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HD 208816 (VV Cephei)



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Cloud Structure and Physical Conditions in Star-forming Regions from Optical Observations. II. Analysis
To complement the optical absorption line survey of diffuse moleculargas in Paper I, we obtained and analyzed far-ultraviolet H2and CO data on lines of sight toward stars in Cep OB2 and Cep OB3.Possible correlations between column densities of different species forindividual velocity components, not total columns along a line of sightas in the past, were examined and were interpreted in terms of cloudstructure. The analysis reveals that there are two kinds of CH indiffuse molecular gas: CN-like CH and CH+-like CH. Evidenceis provided that CO is also associated with CN in diffuse molecularclouds. Different species are distributed according to gas density inthe diffuse molecular gas. Both calcium and potassium may be depletedonto grains in high-density gas, but with different dependencies onlocal gas density. Gas densities for components where CN was detectedwere inferred from a chemical model. Analysis of cloud structureindicates that our data are generally consistent with the large-scalestructure suggested by maps of CO millimeter-wave emission. On smallscales, the gas density is seen to vary by factors greater than 5.0 overscales of ~10,000 AU. The relationships between column densities of COand CH with that of H2 along a line of sight show similarslopes for the gas toward Cep OB2 and Cep OB3, but the CO/H2and CH/H2 ratios tend to differ, which we ascribe tovariation in average density along the line of sight.

The Effective Temperature Scale of Galactic Red Supergiants: Cool, but Not As Cool As We Thought
We use moderate-resolution optical spectrophotometry and the new MARCSstellar atmosphere models to determine the effective temperatures of 74Galactic red supergiants (RSGs). The stars are mostly members of OBassociations or clusters with known distances, allowing a criticalcomparison with modern stellar evolutionary tracks. We find we canachieve excellent matches between the observations and the reddenedmodel fluxes and molecular transitions, although the atomic lines Ca Iλ4226 and Ca II H and K are found to be unrealistically strong inthe models. Our new effective temperature scale is significantly warmerthan those in the literature, with the differences amounting to 400 Kfor the latest type M supergiants (i.e., M5 I). We show that the newlyderived temperatures and bolometric corrections give much betteragreement with stellar evolutionary tracks. This agreement provides acompletely independent verification of our new temperature scale. Thecombination of effective temperature and bolometric luminosities allowsus to calculate stellar radii; the coolest and most luminous stars (KWSgr, Case 75, KY Cyg, HD 206936=μ Cep) have radii of roughly 1500Rsolar (7 AU), in excellent accordance with the largeststellar radii predicted from current evolutionary theory, althoughsmaller than that found by others for the binary VV Cep and for thepeculiar star VY CMa. We find that similar results are obtained for theeffective temperatures and bolometric luminosities using only thedereddened V-K colors, providing a powerful demonstration of theself-consistency of the MARCS models.

VLA Observations of ζ Aurigae: Confirmation of the Slow Acceleration Wind Density Structure
Studies of the winds from single K and early M evolved stars indicatethat these flows typically reach a significant fraction of theirterminal velocity within the first couple of stellar radii. The mostdetailed spatially resolved information of the extended atmospheres ofthese spectral types comes from the ζ Aur eclipsing binaries.However, the wind acceleration inferred for the evolved primaries inthese systems appears significantly slower than for stars of similarspectral type. Since there are no successful theories for mass loss fromK and early M evolved stars, it is important to place strong empiricalconstraints on potential models and determine whether this difference inacceleration is real or an artifact of the analyses. We have undertakena radio continuum monitoring study of ζ Aurigae (K4 Ib + B5 V)using the Very Large Array to test the wind density model of Baade etal. that is based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Goddard HighResolution Spectrograph ultraviolet spectra. ζ Aur was monitored atcentimeter wavelengths over a complete orbital cycle, and fluxvariations during the orbit are found to be of similar magnitude tovariations at similar orbital phases in the adjacent orbit. Duringeclipse, the flux does not decrease, showing that the radio emissionoriginates from a volume substantially larger thanR3K~(150Rsolar)3 surroundingthe B star. Using the one-dimensional density model of the K4 Ibprimary's wind derived from HST spectral line profile modeling andelectron temperature estimates from previous optical and new HSTstudies, we find that the predicted radio fluxes are consistent withthose observed. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations indicate thatthe accretion flow perturbations near the B star do not contributesignificantly to the total radio flux from the system, consistent withthe radio eclipse observations. Our radio observations confirm the slowwind acceleration for the evolved K4 Ib component. ζ Aur's velocitystructure does not appear to be typical of single stars with similarspectral types. This highlights the need for more comprehensivemultiwavelength studies for both single stars, which have been sadlyneglected, and other ζ Aur systems to determine if its windproperties are typical.

Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclusters
The availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165}

Close binary stars in ob-association regions i. preliminary investigation
We performed a sample of O- and B-eclipsing binary stars inOB-association regions and obtained the preliminary list of 147 binariesin 45 OB-association regions. We tried to elucidate the question whether(or not) the close binaries belong to corresponding OB-associations,from the commonness of their proper motions, radial velocities anddistances. Based on the completeness of the data,the binaries aredevided into three groups and the scheme for calculation of degree ofbelonging of stars to OB-associations is developed. Necessary data arenot available for nine systems and they are given in a specific table.For 12 cases, the binaries project onto the regions of two associations.We show that 33 (22.3%) close binary stars are members, 65 (43.9%) areprobable members and 39 (26.4%) are less probable members of theOB-associations. We find that 11 binaries belong to the Galaxybackground. The comparison of the distributions of orbital periods forthe binaries in OB-associations and for O-, B-binaries of the Galaxybackground shows their considerable differences in the vicinity of thetwo-day period.

Eclipse of the Binary System VV Cephei
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Orientations of Orbital Planes of Binaries
Orientations of orbital planes of binaries are analysed by using acomplete sample of known orbital systems. The use of a so large sampleis possible due to the application of a new procedure enabling toinclude the binaries for which the ascending nodes do not certain. It isconcluded that, generally, the distribution of observed orientations ofthe orbital planes does not differ from simulated random orientations.In both cases the same star positions are retained.

Extragalactic binaries as core-collapse supernova progenitors
Binary star systems are likely the progenitors of many core-collapse(Type II, Type Ib/c) supernovae (SNe). We present observationalinvestigations using ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope opticalimaging and radio monitoring of SNe and their environments, which eitherindicate or attempt to constrain the possible binary nature of the SNprogenitors. For example, from radio observations with the Very LargeArray of the Type II-linear SN 1979C in M100 we conclude that theprogenitor was possibly in a massive, highly eccentric binary, similarto the VV Cephei systems. The Type IIb SN 1993J in M81 is presumed tohave a massive progenitor in an interacting binary system, and fromHubble imaging we cannot yet constrain the nature of the presumedmassive, blue companion. We will present additional results for otherType Ib/c and II SNe.

A search for late-type supergiants in the inner regions of the Milky Way
We present the results of a narrow-band infrared imaging survey of anarrow strip (12' wide) around the Galactic equator between6o and 21o of galactic longitude aimed atdetecting field stars with strong CO absorption, mainly late-type giantsand supergiants. Our observations include follow-up low resolutionspectroscopy (R = 980) of 191 selected candidates in the H and K bands.Most of these objects have photometric and spectroscopic characteristicsconsistent with their being red giants, and some display broad, strongabsorption wings due to water vapor absorption between the H and Kbands. We also identify in our sample 18 good supergiant candidatescharacterized by their lack of noticeable water absorption, strong CObands in the H and K windows, and HKS photometry suggestiveof high intrinsic luminosity and extinction reaching up to AV≃ 40 mag. Another 9 candidates share the same features except forweak H2O absorption, which is also observed among some Msupergiants in the solar neighbourhood. Interesting differences arenoticed when comparing our stars with a local sample of late-type giantsand supergiants, as well as with a sample of red giants in globularclusters of moderately subsolar metallicity and to a sample of bulgestars. A large fraction of the stars in our sample have CaI and NaIfeatures markedly stronger than those typical in the local referencesample (both giants and supergiants), whereas the equivalent widths ofthe CO bands are similar or weaker. In this regard, our stars in theinner Milky Way disk display differences very similar to thoseidentified by other authors between cool giants and supergiants near thegalactic center and their counterparts in the solar neighbourhood. Wepropose that the systematic spectroscopic differences of our innerGalaxy stars are due to their higher metallicities that cause deepermixing in their mantles, resulting in lower surface abundances of C andO and higher abundances of CN, which contribute to the strength of theCaI and NaI features at low resolution. Our results stress thelimitations of using local stars as templates for the study of compositecool stellar populations such as central starbursts in galaxies.Based on observations collected at the Centro AstronómicoHispano-Alemán, Calar Alto, Spain; and at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile (programme 71.B-0274(A)).Full Table 1 and spectra in FITS format are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/425/489

VV Cep Outside Eclipse
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NLTE Radiative Transfer in the Extended Atmospheres and Winds of Cool Stars
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VV Cep ausserhalb der Bedeckung.
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VLA Radio Positions of Stars: 1978-1995
VLA astrometric positions of the radio emission from 52 stars arereported, from observations obtained between 1978 and 1995. Thepositions of these stars have been obtained and reduced in a uniformmanner. Based on our measurements, the offset of the optical (Hipparcos)frame from the radio reference frame is in agreement with the Hipparcosextragalactic link results, within their mean errors. Comparison of theVLA measurements with the Hipparcos optical positions confirms earlierestimates of the accuracy of these positions as 30 mas. Long-termmeasurements of UX Ari have improved its proper motion.

