Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

κα Cet



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Reduction of time-resolved space-based CCD photometry developed for MOST Fabry Imaging data*
The MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars) satellite obtainsultraprecise photometry from space with high sampling rates and dutycycles. Astronomical photometry or imaging missions in low Earth orbits,like MOST, are especially sensitive to scattered light from Earthshine,and all these missions have a common need to extract target informationfrom voluminous data cubes. They consist of upwards of hundreds ofthousands of two-dimensional CCD frames (or subrasters) containing fromhundreds to millions of pixels each, where the target information,superposed on background and instrumental effects, is contained only ina subset of pixels (Fabry Images, defocused images, mini-spectra). Wedescribe a novel reduction technique for such data cubes: resolvinglinear correlations of target and background pixel intensities. Thisstep-wise multiple linear regression removes only those targetvariations which are also detected in the background. The advantage ofregression analysis versus background subtraction is the appropriatescaling, taking into account that the amount of contamination may differfrom pixel to pixel. The multivariate solution for all pairs oftarget/background pixels is minimally invasive of the raw photometrywhile being very effective in reducing contamination due to, e.g. straylight. The technique is tested and demonstrated with both simulatedoscillation signals and real MOST photometry.

Anharmonic and standing dynamo waves: theory and observation of stellar magnetic activity
The familiar decadal cycle of solar activity is one expression ofinterannual variability of surface magnetism observed in stars on ornear the lower main sequence. From studies of time-series of CaII H andK emission fluxes that go back more than 35 yr and have been accumulatedfor such stars at the Mount Wilson Observatory by the HK Project, wedefine a quantitative measure, called anharmonicity, of the cycliccomponent of interannual magnetic variability. Anharmonicity provides aconnection between observed variations in magnetic activity and thetwo-dimensional description of a Parker dynamo model. We explore theparameter space of the Parker dynamo model and find an excellentcounterpart in the records of several of the lowest-mass (late K-type toearly M-type) active stars in the HK Project sample to the solutionscontaining highly anharmonic, standing dynamo waves. We interpretanharmonicity apparent in the records as resulting from non-propagatingor standing dynamo waves, which operate in a regime that issubstantially supercriticial. There, for the majority of a cycle, orpulse of decadal-to-interdecadal variability, the large-scale magneticfields are generated and maintained by winding of field by differentialrotation rather than by the joint action of differential rotation andhelical convection. Among the less active stars (the Sun is consideredsuch a star in the HK Project sample) we find a correspondence betweenanharmonicity and Parker dynamo model solutions that include simpleharmonic, migratory and/or intermediate-type dynamo wave patterns over abroad range of dynamo parameters.

A Comparative Study of Flaring Loops in Active Stars
Dynamo activity in stars of different types is expected to generatemagnetic fields with different characteristics. As a result, adifferential study of the characteristics of magnetic loops in a broadsample of stars may yield information about dynamo systematics. In theabsence of direct imaging, certain physical parameters of a stellarmagnetic loop can be extracted if a flare occurs in that loop. In thispaper we employ a simple nonhydrodynamic approach introduced by Haisch,to analyze a homogeneous sample of all of the flares we could identifyin the EUVE DS database: a total of 134 flares that occurred on 44 starsranging in spectral type from F to M and in luminosity class from V toIII. All of the flare light curves that have been used in the presentstudy were obtained by a single instrument (EUVE DS). For each flare, wehave applied Haisch's simplified approach (HSA) in order to determineloop length, temperature, electron density, and magnetic field. For eachof our target stars, a literature survey has been performed to determinequantitatively the extent to which our results are consistent withindependent studies. The results obtained by HSA are found to be wellsupported by results obtained by other methods. Our survey suggeststhat, on the main sequence, short loops (with lengths<=0.5R*) may be found in stars of all classes, while thelargest loops (with lengths up to 2R*) appear to be confinedto M dwarfs. Based on EUVE data, the transition from small to largeloops on the main sequence appears to occur between spectral types K2and M0. We discuss the implications of this result for dynamo theories.

