[Kurucz (1993)]{K93}.The atmospheric parameters of the stars roughly cover the ranges: 3500 K<= T_eff <= 8000 K; -3.0 <= [Fe/H] <= +0.5; 0.5 <= log(g) <= 3.5. The monochromatic infrared fluxes at the continuum arebased on recent photometry with errors that satisfy the accuracyrequirements of the work. We have derived the bolometric correction ofgiant stars by using a new calibration which takes the effect ofmetallicity into account. Direct spectroscopic determinations ofmetallicity have been adopted where available, although estimates basedon photometric calibrations have been considered for some stars lackingspectroscopic ones. The adopted infrared absolute flux calibration,based on direct optical measurements of stellar angular diameters, putsthe effective temperatures determined in this work in the same scale asthose obtained by direct methods. We have derived up to fourtemperatures, TJ, TH, TK and T_{L'},for each star using the monochromatic fluxes at different infraredwavelengths in the photometric bands J, H, K and L'. They show goodconsistency over 4000 K, and there is no appreciable trend withwavelength, metallicity and/or temperature. We provide a detaileddescription of the steps followed for the application of the IRFM, aswell as the sources of error and their effect on final temperatures. Wealso provide a comparison of the results with previous work.

Stellar radii of M giants
We determine the stellar radii of the M giant stars in the Hipparcoscatalogue that have a parallax measured to better than 20% accuracy.This is done with the help of a relation between a visual surfacebrightness parameter and the Cousins (V - I) colour index, which wecalibrate with M giants with published angular diameters.The radii of(non-Mira) M giants increase from a median value of 50 R_Sun at spectraltype M0 III to 170 R_Sun at M7/8 III. Typical intermediate giant radiiare 65 R_Sun for M1/M2, 90 R_Sun for M3, 100 R_Sun for M4, 120 R_Sun forM5 and 150 R_Sun for M6. There is a large intrinsic spread for a givenspectral type. This variance in stellar radius increases with latertypes but in relative terms, it remains constant.We determineluminosities and, from evolutionary tracks, stellar masses for oursample stars. The M giants in the solar neighbourhood have masses in therange 0.8-4 M_Sun. For a given spectral type, there is a close relationbetween stellar radius and stellar mass. We also find a linear relationbetween the mass and radius of non-variable M giants. With increasingamplitude of variability we have larger stellar radii for a given mass.

The Infrared Spectral Classification of Oxygen-rich Dust Shells
This paper presents infrared spectral classifications for a flux-limitedsample of 635 optically identified oxygen-rich variables includingsupergiants and sources on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Severalclasses of spectra from oxygen-rich dust exist, and these can bearranged in a smoothly varying sequence of spectral shapes known as thesilicate dust sequence. Classification based on this sequence revealsseveral dependencies of the dust emission on the properties of thecentral star. Nearly all S stars show broad emission features fromalumina dust, while most of the supergiants exhibit classic featuresfrom amorphous silicate dust. Mira variables with symmetric light curvesgenerally show broad alumina emission, while those with more asymmetriclight curves show classic silicate emission. These differences may arisefrom differences in the photospheric C/O ratio.

Broad-band JHK(L') photometry of a sample of giants with 0.5 > [Fe/H] > -3
We present the results of a three-year campaign of broad-band photometryin the near-infrared J, H, K and L' bands for a sample of approximately250 giant stars carried out at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife,Spain). Transformations of the Telescopio Carlos Sanchez systeminto/from several currently used infrared systems are extended to theredward part of the colour axis. The linearity of our photometric systemin the range -3 mag [Fe/H] >-3. Data of comparable quality previouslypublished have been added to the sample in order to increase thereliability of the relations to be obtained. We also provide mean IRcolours for giant stars according to spectral type.ables 1, 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form via the CDS(anonymous ftp or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.