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

Spectroscopic observations of Hα emission-line stars from Sanduleak & Stephenson's 1973 (SS73) list
We present spectroscopic observations of 33 emission line stars from theSanduleak & Stephenson's (1973) list. This work is part of a programto investigate emission-line objects in the southern hemisphere whosenature is not well established in the literature. The objects wereobserved at two different spectral regions providing full coverage inthe 3100-8700 Å, interval. In this paper we describe the mainspectroscopic features and discuss the nature of the objects. It isproposed that 16 of them are Be stars, 5 are peculiar Be stars, 4 are TTauri stars, 7 are M-type stars with emission-lines and 1 is a Herbigobject.Based on observations made with the 1.52 m telescope at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under the agreement with theObservatório Nacional, Brazil.

Koordinierte Zusammenarbeit zwischen den VdS-FG 'BAV' und 'Spektroskopie' ?
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Spectral Classification of the Hot Components of a Large Sample of Stars with Composite Spectra, and Implication for the Absolute Magnitudes of the Cool Supergiant Components.
A sample of 135 stars with composite spectra has been observed in thenear-UV spectral region with the Aurélie spectrograph at theObservatoire de Haute-Provence. Using the spectral classifications ofthe cool components previously determined with near infrared spectra, weobtained reliable spectral types of the hot components of the samplesystems. The hot components were isolated by the subtraction methodusing MK standards as surrogates of the cool components. We also derivedthe visual magnitude differences between the components usingWillstrop's normalized stellar flux ratios. We propose a photometricmodel for each of these systems on the basis of our spectroscopic dataand the Hipparcos data. We bring to light a discrepancy for the Gsupergiant primaries between the visual absolute magnitudes deduced fromHipparcos parallaxes and those tabulated by Schmidt-Kaler for the GIbstars: we propose a scale of Mv-values for these stars incomposite systems. By way of statistics, about 75% of the hot componentsare dwarf or subgiant stars, and 25% should be giants. The distributionin spectral types is as follows: 41% of B-type components, 57% of typeA, and 2% of type F; 68% of the hot components have a spectral type inthe range B7 to A2. The distribution of the ΔMv-valuesshows a maximum near 0.75 mag.

Speckle Observations of Composite Spectrum Stars with PISCO in 1993-1998
We present speckle interferometry observations of 47 composite spectrumstars obtained between 1993 and 1998 at the Pic du Midi Observatory withthe PISCO speckle camera. 76% of over 150 independent 10 minutesequences of observations led to a companion detection. Binary componentangular separations ranged from 0.05" to 1.2". We also obtained a seriesof 23 measurements of an additional nine close binaries. PISCOobservations confirm, for the first time since their discovery, theduplicity of HD 29104 (L4), HD 83808 (WGT 1Aa), HD 183912 Aa' (BON Ap),and HD 156729 (HR 6436). Discovered as double by Hipparcos, theparticularly difficult to resolve HD 156729 was observed despite thelarge magnitude difference, Δm=4.2, between its two components.Based on observations made with the Télescope Bernard Lyot at Picdu Midi Observatory, France.

Envelope Ejection: An Alternative Evolutionary Process for Some Early Case B Binaries
We discuss the evolution of binaries with moderately high masses (~10-30Msolar) and with periods of ~3-300 days, corresponding mostlyto early case B. These are usually thought to evolve either byreasonably conservative Roche lobe overflow, if the initial mass ratiois fairly mild, or else by highly nonconservative common-envelopeevolution, with spiral-in to short periods (hours, typically), if theinitial mass ratio is rather extreme. We discuss here a handful ofbinaries from part of this period range (~50-250 days), which appear tohave followed a different path: we argue that they must have lost alarge proportion of initial mass (~70%-80%) but without shortening theirperiods at all. We suggest that their behavior may be due to the factthat stars of such masses, when evolved also to rather large radii, arenot far from the Humphreys-Davidson limit, where single stars lose theirenvelopes spontaneously in P Cygni winds, and so have envelopes that areonly lightly bound to the core. These envelopes therefore may berelatively easily dissipated by the perturbing effect of a companion. Inaddition, some or all of the stars considered here may have been closeto the Cepheid instability strip when they filled their Roche lobes. Oneor the other, or both, of high luminosity and Cepheid instability, incombination with an appropriately close binary companion, may beimplicated.