Frequency of Debris Disks around Solar-Type Stars: First Results from a Spitzer MIPS Survey
We have searched for infrared excesses around a well-defined sample of69 FGK main-sequence field stars. These stars were selected withoutregard to their age, metallicity, or any previous detection of IRexcess; they have a median age of ~4 Gyr. We have detected 70 μmexcesses around seven stars at the 3 σ confidence level. Thisextra emission is produced by cool material (<100 K) located beyond10 AU, well outside the ``habitable zones'' of these systems andconsistent with the presence of Kuiper Belt analogs with ~100 times moreemitting surface area than in our own planetary system. Only one star,HD 69830, shows excess emission at 24 μm, corresponding to dust withtemperatures >~300 K located inside of 1 AU. While debris disks withLdust/L*>=10-3 are rare around oldFGK stars, we find that the disk frequency increases from 2%+/-2% forLdust/L*>=10-4 to 12%+/-5% forLdust/L*>=10-5. This trend in thedisk luminosity distribution is consistent with the estimated dust inour solar system being within an order of magnitude greater or less thanthe typical level around similar nearby stars. Although there is nocorrelation of IR excess with metallicity or spectral type, there is aweak correlation with stellar age, with stars younger than a gigayearmore likely to have excess emission.

Detection Limits from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search Program
Based on the long-term radial velocity surveys carried out with theMcDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope from 1988 to thepresent, we derive upper limits to long-period giant planet companionsfor 31 nearby stars. Data from three phases of the McDonald Observatory2.7 m planet-search program have been merged together, and for 17objects data from the pioneering Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope radialvelocity program have also been included in the companion-limitsdetermination. For those 17 objects, the baseline of observations is inexcess of 23 yr, enabling the detection or exclusion of giant planets inorbits beyond 8 AU. We also consider the possibility of eccentric orbitsin our computations. At an orbital separation of 5.2 AU, we can excludeon average planets of Msini>~(2.0+/-1.1)MJ (e=0) andMsini>~(4.0+/-2.8)MJ (e=0.6) for 25 of the 31 stars inthis survey. However, we are not yet able to rule out ``true Jupiters,''i.e., planets of Msini~1MJ in 5.2 AU orbits. These limits areof interest for the Space Interferometry Mission, Terrestrial PlanetFinder, and Darwin missions, which will search for terrestrial planetsorbiting nearby stars, many of which are included in this work.

Dwarfs in the Local Region
We present lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundance data for a sample ofnearby dwarfs-a total of 216 stars-including samples within 15 pc of theSun, as well as a sample of local close giant planet (CGP) hosts (55stars) and comparison stars. The spectroscopic data for this work have aresolution of R~60,000, a signal-to-noise ratio >150, and spectralcoverage from 475 to 685 nm. We have redetermined parameters and derivedadditional abundances (Z>10) for the CGP host and comparison samples.From our abundances for elements with Z>6 we determine the meanabundance of all elements in the CGP hosts to range from 0.1 to 0.2 dexhigher than nonhosts. However, when relative abundances ([x/Fe]) areconsidered we detect no differences in the samples. We find nodifference in the lithium contents of the hosts versus the nonhosts. Theplanet hosts appear to be the metal-rich extension of local regionabundances, and overall trends in the abundances are dominated byGalactic chemical evolution. A consideration of the kinematics of thesample shows that the planet hosts are spread through velocity space;they are not exclusively stars of the thin disk.

Precise Differential Analysis of Stellar Metallicities: Application to Solar Analogs Including 16 Cyg A and B
A method is presented for very accurately establishing the differencesof the atmospheric parameters (the effective temperature, the surfacegravity, the microturbulent velocity, and the Fe abundance) between twosimilar stars by using the equivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines,which is a variant of the numerical solution-search approach developedby Takeda et al. (2002, PASJ, 54, 451), while being inspired by thespirit of the orthodox ``differential curve-of-growth'' procedure. Byapplying this technique to eight selected stars similar to the Sun [HD20630, 76151, 134987, 181655, 186408 (16 Cyg A), 186427 (16 Cyg B),195019, and 217014] along with the Sun itself, the parameter differencesbetween any pairs of these stars could be successfully determined toprecisions of ˜ 10 K (in ΔTeff), ˜ 0.02dex (inΔlog g), ˜0.02 km s-1 (in Δv t), and ˜0.01 dex (in ΔA Fe). Regarding 16 Cyg A and B, awell-known ``solar twin'' system where a planet has been detected onlyin B, the metallicities of these two components were concluded to beessentially the same to a level of ≲ 0.01 dex.