A new method to solve stellar population synthesis problems with the use of a data base
In this paper, we present a new solution of the stellar populationsynthesis problem using as primary information the equivalent width ofthe absorption lines observed in the spectra of, say, a galaxy. It isshown that this problem leads to a formulation akin to the maximumentropy method so successfully applied in image analysis and elsewhere.Emphasis is placed on the fact that it is a certain type of inverseproblem for which many local solutions do exist. Among these localsolutions there generally exists a global solution which is difficult toobtain in practice. A new method to search for this solution isproposed. First we solve a problem that is slightly different from theoriginal one but which possesses a unique solution. Then we return tothe original problem using that solution as a starting point of a localexploration. Because the change between the two formulations getssmaller as the errors in the data get smaller, we have great confidencethat the solution we find in this way is an efficient one. As thissolution may not be physical, we argue that either (1) the errors in theobservations are too big for any method to work properly or (2) it isthe signature of an inadequate stellar base. We then explore allboundaries by removing one or more stars from the data base and retainonly those truncated data bases for which the solution is physical. Thefinal solution (called the GPG solution) is that solution whichminimizes a certain distance criterion. We have tested our methodagainst noise in the data by Monte Carlo simulations and found it to begenerally unbiased and to have a small dispersion around the true valuefor signal-to-noise ratio as low as 10. This property holds true at verylow signal-to-noise ratio for stellar contributions greater thanapproximately 10 per cent. An example of the new method for the study ofthe active galaxy NGC 5643 is given.

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

Systematic Errors in the FK5 Catalog as Derived from CCD Observations in the Extragalactic Reference Frame.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114..850S&db_key=AST

On the Determination of Empirical Stellar Flux Scales
Several studies have appeared in the literature describing methods forderiving stellar continuum fluxes as simple functions of Johnson colorindices. In previous papers, we have used similar relations to derive CaII H and K line core fluxes for dwarf stars on Lowell Observatory'sSolar-Stellar Spectrograph (SSS) program. Our desire is to present ourdata, and complementary data from the Mt. Wilson and National SolarObservatory stellar and solar programs, in terms of physical fluxes.However, our existing relations break down for mid-K and later stars andfor giant stars, which form an important element of our target list. Inthis work I have used a broader range of spectrophotometry and angulardiamters than in our previous work to derive empirical flux scales forspectral types A to early M, luminosity classes I to V, and for fourcolor indices, Johnson B-V, V-R, R-I, and Stromgren b-y. In this paper,I describe the methods I used and present the desired flux scales. Icompare the results with those from earlier studies and present examplesof the use of the flux scales. The data and results are available on theWorld Wide Web. (SECTION: Stars)

The pulsation, temperatures and metallicities of Mira and semiregular variables in different stellar systems
Data on angular diameters and infrared photometry for late-type starsare assembled. It is shown that a consistent T_eff scale can beestablished, combining results for Mira and non-Mira M-type stars. Thelog T_eff versus (J-K) relation is much steeper than previously adopted,but is consistent with predictions from model stellar atmospheres.Comparison of the linear diameters of Miras measured in the red spectralregion with those measured in the infrared shows that modelssuccessfully predict the extension observed in the red, and the combineddata provide strong evidence that Miras are pulsating in their firstovertone. Data on Miras and semiregular (SR) variables in globularclusters are compared with predictions from stellar evolution andpulsation theory. These data also support a steep log T_eff versus (J-K)relation at low temperatures. The Miras and SR variables in 47 Tucconform to theoretical expectation if they are undergoing an averagemass loss of ~3x10^-7 M_ yr^-1. SR variables in both metal-rich andmetal-poor globular clusters are probably pulsating, like the Miras intheir first overtone. The general agreement between observations andtheory now found suggests that infrared colour-period relations can beused to investigate overall metallicity differences between Miras indifferent stellar systems, at least at the shorter periods wherecircumstellar extinction is probably negligible. A comparison of Mirasin Galactic globular clusters of known metallicity with those in the LMCand in the SgrI window of the Galactic Bulge indicates that Miras ofperiods 100 to 300d in the LMC have a mean metallicity log z~-0.6,whilst those in SgrI have log z~-0.2, close to that of K giants in theNGC 6522 Bulge window. No evidence has yet been found for a dependenceof the Mira period-luminosity relation on metallicity, and it is pointedout that theory does not at present give a definitive prediction of suchan effect. Some stars of special interest are discussed in an appendix.