Properties of the P Cygni wind found using the Self Absorption Curve method
We have used the optical lines of N II and Fe III to study the wind ofthe luminous blue variable P Cyg. This was performedby applying a version of the Self Absorption Curve (SAC) method,involving few assumptions, to lines whose flux can be measured. A rathersurprising result was obtained; the lines of more excited multipletswithout blue shifted absorption components appear to be optically thick,while the lines of the most excited multiplets may show some indicationsof being optically thicker than the lines of less excited ones.Explanations of such effects are discussed, including possibleinhomogeneities in the wind.

A multi-epoch spectrophotometric atlas of symbiotic stars
A multi-epoch, absolute-fluxed spectral atlas extending from about 3200to 9000 Å is presented for 130 symbiotic stars, including membersof the LMC, SMC and Draco dwarf galaxies. The fluxes are accurate tobetter than 5% as shown by comparison with Tycho and ground-basedphotometric data. The spectra of 40 reference objects (MKK cool giantstandards, Mira and Carbon stars, planetary nebulae, white dwarfs, hotsub-dwarfs, Wolf-Rayet stars, classical novae, VV Cep and Herbig Ae/Beobjects) are provided to assist the interpretation of symbiotic starspectra. Astrometric positions and counterparts in astrometriccatalogues are derived for all program symbiotic stars. The spectra areavailable in electronic form from the authors. Based on observationscollected with the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory (ESO,Chile) and of the Padova & Asiago Astronomical Observatories(Italy). Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form (a) at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/383/188, and (b) from thepersonal home page http://ulisse.pd.astro.it/symbio_atlas/ Figures 4-256are only available in electronic form (a) at http://www.edpsciences.organd (b) from the personal home pagehttp://ulisse.pd.astro.it/symbio_atlas/

Exploring the nature of the symbiotic stars with high resolution spectroscopy.
There are some fundamental aspects of the "symbiotic phenomenon" whichare poorly understood. Modern technology now allows to observe faintstars with efficient very high resolution spectrographs, such as theSARG mounted at TNG, which will be crucial for our understanding of thenature and evolutionary stage of symbiotic stars and related sytems. Ofgreat importance will be the determination of luminosity, rotation, massloss, chemical composition of the cool stellar components which is basicfor settling the mass transfer in the system and tracing back its pasthistory. High resolution observations are also needed to derive thevelocity, temperature and abundance gradients in the nebula, and tounveil peculiar excitation processes.

Observations of H-alpha Emission in VV Cephei
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VV Cephei im Winter 2000/01.
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Stars with the Largest Hipparcos Photometric Amplitudes
A list of the 2027 stars that have the largest photometric amplitudes inHipparcos Photometry shows that most variable stars are all Miras. Thepercentage of variable types change as a function of amplitude. Thiscompilation should also be of value to photometrists looking forrelatively unstudied, but large amplitude stars.

Infrared Photometry of Five Long-Period Binaries
We present and discuss JHKLM photometry for five long-period binaries(VV Cep, ZZ CMi, WY Gem, epsilon Aur, and zeta Aur). The IR radiationfrom WY Gem may contain a component with a period of ~430 days,attributable to temperature pulsations of an M supergiant. The 3.5- and5-micrometer radiation from the eclipsing binary epsilon Aur outside theeclipse exhibits excess (relative to the light from an F supergiant)fluxes which correspond to the emission from a cool source with atemperature of ~1000 K. For the eclipsing binary epsilon Aur, we presentthe hitherto unpublished results of our optical and IR photometry during1982-1985, when a primary eclipse was observed in the system.

The Asymmetric Nebula Surrounding the Extreme Red Supergiant Vy Canis Majoris
We present HST/WFPC2 images plus ground-based infrared images andphotometry of the very luminous OH/IR star VY Canis Majoris. Our WFPC2data show a complex distribution of knots and filamentary arcs in theasymmetric reflection nebula around the obscured central star. Thereflection arcs may result from multiple, asymmetric ejection episodesdue to localized events on VY CMa's surface. Such events probablyinvolve magnetic fields and convection, by analogy with solar activity.Surface photometry indicates that the star may have experienced enhancedmass loss over the past 1000 yr. We also demonstrate that the apparentasymmetry of the nebula results from a combination of high extinctionand backscattering by dust grains. Thermal-infrared images reveal a moresymmetric distribution, elongated along a nearly east-west direction. VYCMa probably has a flattened disklike distribution of dust with anortheast-southwest polar axis and may be experiencing activityanalogous to solar prominences. The presence of an axis of symmetryraises interesting questions for a star the size of Saturn's orbit.Magnetic fields and surface activity may play an important role in VYCMa's mass-loss history. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESAHubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:21h56m39.10s
Apparent magnitude:4.91
Distance:2564.103 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-3.1
Proper motion Dec:-2.6
B-T magnitude:7.167
V-T magnitude:5.363

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesVV Cephei
Abdullah   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 208816
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 4266-3252-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1500-08581504
BSC 1991HR 8383
HIPHIP 108317

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