Lithium Abundances of F-, G-, and K-Type Stars: Profile-Fitting Analysis of the Li I 6708 Doublet
An extensive profile-fitting analysis was performed for the Li(+Fe)6707-6708Å feature of nearby 160 F-K dwarfs/subgiants (including27 planet-host stars) in the Galactic disk ( 7000 K ≳Teff ≳ 5000 K, -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.4), in orderto establish the photospheric lithium abundances of these stars. Thenon-LTE effect (though quantitatively insignificant) was taken intoaccount based on our statistical equilibrium calculations, which werecarried out on an adequate grid of models. Our results confirmed most ofthe interesting observational characteristics revealed by recentlypublished studies, such as the bimodal distribution of the Li abundancesfor stars at Teff ≳ 6000 K, the satisfactory agreementof the upper envelope of the A(Li) vs. [Fe/H] distribution with thetheoretical models, the existence of a positive correlation betweenA(Li) and the stellar mass, and the tendency of lower lithium abundancesof planet-host stars (as compared to stars without planets) at thenarrow ``transition'' region of 5900 K ≳ Teff ≳5800 K. The solar Li abundance derived from this analysis is 0.92 (H =12.00), which is by 0.24dex lower than the widely referenced standardvalue of 1.16.

Spectroscopic Study on the Atmospheric Parameters of Nearby F--K Dwarfs and Subgiants
Based on a collection of high-dispersion spectra obtained at OkayamaAstrophysical Observatory, the atmospheric parameters (Teff,log g, vt, and [Fe/H]) of 160 mid-F through early-K starswere extensively determined by the spectroscopic method using theequivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines along with the numericaltechnique of Takeda et al. (2002, PASJ, 54, 451). The results arecomprehensively discussed and compared with the parameter values derivedby different approaches (e.g., photometric colors, theoreticalevolutionary tracks, Hipparcos parallaxes, etc.) as well as with thepublished values found in various literature. It has been confirmed thatour purely spectroscopic approach yields fairly reliable and consistentresults.

The dependence of the Rossby number and XUV-Lyα emission flux with age for solar-like G-type stars
Stellar parameters of 11 G-type stars with ages ranging from 0.1 to 8.5Gyr, from the Sun in Time programme, were used to compute the Rossbynumber, ℜ, for each star. The Rossby number for each star wascalculated from the rotation period and the convective overturn timederived from spectral type (B-V). It was found to vary essentially ast0.5, where t is the stellar age in Gyr. The Rossby number isused as an index of X-ray-ultraviolet (XUV) (1-1200 Å) andLyα activity, defined as the ratio of the total emission flux inthese spectral regions to the total bolometric emission. Expressions forthe ratio of the stellar surface XUV and Lyα emission fluxrelative to present mean solar surface flux values are given in terms ofℜ. It is shown that the observed activity in these stars varies asℜ-β, where β takes values of 2.5 and 1.5 forXUV and Lyα, respectively. Expressions for deriving the Rossbynumber from B-V and age are also given. Thus, one can use the stellarB-V and effective temperature variation with age to calculate the XUVand Lyα emission flux relative to present solar values. As anexample, the evolution of the solar XUV and Lyα with age from 0.1to 8.5 Gyr is given. The variation of the stellar ultraviolet flux withage can be used in photochemical models to study the evolution ofplanetary atmospheres orbiting such stars.

Canada's Little Space Telescope That Could: Another Year of Scientific Surprises From the MOST Microsatellite
At CASCA 2004 in Winnipeg, I announced the first scientific results fromthe MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) mission,launched in summer 2003. These included the controversial null detectionof acoustic oscillations in the light output of Procyon, at odds withtheory and groundbased spectroscopy, and the first direct measurement ofdifferential rotation in a star other than the Sun, kappa 1 Ceti. A yearlater, by CASCA 2005 in Montreal, I'll be able to share even moreexciting astrophysics, including: ultraprecise photometric studies ofexoplanetary systems like 51 Pegasi, tau Bootis, and HD 209458; newperspectives on massive stars like zeta Oph and the Wolf-Rayet star WR123; the definitive eigenfrequency spectrum of a pulsating chemicallypeculiar star (HR 1217), which provides an acid test for theories ofmagneto-acoustic coupling; and seismology of pulsating protostars in theopen cluster NGC 2264. I'll also return to Procyon, shedding more lighton the oscillation controversy by showing how MOST observations compareto 3-D hydrodynamical simulations of granulation in that star. Andbetween February and May, MOST will monitor a G dwarf and a K dwarf tosearch for true analogues of the solar 5-min oscillations. Too much tofit into 50 minutes, but I'll try to convey a broad flavour of thediverse MOST science (and, as usual, I'll talk really, really fast).