Transformations from Theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams to Color-Magnitude Diagrams: Effective Temperatures, B-V Colors, and Bolometric Corrections
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...469..355F&db_key=AST

Measurements of Starspot Area and Temperature on Five Active, Evolved Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...463..766O&db_key=AST

Irregular variables of type Lb. New JHKL'M-photometry for 160 stars.
This paper presents new near infrared observations of 160 Irregularvariables of type Lb in the JHKL'M filter bands. These measurements aresupplemented by data for additional 56 stars taken from the literature.In total 220 datasets are available because of some multipleobservations. From our sample, 216 stars have near infrared (NIR)photometry now. Our sample of visually bright Lb-variables displays verysimilar infrared properties when compared with SRa- and SRb-variables.Derived from NIR-two colour diagrams the oxygen-rich Lbs seem to haveintermediate atmospheric conditions between Miras and normal giants.There may be a sligthly larger "contamination" with non AGB-giants thanin the case of the semiregulars. Using only our IR-colours the S- andthe Carbon-stars among the Lbs again are undistinguishable fromSR-variables of the same chemistry.

A library of H band stellar spectra for stellar population analysis purposes.
A sample of 37 stars of luminosity classes I, III, V, including few SMRstars observed in the H band with a medium resolution (R=1500-2000) ispresented. This sample of flux calibrated spectra is intended to widenexisting stellar libraries. A new IR spectrograph, ISIS/IR, foreseen forCFHT has been used. Its main characteristics are briefly described.Stellar spectra obtained with this new spectrograph are compared tosimilar data obtained with the ESO NTT IRSPEC spectrograph. Thebehaviour of some prominent features is described and it is shown thatthe COλ1.60/SiIλ1.60 line ratio is a good luminosityindicator for stellar types later than K0.

H-alpha measurements for cool giants
The H-alpha line in a cool star is usually an indication of theconditions in its chromosphere. I have collected H-alpha spectra of manynorthern G-M stars, which show how the strength and shape of the H-alphaline change with spectral type. These observations detect surprisinglittle variation in absoption-line depth (Rc approximately0.23 +/- 0.08), linewidth (FWHD approximately 1.44 +/- 0.22 A), orequivalent width (EW approximately 1.12 +/- 0.17 A) among G5-M5 IIIgiants. Lines in the more luminous stars tend to be broader and strongerby 30%-40% than in the Class III giants, while the H-alpha absorptiontends to weaken among the cooler M giants. Velocities of H-alpha andnearby photospheric lines are the same to within 1.4 +/- 4.4 km/s forthe whole group. To interpret these observations, I have calculatedH-alpha profiles, Ly-alpha strengths, and (C II) strengths for a seriesof model chromospheres representing a cool giant star like alpha Tau.Results are sensitive to the mass of the chromosphere, to chromospherictemperature, to clumping of the gas, and to the assumed physics of lineformation. The ubiquitous nature of H-alpha in cool giants and the greatdepth of observed lines argue that chromospheres of giants cover theirstellar disks uniformly and are homogeneous on a large scale. This isquite different from conditions on a small scale: To obtain a highenough electron density with the theoretical models, both to explain theexitation of hydrogen and possibly also to give the observed C IImultiplet ratios, the gas is probably clumped. The 6540-6580 A spectraof 240 stars are plotted in an Appendix, which identifies the date ofobservation and marks positions of strong telluric lines on eachspectrum. I assess the effects of telluric lines and estimates that thestrength of scattered light is approximately 5% of the continuum inthese spectra. I give the measurements of H-alpha as well as equivalentwidths of two prominent photospheric lines, Fe I lambda 6546 and Ca Ilambda 6572, which strengthen with advancing spectral type.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h54m21.20s
Apparent magnitude:4.79
Distance:127.877 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-22
Proper motion Dec:-18
B-T magnitude:6.842
V-T magnitude:4.975

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Bayerψ Vir
Flamsteed40 Vir
HD 1989HD 112142
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 5535-1713-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0750-07979251
BSC 1991HR 4902
HIPHIP 62985

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