Making the MOST of it.
Not Available

Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search Programs
We present a uniform catalog of stellar properties for 1040 nearby F, G,and K stars that have been observed by the Keck, Lick, and AAT planetsearch programs. Fitting observed echelle spectra with synthetic spectrayielded effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projectedrotational velocity, and abundances of the elements Na, Si, Ti, Fe, andNi, for every star in the catalog. Combining V-band photometry andHipparcos parallaxes with a bolometric correction based on thespectroscopic results yielded stellar luminosity, radius, and mass.Interpolating Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the luminosity, effectivetemperature, metallicity, and α-element enhancement of each staryielded a theoretical mass, radius, gravity, and age range for moststars in the catalog. Automated tools provide uniform results and makeanalysis of such a large sample practical. Our analysis method differsfrom traditional abundance analyses in that we fit the observed spectrumdirectly, rather than trying to match equivalent widths, and wedetermine effective temperature and surface gravity from the spectrumitself, rather than adopting values based on measured photometry orparallax. As part of our analysis, we determined a new relationshipbetween macroturbulence and effective temperature on the main sequence.Detailed error analysis revealed small systematic offsets with respectto the Sun and spurious abundance trends as a function of effectivetemperature that would be inobvious in smaller samples. We attempted toremove these errors by applying empirical corrections, achieving aprecision per spectrum of 44 K in effective temperature, 0.03 dex inmetallicity, 0.06 dex in the logarithm of gravity, and 0.5 kms-1 in projected rotational velocity. Comparisons withprevious studies show only small discrepancies. Our spectroscopicallydetermined masses have a median fractional precision of 15%, but theyare systematically 10% higher than masses obtained by interpolatingisochrones. Our spectroscopic radii have a median fractional precisionof 3%. Our ages from isochrones have a precision that variesdramatically with location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We planto extend the catalog by applying our automated analysis technique toother large stellar samples.

Stellar Lyα Emission Lines in the Hubble Space Telescope Archive: Intrinsic Line Fluxes and Absorption from the Heliosphere and Astrospheres
We search the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive for previouslyunanalyzed observations of stellar H I Lyα emission lines, ourprimary purpose being to look for new detections of Lyα absorptionfrom the outer heliosphere and to also search for analogous absorptionfrom the astrospheres surrounding the observed stars. The astrosphericabsorption is of particular interest because it can be used to studysolar-like stellar winds that are otherwise undetectable. We find andanalyze 33 HST Lyα spectra in the archive. All the spectra weretaken with the E140M grating of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph(STIS) instrument on board HST. The HST STIS spectra yield four newdetections of heliospheric absorption (70 Oph, ξ Boo, 61 Vir, and HD165185) and seven new detections of astrospheric absorption (EV Lac, 70Oph, ξ Boo, 61 Vir, δ Eri, HD 128987, and DK UMa), doubling theprevious number of heliospheric and astrospheric detections. Whencombined with previous results, 10 of 17 lines of sight within 10 pcyield detections of astrospheric absorption. This high detectionfraction implies that most of the ISM within 10 pc must be at leastpartially neutral, since the presence of H I within the ISM surroundingthe observed star is necessary for an astrospheric detection. Incontrast, the detection percentage is only 9.7% (3 out of 31) for starsbeyond 10 pc. Our Lyα analyses provide measurements of ISM H I andD I column densities for all 33 lines of sight, and we discuss someimplications of these results. Finally, we measure chromosphericLyα fluxes from the observed stars. We use these fluxes todetermine how Lyα flux correlates with coronal X-ray andchromospheric Mg II emission, and we also study how Lyα emissiondepends on stellar rotation.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

Predicting the Length of Magnetic Cycles in Late-Type Stars
In this paper we present a modification of a local approximation of theso-called interface dynamo in an attempt to reproduce the length of themagnetic cycles for a sample of late-type stars. The sample consists of25 stars, observed during the Mount Wilson and Las Campanas long-termmonitoring campaigns, for which well-defined cycles have been detected.We have focused our efforts on reproducing general trends observed,namely, the dependence of the cycle length, Pcyc, on thestellar rotation period, Prot, rather than attempting toinfer from the dynamo model individual cycle lengths for each star. Inspite of the simplicity of the model, the results are promising. Thetrend of increasing cycle length with increasing rotation period isreproduced with a minimum of assumptions.

UVBLUE: A New High-Resolution Theoretical Library of Ultraviolet Stellar Spectra
We present an extended ultraviolet-blue (850-4700 Å) library oftheoretical stellar spectral energy distributions computed at highresolution, λ/Δλ=50,000. The UVBLUE grid, as wenamed the library, is based on LTE calculations carried out with ATLAS9and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz and consists of nearly 1800entries that cover a large volume of the parameter space. It spans arange in Teff from 3000 to 50,000 K, the surface gravityranges from logg=0.0 to 5.0 with Δlogg=0.5 dex, while sevenchemical compositions are considered:[M/H]=-2.0,-1.5,-1.0,-0.5,+0.0,+0.3, and +0.5 dex. For its coverageacross the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, this library is the mostcomprehensive one ever computed at high resolution in theshort-wavelength spectral range, and useful application can be foreseenfor both the study of single stars and in population synthesis models ofgalaxies and other stellar systems. We briefly discuss some relevantissues for a safe application of the theoretical output to ultravioletobservations, and a comparison of our LTE models with the non-LTE (NLTE)ones from the TLUSTY code is also carried out. NLTE spectra are found,on average, to be slightly ``redder'' compared to the LTE ones for thesame value of Teff, while a larger difference could bedetected for weak lines, which are nearly wiped out by the enhanced coreemission component in case of NLTE atmospheres. These effects seem to bemagnified at low metallicity (typically [M/H]<~-1). A match with aworking sample of 111 stars from the IUE atlas, with availableatmosphere parameters from the literature, shows that UVBLUE modelsprovide an accurate description of the main mid- and low-resolutionspectral features for stars along the whole sequence from the B to ~G5type. The comparison sensibly degrades for later spectral types, withsupergiant stars that are in general more poorly reproduced than dwarfs.As a possible explanation of this overall trend, we partly invoke theuncertainty in the input atmosphere parameters to compute thetheoretical spectra. In addition, one should also consider the importantcontamination of the IUE stellar sample, where the presence of binaryand variable stars certainly works in the sense of artificiallyworsening the match between theory and observations.

Single-Visit Photometric and Obscurational Completeness
We report a method that uses ``completeness'' to estimate the number ofextrasolar planets discovered by an observing program with adirect-imaging instrument. We develop a completeness function forEarth-like planets on ``habitable'' orbits for an instrument with acentral field obscuration, uniform sensitivity in an annular detectionzone, and limiting sensitivity that is expressed as a ``deltamagnitude'' with respect to the star, determined by systematic effects(given adequate exposure time). We demonstrate our method of estimationby applying it to our understanding of the coronagraphic version of theTerrestrial Planet Finder (TPF-C) mission as of 2004 October. Weestablish an initial relationship between the size, quality, andstability of the instrument's optics and its ability to meet missionscience requirements. We provide options for increasing the fidelity andversatility of the models on which our method is based, and we discusshow the method could be extended to model the TPF-C mission as a wholeto verify that its design can meet the science requirements.

The Planet-Metallicity Correlation
We have recently carried out spectral synthesis modeling to determineTeff, logg, vsini, and [Fe/H] for 1040 FGK-type stars on theKeck, Lick, and Anglo-Australian Telescope planet search programs. Thisis the first time that a single, uniform spectroscopic analysis has beenmade for every star on a large Doppler planet search survey. We identifya subset of 850 stars that have Doppler observations sufficient todetect uniformly all planets with radial velocity semiamplitudes K>30m s-1 and orbital periods shorter than 4 yr. From this subsetof stars, we determine that fewer than 3% of stars with-0.5<[Fe/H]<0.0 have Doppler-detected planets. Above solarmetallicity, there is a smooth and rapid rise in the fraction of starswith planets. At [Fe/H]>+0.3 dex, 25% of observed stars have detectedgas giant planets. A power-law fit to these data relates the formationprobability for gas giant planets to the square of the number of metalatoms. High stellar metallicity also appears to be correlated with thepresence of multiple-planet systems and with the total detected planetmass. This data set was examined to better understand the origin of highmetallicity in stars with planets. None of the expected fossilsignatures of accretion are observed in stars with planets relative tothe general sample: (1) metallicity does not appear to increase as themass of the convective envelopes decreases, (2) subgiants with planetsdo not show dilution of metallicity, (3) no abundance variations for Na,Si, Ti, or Ni are found as a function of condensation temperature, and(4) no correlations between metallicity and orbital period oreccentricity could be identified. We conclude that stars with extrasolarplanets do not have an accretion signature that distinguishes them fromother stars; more likely, they are simply born in higher metallicitymolecular clouds.Based on observations obtained at Lick and Keck Observatories, operatedby the University of California, and the Anglo-Australian Observatories.

Hot Jupiters and Hot Spots: The Short- and Long-Term Chromospheric Activity on Stars with Giant Planets
We monitored the chromospheric activity in the Ca II H and K lines of 13solar-type stars (including the Sun): 8 of them over 3 years at theCanada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and 5 in a single run at the VeryLarge Telescope (VLT). A total of 10 of the 13 targets have closeplanetary companions. All of the stars observed at the CFHT showlong-term (months to years) changes in H and K intensity levels. Fourstars display short-term (days) cyclical activity. For two, HD 73256 andκ1 Cet, the activity is likely associated with anactive region rotating with the star; however, the flaring in excess ofthe rotational modulation may be associated with a hot Jupiter. Aplanetary companion remains a possibility for κ1 Cet.For the other two, HD 179949 and υ And, the cyclic variation issynchronized to the hot Jupiter's orbit. For both stars thissynchronicity with the orbit is clearly seen in two out of three epochs.The effect is only marginal in the third epoch at which the seasonallevel of chromospheric activity had changed for both stars. Short-termchromospheric activity appears weakly dependent on the mean K linereversal intensities for the sample of 13 stars. In addition, asuggestive correlation exists between this activity and theMpsini of the star's hot Jupiter. Because of their smallseparation (<=0.1 AU), many of the hot Jupiters lie within theAlfvén radius of their host stars, which allows a direct magneticinteraction with the stellar surface. We discuss the conditions underwhich a planet's magnetic field might induce activity on the stellarsurface and why no such effect was seen for the prime candidate, τBoo. This work opens up the possibility of characterizing planet-starinteractions, with implications for extrasolar planet magnetic fieldsand the energy contribution to stellar atmospheres.Based on observations collected at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescopeoperated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre Nationalde la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii, aswell as data from the European Southern Observatory's Very LargeTelescope, Chile (programme ESO 73.C-0694).

Evolution of the Solar Activity over Time and Effects on Planetary Atmospheres. I. High-Energy Irradiances (1-1700 Å)
We report on the results of the Sun in Time multiwavelength program(X-rays to UV) of solar analogs with ages covering ~0.1-7 Gyr. The chiefscience goals are to study the solar magnetic dynamo and to determinethe radiative and magnetic properties of the Sun during its evolutionacross the main sequence. The present paper focuses on the latter goal,which has the ultimate purpose of providing the spectral irradianceevolution of solar-type stars to be used in the study and modeling ofplanetary atmospheres. The results from the Sun in Time program suggestthat the coronal X-ray-EUV emissions of the young main-sequence Sun were~100-1000 times stronger than those of the present Sun. Similarly, thetransition region and chromospheric FUV-UV emissions of the young Sunare expected to be 20-60 and 10-20 times stronger, respectively, than atpresent. When we consider the integrated high-energy emission from 1 to1200 Å, the resulting relationship indicates that about 2.5 Gyrago the solar high-energy flux was about 2.5 times the present value andabout 3.5 Gyr ago was about 6 times the present value (when lifesupposedly arose on Earth). The strong radiation emissions inferredshould have had major influences on the thermal structure,photochemistry, and photoionization of planetary atmospheres and haveplayed an important role in the development of primitive life in thesolar system. Some examples of the application of the Sun in Timeresults on exoplanets and on early solar system planets are discussed.

Coronal Evolution of the Sun in Time: High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of Solar Analogs with Different Ages
We investigate the long-term evolution of X-ray coronae of solar analogsbased on high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and photometry withXMM-Newton. Six nearby main-sequence G stars with ages between ~0.1 and~1.6 Gyr and rotation periods between ~1 and 12.4 days have beenobserved. We use the X-ray spectra to derive coronal element abundancesof C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe and the coronal emission measuredistribution (EMD). We find that the abundances change from an inversefirst ionization potential (FIP) distribution in stars with ages around0.1 Gyr to a solar-type FIP distribution in stars at ages of 0.3 Gyr andbeyond. This transformation is coincident with a steep decline ofnonthermal radio emission. The results are in qualitative agreement witha simple model in which the stream of electrons in magnetic fieldssuppresses diffusion of low-FIP ions from the chromosphere into thecorona. The coronal emission measure distributions show shapescharacterized by power laws on each side of the EMD peak. The lattershifts from temperatures of about 10 MK in the most rapidly rotating,young stars to temperatures around 4 MK in the oldest target consideredhere. The power-law index on the cooler side of the EMD exceeds expectedslopes for static loops, with typical values being 1.5-3. We interpretthis slope with a model in which the coronal emission is due to asuperposition of stochastically occurring flares, with an occurrencerate that is distributed in radiated energy E as a power law,dN/dE~E-α, as previously found for solar and stellarflares. We obtain the relevant power-law index α from the slope ofthe high-temperature tail of the EMD. Our EMDs indicate α~2.2-2.8,in excellent agreement with values previously derived from light curvesof magnetically active stars. Modulation with timescales reminiscent offlares is found in the light curves of all our targets. Several strongflares are also observed. We use our α-values to simulate lightcurves and compare them with the observed light curves. We thus derivethe range of flare energies required to explain the light-curvemodulation. More active stars require a larger range of flare energiesthan less active stars within the framework of this simplistic model. Inan overall scenario, we propose that flaring activity plays a largerrole in more active stars. In this model, the higher flare rate isresponsible both for the higher average coronal temperature and the highcoronal X-ray luminosity, two parameters that are indeed found to becorrelated.

Chromospherically Active Stars. XXV. HD 144110=EV Draconis, a Double-lined Dwarf Binary
New spectroscopic and photometric observations of HD 144110 have beenused to obtain an improved orbital element solution and determine somebasic properties of the system. This chromospherically active,double-lined spectroscopic binary has an orbital period of 1.6714012days and a circular orbit. We classify the components as G5 V and K0 Vand suggest that they are slightly metal-rich. The photometricobservations indicate that the rotation of HD 144110 is synchronous withthe orbital period. Despite the short orbital period, no evidence ofeclipses is seen in our photometry.

Stars within 15 Parsecs: Abundances for a Northern Sample
We present an abundance analysis for stars within 15 pc of the Sunlocated north of -30° declination. We have limited our abundancesample to absolute magnitudes brighter than +7.5 and have eliminatedseveral A stars in the local vicinity. Our final analysis list numbers114 stars. Unlike Allende Prieto et al. in their consideration of a verysimilar sample, we have enforced strict spectroscopic criteria in thedetermination of atmospheric parameters. Nevertheless, our results arevery similar to theirs. We determine the mean metallicity of the localregion to be <[Fe/H]>=-0.07 using all stars and -0.04 when interlopersfrom the thick disk are eliminated.

Abundance trends in kinematical groups of the Milky Way's disk
We have compiled a large catalogue of metallicities and abundance ratiosfrom the literature in order to investigate abundance trends of severalalpha and iron peak elements in the thin disk and the thick disk of theGalaxy. The catalogue includes 743 stars with abundances of Fe, O, Mg,Ca, Ti, Si, Na, Ni and Al in the metallicity range -1.30 < [Fe/H]< +0.50. We have checked that systematic differences betweenabundances measured in the different studies were lower than randomerrors before combining them. Accurate distances and proper motions fromHipparcos and radial velocities from several sources have been retreivedfor 639 stars and their velocities (U, V, W) and galactic orbits havebeen computed. Ages of 322 stars have been estimated with a Bayesianmethod of isochrone fitting. Two samples kinematically representative ofthe thin and thick disks have been selected, taking into account theHercules stream which is intermediate in kinematics, but with a probabledynamical origin. Our results show that the two disks are chemicallywell separated, they overlap greatly in metallicity and both showparallel decreasing alpha elements with increasing metallicity, in theinterval -0.80 < [Fe/H] < -0.30. The Mg enhancement with respectto Fe of the thick disk is measured to be 0.14 dex. An even largerenhancement is observed for Al. The thick disk is clearly older than thethin disk with tentative evidence of an AMR over 2-3 Gyr and a hiatus instar formation before the formation of the thin disk. We do not observea vertical gradient in the metallicity of the thick disk. The Herculesstream has properties similar to that of the thin disk, with a widerrange of metallicity. Metal-rich stars assigned to the thick disk andsuper-metal-rich stars assigned to the thin disk appear as outliers inall their properties.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

Orbital period variation in close binaries from radial velocity data and magnetic activity cycles. II. HR 1099
We studied orbital period changes in the non-eclipsing close binary HR1099, one of the most bright members of the RS CVn class of magneticallyactive binary systems. Intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy andIUE archive spectra were used to build radial-velocity curves yieldingepochs of superior conjunction with an accuracy of 0.01 days. The finaldatabase ranged from 1976 to 2002 and allowed us a better assessment ofthe amplitude of the orbital period variation and its timescale. On thebasis of such results, the mechanisms proposed to explain the observedperiod change were briefly discussed giving further support to thepossible connection between the orbital period modulation and the changeof the gravitational quadrupole moment of the K1 subgiant component, inthe framework of the model elaborated by Lanza et al. (\cite{Lanza98}).Based on IUE archive data and observations collected at CataniaAstrophysical Observatory, Italy.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/429/309

Differential Rotation of the Active G5 V Star κ1 Ceti: Photometry from the MOST Satellite
About 30.5 days of nearly uninterrupted broadband photometry of thesolar-type star κ1 Ceti, obtained with the MOST(Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars) satellite, shows evidencefor two large starspots with different rotation periods of 8.9 and ~9.3days (ΔΩ/Ω~=4%). Ground-based measurements of Ca II Hand K emission in 2002 and 2003 reveal variations in chromosphericactivity with a period of about 9.3 days. The data were obtained duringthe MOST commissioning phase. When the data are combined with historicalobservations, they indicate that the 9.3 day spot has been stable in itsperiod for over 30 yr. The photometry, with a sampling rate ofapproximately once per minute, was also used to search for acoustic(p-mode) oscillations in the star. We detect no clear evidence forp-modes in the κ1 Ceti photometry, with a noise levelaround 7-9 μmag at frequencies in the range of 0.5-4 mHz (3 σdetection limit of 21-27 μmag). There were no flares or planetarytransits during 30.5 days of MOST monitoring with light amplitudesgreater than 2 mmag (durations >200 minutes) and 3 mmag (2-200 minutedurations). While this rules out any close-in planets with Jupiterdiameters >=0.5 and orbital inclinations close to 90°, thescatter in differential radial velocities permit a close giant planet ina more highly inclined orbit.Based on data obtained with the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agencymission jointly operated by Dynacon, Inc., the University of TorontoInstitute of Aerospace Studies, and the University of British Columbia.

CHORIZOS: A χ2 Code for Parameterized Modeling and Characterization of Photometry and Spectrophotometry
We have developed CHi-square cOde for parameterRized modeling andcharacterIZation of phOtometry and Spectrophotmetry (CHORIZOS). CHORIZOScan use up to two intrinsic free parameters (e.g., temperature andgravity for stars, type and redshift for galaxies, or age andmetallicity for stellar clusters) and two extrinsic parameters (amountand type of extinction). The code uses χ2 minimization tofind all models compatible with the observed data in the modelN-dimensional (N=1, 2, 3, 4) parameter space. CHORIZOS can use eithercorrelated or uncorrelated colors as input and is specially designed toidentify possible parameter degeneracies and multiple solutions. Thecode is written in IDL and is available to the astronomical community.Here we present the techniques used, test the code, apply it to a fewwell-known astronomical problems, and suggest possible applications. Asa first scientific result from CHORIZOS, we confirm from photometry theneed for a revised temperature-spectral type scale for OB starspreviously derived from spectroscopy.

A survey of 10-μm silicate emission from dust around young sun-like stars
We obtained low resolution (R=100) mid-infrared (8-13 μm wavelengths)spectra of 8 nearby young main sequence stars with the Keck 1 telescopeand Long-Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) to search for 10 μm silicate(Si-O stretch) emission from circumstellar dust. No stars exhibitedreadily apparent emission: Spectra were then analyzed by least-squaresfitting of a template based on a spectrum of Comet Hale-Bopp. Using thistechnique, we were able to constrain the level of silicate emission to athreshold 10 times below what was previously possible from space. Wefound one star, HD 17925, with a spectrum statistically differentfrom its calibrator and consistent with a silicate emission peak of 7%of the photosphere at a wavelength of 10 μm. Excess emission at 60μm from this star has already been reported.

MOST shakes up the stellar world.
Not Available

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:03h19m21.70s
Apparent magnitude:4.83
Distance:9.159 parsecs
Proper motion RA:269.7
Proper motion Dec:93.6
B-T magnitude:5.67
V-T magnitude:4.919

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Bayerκα Cet
Flamsteed96 Cet
HD 1989HD 20630
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 59-1947-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0900-00767296
BSC 1991HR 996
HIPHIP 15457

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR