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31 Com (Lang Tseang)



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Reliability Checks on the Indo-US Stellar Spectral Library Using Artificial Neural Networks and Principal Component Analysis
The Indo-US coudé feed stellar spectral library (CFLIB) madeavailable to the astronomical community recently by Valdes et al. (2004,ApJS, 152, 251) contains spectra of 1273 stars in the spectral region3460 to 9464Å at a high resolution of 1Å (FWHM) and a widerange of spectral types. Cross-checking the reliability of this databaseis an important and desirable exercise since a number of stars in thisdatabase have no known spectral types and a considerable fraction ofstars has not so complete coverage in the full wavelength region of3460-9464Å resulting in gaps ranging from a few Å to severaltens of Å. We use an automated classification scheme based onArtificial Neural Networks (ANN) to classify all 1273 stars in thedatabase. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried outto reduce the dimensionality of the data set before the spectra areclassified by the ANN. Most importantly, we have successfullydemonstrated employment of a variation of the PCA technique to restorethe missing data in a sample of 300 stars out of the CFLIB.

New stellar members of the Coma Berenices open star cluster
We present the results of a survey of the Coma Berenices open starcluster (Melotte 111), undertaken using proper motions from theUSNO-B1.0 (United States Naval Observatory) and photometry from theTwo-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source catalogues. We haveidentified 60 new candidate members with masses in the range 1.007

Chandra/HETGS Observations of the Capella System: The Primary as a Dominating X-Ray Source
Using the Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS),we have detected the Doppler motion of Capella's X-ray emission lines inthe 6-25 Å wave band. The observed motion follows the expectedorbital motion of Capella's primary. This finding implies that theprimary G8 III star, not the secondary G1 III star in the Hertzsprunggap, has been the dominant source of hot 106.8-107K plasma at least in the last 6 years. In addition, the resultsdemonstrate the long-term stability of the HETGS, and they demonstratesmall uncertainties of 25 and 33 km s-1 in the velocitydetermination with the High and Medium Energy Gratings (HEG and MEG),respectively.

The Remarkable Far-Ultraviolet Spectrum of FK Comae Berenices: King of Spin
A Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) pointing on theultrafast rotating yellow giant FK Comae Berenices (HD 117555; vsini~163km s-1) recorded emission profiles of C III λ977(T~8×104 K) and O VI λ1031(T~3×105 K) that are exceptionally broad andasymmetric, but nearly identical in shape, aside from a bluewardabsorption component in the latter (identified as interstellar O I,rather than, say, a C III outflow feature). The FWHMs exceed 500 kms-1, twice the broadest far-UV line shape of any normallate-type star observed to date, but similar to the Hα profiles ofFK Com, and following the trend of other fast spinning early G giantsthat often display ``superrotational'' broadening of their UV ``hot''lines. Although the red-asymmetric O VI λ1031 profile issuggestive of an outflow at ~3×105 K, the weaker memberof the doublet, λ1037, does not display the differentialabsorption pattern expected from a warm wind. Furthermore, at times thechromospheric Mg II λ2796 + λ2803 composite profile, froma collection of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) echellegramsobtained two decades earlier, is nearly identical in shape tored-asymmetric O VI λ1031. A contemporaneous optical Doppler mapplaces the photospheric dark spots mainly in the polar regions of theapproaching hemisphere. The dominantly redward biased profiles of C IIIand O VI could be explained if the associated emission zones wereleading the starspots in phase and partially rooted in lower latitudes.

Variations in D/H and D/O from New Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Observations
We use data obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) to determine the interstellar abundances of D I, N I, O I, Fe II,and H2 along the sight lines to WD 1034+001, BD +39 3226, andTD1 32709. Our main focus is on determining the D/H, N/H, O/H, and D/Oratios along these sight lines, with logN(H)>20.0, that probe gaswell outside of the Local Bubble. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) andInternational Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archival data are used todetermine the H I column densities along the WD 1034+001 and TD1 32709sight lines, respectively. For BD +39 3226, a previously published N(HI) is used. We find(D/H)×105=2.14+0.53-0.45,1.17+0.31-0.25, and1.86+0.53-0.43 and(D/O)×102=6.31+1.79-1.38,5.62+1.61-1.31, and7.59+2.17-1.76 for the WD 1034+001, BD +39 3226,and TD1 32709 sight lines, respectively (all 1 σ). The scatter inthese three D/H ratios exemplifies the scatter that has been found byother authors for sight lines with column densities in the range19.2

Evidence of the FIP Effect in the Coronae of Late-Type Giants
The stars β Cet, 31 Com, and μ Vel represent the main stagesthrough which late-type giants evolve during their lifetime (theHertzsprung gap [31 Com], the rapid braking zone [μ Vel], and thecore helium burning ``clump'' phase [β Cet]). An analysis of theirhigh-resolution Chandra X-ray spectra reveals similar coronalcharacteristics in terms of both temperature structure and elementabundances for the more evolved stars (μ Vel and β Cet), withslight differences for the ``younger'' giant (31 Com). The coronaltemperature structure of 31 Com is significantly hotter, showing a clearpeak, while β Cet and μ Vel show a plateau. β Cet and μVel show evidence for a FIP effect in which coronae are depleted inhigh-FIP elements relative to their photospheres by a factor of ~2. Incontrast, 31 Com is characterized by a lack of FIP effect. In otherwords, neither depletion nor enhancement relative to stellarphotospheric values is found. We conclude that the structural changesduring the evolution of late-type giants could be responsible for theobserved differences in coronal abundances and temperature structure. Inparticular, the size of the convection zone coupled with the rotationrate seem obvious choices for playing a key role in determining coronalcharacteristics.

Rotation- and temperature-dependence of stellar latitudinal differential rotation
More than 600 high resolution spectra of stars with spectral type F andlater were obtained in order to search for signatures of differentialrotation in line profiles. In 147 stars the rotation law could bemeasured, with 28 of them found to be differentially rotating.Comparison to rotation laws in stars of spectral type A reveals thatdifferential rotation sets in at the convection boundary in theHR-diagram; no star that is significantly hotter than the convectionboundary exhibits the signatures of differential rotation. Four lateA-/early F-type stars close to the convection boundary and at v sin{i}≈ 100 km s-1 show extraordinarily strong absolute shear atshort rotation periods around one day. It is suggested that this is dueto their small convection zone depth and that it is connected to anarrow range in surface velocity; the four stars are very similar inTeff and v sin{i}. Detection frequencies of differentialrotation α = ΔΩ/Ω > 0 were analyzed in starswith varying temperature and rotation velocity. Measurable differentialrotation is more frequent in late-type stars and slow rotators. Thestrength of absolute shear, ΔΩ, and differential rotationα are examined as functions of the stellar effective temperatureand rotation period. The highest values of ΔΩ are found atrotation periods between two and three days. In slower rotators, thestrongest absolute shear at a given rotation rateΔΩmax is given approximately byΔΩmax ∝ P-1, i.e.,αmax ≈ const. In faster rotators, bothαmax and ΔΩmax diminish lessrapidly. A comparison with differential rotation measurements in starsof later spectral type shows that F-stars exhibit stronger shear thancooler stars do and the upper boundary in absolute shear ΔΩwith temperature is consistent with the temperature-scaling law found inDoppler Imaging measurements.

Astrophysics in 2004
In this 14th edition of ApXX,1 we bring you the Sun (§ 2) and Stars(§ 4), the Moon and Planets (§ 3), a truly binary pulsar(§ 5), a kinematic apology (§ 6), the whole universe(§§ 7 and 8), reconsideration of old settled (§ 9) andunsettled (§ 10) issues, and some things that happen only on Earth,some indeed only in these reviews (§§ 10 and 11).

The `solar model problem' solved by the abundance of neon in nearby stars
The interior structure of the Sun can be studied with great accuracyusing observations of its oscillations, similar to seismology of theEarth. Precise agreement between helioseismological measurements andpredictions of theoretical solar models has been a triumph of modernastrophysics. A recent downward revision by 25-35 per cent of the solarabundances of light elements such as C, N, O and Ne (ref. 2) has,however, broken this accordance: models adopting the new abundancesincorrectly predict the depth of the convection zone, the depth profilesof sound speed and density, and the helium abundance. The discrepanciesare far beyond the uncertainties in either the data or the modelpredictions. Here we report neon-to-oxygen ratios measured in a sampleof nearby solar-like stars, using their X-ray spectra. The abundanceratios are all very similar and substantially larger than the recentlyrevised solar value. The neon abundance in the Sun is quite poorlydetermined. If the Ne/O abundance in these stars is adopted for the Sun,the models are brought back into agreement with helioseismologymeasurements.

Stellar Lyα Emission Lines in the Hubble Space Telescope Archive: Intrinsic Line Fluxes and Absorption from the Heliosphere and Astrospheres
We search the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive for previouslyunanalyzed observations of stellar H I Lyα emission lines, ourprimary purpose being to look for new detections of Lyα absorptionfrom the outer heliosphere and to also search for analogous absorptionfrom the astrospheres surrounding the observed stars. The astrosphericabsorption is of particular interest because it can be used to studysolar-like stellar winds that are otherwise undetectable. We find andanalyze 33 HST Lyα spectra in the archive. All the spectra weretaken with the E140M grating of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph(STIS) instrument on board HST. The HST STIS spectra yield four newdetections of heliospheric absorption (70 Oph, ξ Boo, 61 Vir, and HD165185) and seven new detections of astrospheric absorption (EV Lac, 70Oph, ξ Boo, 61 Vir, δ Eri, HD 128987, and DK UMa), doubling theprevious number of heliospheric and astrospheric detections. Whencombined with previous results, 10 of 17 lines of sight within 10 pcyield detections of astrospheric absorption. This high detectionfraction implies that most of the ISM within 10 pc must be at leastpartially neutral, since the presence of H I within the ISM surroundingthe observed star is necessary for an astrospheric detection. Incontrast, the detection percentage is only 9.7% (3 out of 31) for starsbeyond 10 pc. Our Lyα analyses provide measurements of ISM H I andD I column densities for all 33 lines of sight, and we discuss someimplications of these results. Finally, we measure chromosphericLyα fluxes from the observed stars. We use these fluxes todetermine how Lyα flux correlates with coronal X-ray andchromospheric Mg II emission, and we also study how Lyα emissiondepends on stellar rotation.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

Emission Measure Distribution in Loops Impulsively Heated at the Footpoints
This work is prompted by evidence of sharply peaked emission measuredistributions in active stars and by the claims of isothermal loops insolar coronal observations, at variance with the predictions ofhydrostatic loop models with constant cross section and uniform heating.We address the problem with loops heated at the footpoints. Since steadyheating does not allow static loop model solutions, we explore whetherpulse-heated loops can exist and appear as steady loops on a timeaverage. We simulate pulse-heated loops, using the Palermo-Harvard 1-Dhydrodynamic code, for different initial conditions corresponding totypical coronal temperatures of stars ranging from intermediate toactive [T~(3-10)×106 K]. We find long-livedquasi-steady solutions even for heating concentrated at the footpointsover a spatial region of the order of ~1/5 of the loop half-length andbroader. These solutions yield an emission measure distribution with apeak at high temperature, and the cool side of the peak is as steep as~T5, in contrast to the usual ~T3/2 of hydrostaticmodels with constant cross section and uniform heating. Such peaks aresimilar to those found in the emission measure distribution of activestars around 107 K.

Coronal Evolution of the Sun in Time: High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of Solar Analogs with Different Ages
We investigate the long-term evolution of X-ray coronae of solar analogsbased on high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and photometry withXMM-Newton. Six nearby main-sequence G stars with ages between ~0.1 and~1.6 Gyr and rotation periods between ~1 and 12.4 days have beenobserved. We use the X-ray spectra to derive coronal element abundancesof C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe and the coronal emission measuredistribution (EMD). We find that the abundances change from an inversefirst ionization potential (FIP) distribution in stars with ages around0.1 Gyr to a solar-type FIP distribution in stars at ages of 0.3 Gyr andbeyond. This transformation is coincident with a steep decline ofnonthermal radio emission. The results are in qualitative agreement witha simple model in which the stream of electrons in magnetic fieldssuppresses diffusion of low-FIP ions from the chromosphere into thecorona. The coronal emission measure distributions show shapescharacterized by power laws on each side of the EMD peak. The lattershifts from temperatures of about 10 MK in the most rapidly rotating,young stars to temperatures around 4 MK in the oldest target consideredhere. The power-law index on the cooler side of the EMD exceeds expectedslopes for static loops, with typical values being 1.5-3. We interpretthis slope with a model in which the coronal emission is due to asuperposition of stochastically occurring flares, with an occurrencerate that is distributed in radiated energy E as a power law,dN/dE~E-α, as previously found for solar and stellarflares. We obtain the relevant power-law index α from the slope ofthe high-temperature tail of the EMD. Our EMDs indicate α~2.2-2.8,in excellent agreement with values previously derived from light curvesof magnetically active stars. Modulation with timescales reminiscent offlares is found in the light curves of all our targets. Several strongflares are also observed. We use our α-values to simulate lightcurves and compare them with the observed light curves. We thus derivethe range of flare energies required to explain the light-curvemodulation. More active stars require a larger range of flare energiesthan less active stars within the framework of this simplistic model. Inan overall scenario, we propose that flaring activity plays a largerrole in more active stars. In this model, the higher flare rate isresponsible both for the higher average coronal temperature and the highcoronal X-ray luminosity, two parameters that are indeed found to becorrelated.

A Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Survey of Luminous Cool Stars
The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) ultraviolet spectra ofeight giant and supergiant stars reveal that high-temperature(3×105 K) atmospheres are common in luminous cool starsand extend across the color-magnitude diagram from α Car (F0 II)to the cool giant α Tau (K5 III). Emission present in thesespectra includes chromospheric H Lyβ, Fe II, C I, and transitionregion lines of C III, O VI, Si III, and Si IV. Emission lines of FeXVIII and Fe XIX signaling temperatures of ~107 K and coronalmaterial are found in the most active stars, β Cet and 31 Com. Ashort-term flux variation, perhaps a flare, was detected in β Cetduring our observation. Stellar surface fluxes of the emission of C IIIand O VI are correlated and decrease rapidly toward the cooler stars,reminiscent of the decay of magnetically heated atmospheres. Profiles ofthe C III λ977 lines suggest that mass outflow is underway atT~80,000 K and the winds are warm. Indications of outflow at highertemperatures (3×105 K) are revealed by O VI asymmetriesand the line widths themselves. High-temperature species are absent inthe M supergiant α Ori. Narrow fluorescent lines of Fe II appearin the spectra of many giants and supergiants, apparently pumped by HLyα, and formed in extended atmospheres. Instrumentalcharacteristics that affect cool star spectra are discussed.

Stellar activity cycles: observing the dynamo?
The enormous complexity of the atmospheric structure observed on the Sunmakes it very difficult to compare the Sun with ``solar-type stars''.Clearly, we need to identify parameters that can be observed on the Sunas well as on other stars which can be interpreted unambiguously. Themost widely accepted dynamo signature is the presence of an activitycycle, well documented for the Sun and for main-sequence stars due tothe Mount Wilson Ca II H&K project. Only recently have we detectedspatial information, differential rotation and possibly meridional flowson other stars and thereby adding another constraint for itsinterpretation within a dynamo theory. Again, the picture is notcomplete yet, despite that there is just a single main ingredient thatacts as the driving mechanism for activity in all atmospheric layers andthe convective envelope of a solar-type star: the dynamo-relatedmagnetic field. I stress the importance of mapping stellar surfaces asfingerprints of the underlying dynamo action over long periods of time.

The relation between X-ray activity and rotation in intermediate-mass G giants
I study the relation between X-ray activity and rotation amongintermediate-mass single G giants. The results show evidence that thequiescent coronal activity of these stars, as measured by their X-raysurface flux, increases linearly with the angular rotation velocity andwith the inverse of the Rossby number. Even the most rapidly rotating Ggiants do not reach the canonical log(L_X/Lbol) ≈ -3saturation level. The effect of rapid rotation on these stars couldresult mainly in an increased coverage of their surface with magneticclose loop structures. The empirical activity-rotation relationshipaccounts for the occurrence of a maximum of magnetic activity in theatmosphere of intermediate-mass stars as they evolve off themain-sequence near the bottom of the red giant branch. Remarkably, therelation between X-ray to bolometric luminosity ratio and the Rossbynumber or rotation period for G giants differs from the power lawdependence with an index of about -2 that is observed for main-sequencestars. Possible implications for the dynamo generation of magneticfields on giants are discussed.

Coronal properties of G-type stars in different evolutionary phases
We report on the analysis of XMM-Newton observations of three G-typestars in very different evolutionary phases: the weak-lined T Tauri starHD 283572, the Zero Age Main Sequence starEK Dra and the Hertzsprung-gap giant star 31Com. They all have high X-ray luminosity (~1031 ergs-1 for HD 283572 and 31 Com and ~1030 ergs-1 for EK Dra). We compare the Emission MeasureDistributions (EMDs) of these active coronal sources, derived fromhigh-resolution XMM-Newton grating spectra, as well as the pattern ofelemental abundances vs. First Ionzation Potential (FIP). We alsoperform time-resolved spectroscopy of a flare detected by XMM from EKDra. We interpret the observed EMDs as the result of the emission ofensembles of magnetically confined loop-like structures with differentapex temperatures. Our analysis indicates that the coronae of HD 283572and 31 Com are very similar in terms of dominant coronal magneticstructures, in spite of differences in the evolutionary phase, surfacegravity and metallicity. In the case of EK Dra the distribution appearsto be slightly flatter than in the previous two cases, although the peaktemperature is similar.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

The coronae of bright late-type stars observed with EPIC and RGS
X-ray bright late-type stars have been selected as targets of XMM-Newtonobservations, with the aim to study in detail the plasma thermaldistributions and chemical abundances of their coronae, and thecharacteristics of their X-ray emission variability. Bothhigh-resolution spectra with RGS and high signal-to-noisemedium-resolution EPIC spectra have been employed to this aim. I presentsome representative cases of such studies.

A near-infrared stellar spectral library: I. H-band spectra.
This paper presents the H band near-infrared (NIR) spectral library of135 solar type stars covering spectral types O5-M3 and luminosityclasses I-V as per MK classification. The observations were carried outwith 1.2 meter Gurushikhar Infrared Telescope (GIRT), at Mt. Abu, Indiausing a NICMOS3 HgCdTe 256 x 256 NIR array based spectrometer. Thespectra have a moderate resolution of 1000 (about 16 A) at the H bandand have been continuum shape corrected to their respective effectivetemperatures. This library and the remaining ones in J and K bands oncereleased will serve as an important database for stellar populationsynthesis and other applications in conjunction with the newly formedlarge optical coude feed stellar spectral library of Valdes et al.(2004). The complete H-Band library is available online at: http://vo.iucaa.ernet.in/~voi/NIR_Header.html

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

Some Like It Hot: The X-Ray Emission of the Giant Star YY Mensae
We present an analysis of the X-ray emission of the rapidly rotatinggiant star YY Mensae observed by Chandra HETGS and XMM-Newton. Thehigh-resolution spectra display numerous emission lines of highlyionized species; Fe XVII to Fe XXV lines are detected, together withH-like and He-like transitions of lower Z elements. Although no obviousflare was detected, the X-ray luminosity changed by a factor of 2between the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations taken 4 months apart(from logLX~32.2 to 32.5 ergs s-1, respectively).The coronal abundances and the emission measure distribution have beenderived from three different methods using optically thin collisionalionization equilibrium models, which is justified by the absence ofopacity effects in YY Men as measured from line ratios of Fe XVIItransitions. The abundances show a distinct pattern as a function of thefirst ionization potential (FIP), suggestive of an inverse FIP effect asseen in several active RS CVn binaries. The low-FIP elements (<10 eV)are depleted relative to the high-FIP elements; when compared to itsphotospheric abundance, the coronal Fe abundance also appears depleted.We find a high N abundance in YY Men's corona, which we interpret as asignature of material processed in the CNO cycle and dredged up in thegiant phase. The corona is dominated by a very high temperature (20-40MK) plasma, which places YY Men among the magnetically active stars withthe hottest coronae. Lower temperature plasma also coexists, albeit withmuch lower emission measure. Line broadening is reported in some lines,with a particularly strong significance in Ne X Lyα. We interpretsuch broadening as Doppler thermal broadening, although rotationalbroadening due to X-ray-emitting material high above the surface couldbe present as well. We use two different formalisms to discuss the shapeof the emission measure distribution. The first one infers theproperties of coronal loops, whereas the second formalism uses flares asa statistical ensemble. We find that most of the loops in the corona ofYY Men have their maximum temperature equal to or slightly larger thanabout 30 MK. We also find that small flares could contributesignificantly to the coronal heating in YY Men. Although there is noevidence of flare variability in the X-ray light curves, we argue thatYY Men's distance and X-ray brightness do not allow us to detect flareswith peak luminosities LX<=1031 ergss-1 with current detectors.

The Density of Coronal Plasma in Active Stellar Coronae
We have analyzed high-resolution X-ray spectra of a sample of 22 activestars observed with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer onChandra in order to investigate their coronal plasma density. Densitieswere investigated using the lines of the He-like ions O VII, Mg XI, andSi XIII. Si XIII lines in all stars of the sample are compatible withthe low-density limit (i.e., ne<~1013cm-3), casting some doubt on results based on lowerresolution Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) spectra finding densitiesne>1013 cm-3. Mg XI lines betray thepresence of high plasma densities up to a few times 1012cm-3 for most of the sources with higher X-ray luminosity(>~1030 ergs s-1) stars with higherLX and LX/Lbol tend to have higherdensities at high temperatures. Ratios of O VII lines yield much lowerdensities of a few times 1010 cm-3, indicatingthat the ``hot'' and ``cool'' plasma resides in physically differentstructures. In the cases of EV Lac, HD 223460, Canopus, μ Vel, TYPyx, and IM Peg, our results represent the first spectroscopic estimatesof coronal density. No trends in density-sensitive line ratios withstellar parameters effective temperature and surface gravity were found,indicating that plasma densities are remarkably similar for stars withpressure scale heights differing by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Ourfindings imply remarkably compact coronal structures, especially for thehotter (~7 MK) plasma emitting the Mg XI lines characterized by thecoronal surface filling factor, fMgXI, ranging from10-4 to 10-1, while we find fOVIIvalues from a few times 10-3 up to ~1 for the cooler (~2 MK)plasma emitting the O VII lines. We find that fOVIIapproaches unity at the same stellar surface X-ray flux level ascharacterizes solar active regions, suggesting that these stars becomecompletely covered by active regions. At the same surface flux level,fMgXI is seen to increase more sharply with increasingsurface flux. These results appear to support earlier suggestions thathot 107 K plasma in active coronae arises from flaringactivity and that this flaring activity increases markedly once thestellar surface becomes covered with active regions. Comparison of ourmeasured line fluxes with theoretical models suggests that significantresidual model inaccuracies might be present and, in particular, thatcascade contributions to forbidden and intercombination lines resultingfrom dielectronic recombination might be to blame.

The Structure of the Local Interstellar Medium. III. Temperature and Turbulence
We present 50 individual measurements of the gas temperature andturbulent velocity in the local interstellar medium (LISM) within 100pc. By comparing the absorption line widths of many ions with differentatomic masses, we can satisfactorily discriminate between the twodominant broadening mechanisms, thermal broadening and macroscopicnonthermal, or turbulent, broadening. We find that the successful use ofthis technique requires a measurement of a light ion, such as D I, andan ion at least as heavy as Mg II. However, observations of more linesprovide an important consistency check and can also improve theprecision and accuracy of the measurement. Temperature and turbulentvelocity measurements are vital to understanding the physical propertiesof the gas in our local environment and can provide insight into thethree-dimensional morphological structure of the LISM. The weighted meangas temperature in the LISM warm clouds is 6680 K and the dispersionabout the mean is 1490 K. The weighted mean turbulent velocity is 2.24km s-1 and the dispersion about the mean is 1.03 kms-1. The ratio of the mean thermal pressure to the meanturbulent pressure is PT/Pξ~26. Turbulentpressure in LISM clouds cannot explain the difference in the apparentpressure imbalance between warm LISM clouds and the surrounding hot gasof the Local Bubble. Pressure equilibrium among the warm clouds may bethe source of a moderately negative correlation between temperature andturbulent velocity in these clouds. However, significant variations intemperature and turbulent velocity are observed. The turbulent motionsin the warm partially ionized clouds of the LISM are definitelysubsonic, and the weighted mean turbulent Mach number for clouds in theLISM is 0.19 with a dispersion of 0.11. These measurements provideimportant constraints on models of the evolution and origin of warmpartially ionized clouds in our local environment.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS AR-09525.01A. Theseobservations are associated with program 9525.

Synthetic Lick Indices and Detection of α-enhanced Stars. II. F, G, and K Stars in the -1.0 < [Fe/H] < +0.50 Range
We present an analysis of 402 F, G, and K solar neighborhood stars, withaccurate estimates of [Fe/H] in the range -1.0 to +0.5 dex, aimed at thedetection of α-enhanced stars and at the investigation of theirkinematical properties. The analysis is based on the comparison of 571sets of spectral indices in the Lick/IDS system, coming from fourdifferent observational data sets, with synthetic indices computed withsolar-scaled abundances and with α-element enhancement. We useselected combinations of indices to single out α-enhanced starswithout requiring previous knowledge of their main atmosphericparameters. By applying this approach to the total data set, we obtain alist of 60 bona fide α-enhanced stars and of 146 stars withsolar-scaled abundances. The properties of the detected α-enhancedand solar-scaled abundance stars with respect to their [Fe/H] values andkinematics are presented. A clear kinematic distinction betweensolar-scaled and α-enhanced stars was found, although a one-to-onecorrespondence to ``thin disk'' and ``thick disk'' components cannot besupported with the present data.

Two New Low Galactic D/H Measurements from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer
We analyze interstellar absorption observed toward two subdwarf O stars,JL 9 and LS 1274, using spectra taken by the Far UltravioletSpectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Column densities are measured for manyatomic and molecular species (H I, D I, C I, N I, O I, P II, Ar I, FeII, and H2), but our main focus is on measuring the D/Hratios for these extended lines of sight, as D/H is an importantdiagnostic for both cosmology and Galactic chemical evolution. We findD/H=(1.00+/-0.37)×10-5 toward JL 9 andD/H=(0.76+/-0.36)×10-5 toward LS 1274 (2 σuncertainties). With distances of 590+/-160 and 580+/-100 pc,respectively, these two lines of sight are currently among the longestGalactic lines of sight with measured D/H. With the addition of thesemeasurements, we see a significant tendency for longer Galactic lines ofsight to yield low D/H values, consistent with previous inferences aboutthe deuterium abundance from D/O and D/N measurements. Short lines ofsight with H I column densities of logN(HI)<19.2 suggest that thegas-phase D/H value within the Local Bubble is(D/H)LBg=(1.56+/-0.04)×10-5. However, thefour longest Galactic lines of sight with measured D/H, which haved>500 pc and logN(HI)>20.5, suggest a significantly lower valuefor the true local disk gas-phase D/H value,(D/H)LDg=(0.85+/-0.09)×10-5. Oneinterpretation of these results is that D is preferentially depletedonto dust grains relative to H and that longer lines of sight thatextend beyond the Local Bubble sample more depleted material. In thisscenario, the higher Local Bubble D/H ratio is actually a betterestimate than (D/H)LDg for the true local disk D/H,(D/H)LD. However, if (D/H)LDg is different from(D/H)LBg simply because of variable astration and incompleteinterstellar medium mixing, then (D/H)LD=(D/H)LDg.Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far UltravioletSpectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), which is operated for NASA by JohnsHopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

On the Possibility of a Strong Magnetic Field in the Local Interstellar Medium
We analyze the consequences of the local interstellar magnetic fieldbeing almost 3 times larger than the Galactic average (ordered) field onthe structure of the heliospheric interface in the axisymmetric casewhen the field is parallel to the relative direction of motion betweenthe local interstellar medium (LISM) and the Sun. A field of suchstrength is expected to exist in the Local Interstellar Cloud, if thelatter condensed from material inside a magnetic flux tube reboundingfrom the wall of the Local Bubble cavity. The analysis is performedusing a newly developed multifluid neutral MHD model. We show that thebow shock ahead of the heliopause still exists for supersonic andsub-Alfvénic LISM parameters. Our results agree well with theobservations of the Lyα absorption spectra and yield positions ofthe termination shock and the heliopause similar to those obtained fromthe standard super-Alfvénic model.

The Structure of the Local Interstellar Medium. II. Observations of D I, C II, N I, O I, Al II, and Si II toward Stars within 100 Parsecs
Moderate- and high-resolution measurements(λ/Δλ>~40,000) of interstellar resonance lines ofD I, C II, N I, O I, Al II, and Si II (hereafter called light ions) arepresented for all available observed targets located within 100 pc thatalso have high-resolution observations of interstellar Fe II or Mg II(heavy ions) lines. All spectra were obtained with the Goddard HighResolution Spectrograph or the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrographinstrument aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, there are 41sight lines to targets within 100 pc with observations that include aheavy ion at high resolution and at least one light ion at moderate orhigh resolution. We present new measurements of light ions along 33 ofthese sight lines and collect from the literature results for theremaining sight lines that have already been analyzed. For all of thenew observations we provide measurements of the central velocity,Doppler width parameter, and column density for each absorptioncomponent. We greatly increase the number of sight lines with usefullocal interstellar medium (LISM) absorption-line measurements of lightions by using knowledge of the kinematic structure along a line of sightobtained from high-resolution observations of intrinsically narrowabsorption lines, such as Fe II and Mg II. We successfully fit theabsorption lines with this technique, even with moderate-resolutionspectra. Because high-resolution observations of heavy ions are criticalfor understanding the kinematic structure of local absorbers along theline of sight, we include 18 new measurements of Fe II and Mg II in anAppendix. We present a statistical analysis of the LISM absorptionmeasurements, which provides an overview of some physicalcharacteristics of warm clouds in the LISM, including temperature andturbulent velocity. This complete collection and reduction of allavailable LISM absorption measurements provides an important databasefor studying the structure of nearby warm clouds, including ionization,abundances, and depletions. Subsequent papers will present models forthe morphology and physical properties of individual structures (clouds)in the LISM.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS AR-09525.01A. Theseobservations are associated with program 9525.

Rotation and Lithium Surface Abundances, Revisited
For giants in the Hertzsprung gap, the relations betweenTeff, vsini, and lithium surface abundances arereinvestigated and compared with the relations found for Hyadesmain-sequence F stars. For the Hyades main-sequence F stars, the vsinidecrease steeply around Teff~6450 K. At the same temperaturethe lithium surface abundances show a narrow, deep dip. For most giantsthere is also a steep decrease of vsini for Teff around 6450K. At this temperature the lithium surface abundances of the giants alsodecrease steeply and remain low for Teff<6400 K. Thechanges in rotation and Li surface abundances occur over a temperatureinterval of less than 300 K, which for a 2 Msolar giantcorresponds to an age interval of about 106 yr. Thesimultaneous steep decreases of rotation velocities and Li surfaceabundances indicate that for the giants these changes are due to thesame cause, which we suggest to be deep mixing. It then seems ratherlikely that for the Hyades main-sequence F5 V stars the decrease ofrotation and Li surface abundance is also caused by deep mixing. Wesuggest that in both cases the changes are related to the merging of thehydrogen and helium convection zones.

Empirically Constrained Color-Temperature Relations. II. uvby
A new grid of theoretical color indices for the Strömgren uvbyphotometric system has been derived from MARCS model atmospheres and SSGsynthetic spectra for cool dwarf and giant stars having-3.0<=[Fe/H]<=+0.5 and 3000<=Teff<=8000 K. Atwarmer temperatures (i.e., 8000-2.0. To overcome thisproblem, the theoretical indices at intermediate and high metallicitieshave been corrected using a set of color calibrations based on fieldstars having well-determined distances from Hipparcos, accurateTeff estimates from the infrared flux method, andspectroscopic [Fe/H] values. In contrast with Paper I, star clustersplayed only a minor role in this analysis in that they provided asupplementary constraint on the color corrections for cool dwarf starswith Teff<=5500 K. They were mainly used to test thecolor-Teff relations and, encouragingly, isochrones thatemploy the transformations derived in this study are able to reproducethe observed CMDs (involving u-v, v-b, and b-y colors) for a number ofopen and globular clusters (including M67, the Hyades, and 47 Tuc)rather well. Moreover, our interpretations of such data are verysimilar, if not identical, with those given in Paper I from aconsideration of BV(RI)C observations for the sameclusters-which provides a compelling argument in support of thecolor-Teff relations that are reported in both studies. Inthe present investigation, we have also analyzed the observedStrömgren photometry for the classic Population II subdwarfs,compared our ``final'' (b-y)-Teff relationship with thosederived empirically in a number of recent studies and examined in somedetail the dependence of the m1 index on [Fe/H].Based, in part, on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope,operated jointly on the island of La Palma by Denmark, Finland, Iceland,Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de losMuchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.Based, in part, on observations obtained with the Danish 1.54 mtelescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

On the sizes of stellar X-ray coronae
Spatial information from stellar X-ray coronae cannot be assesseddirectly, but scaling laws from the solar corona make it possible toestimate sizes of stellar coronae from the physical parameterstemperature and density. While coronal plasma temperatures have longbeen available, we concentrate on the newly available densitymeasurements from line fluxes of X-ray lines measured for a large sampleof stellar coronae with the Chandra and XMM-Newton gratings. We compileda set of 64 grating spectra of 42 stellar coronae. Line counts of strongH-like and He-like ions and Fe XXI lines were measured with the CORAsingle-purpose line fitting tool by \cite{newi02}. Densities areestimated from He-like f/i flux ratios of O VII and Ne IX representingthe cooler (1-6 MK) plasma components. The densities scatter between logne ≈ 9.5-11 from the O VII triplet and between logne ≈ 10.5-12 from the Ne IX triplet, but we caution thatthe latter triplet may be biased by contamination from Fe XIX and Fe XXIlines. We find that low-activity stars (as parameterized by thecharacteristic temperature derived from H- and He-like line flux ratios)tend to show densities derived from O VII of no more than a few times1010 cm-3, whereas no definitive trend is foundfor the more active stars. Investigating the densities of the hotterplasma with various Fe XXI line ratios, we found that none of thespectra consistently indicates the presence of very high densities. Weargue that our measurements are compatible with the low-density limitfor the respective ratios (≈ 5× 1012cm-3). These upper limits are in line with constant pressurein the emitting active regions. We focus on the commonly used \cite{rtv}scaling law to derive loop lengths from temperatures and densitiesassuming loop-like structures as identical building blocks. We derivethe emitting volumes from direct measurements of ion-specific emissionmeasures and densities. Available volumes are calculated from theloop-lengths and stellar radii, and are compared with the emittingvolumes to infer filling factors. For all stages of activity we findsimilar filling factors up to 0.1.Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Coma Berenices
Right ascension:12h51m41.90s
Apparent magnitude:4.94
Distance:94.162 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-9.7
Proper motion Dec:-8.4
B-T magnitude:5.724
V-T magnitude:4.999

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesLang Tseang
Flamsteed31 Com
HD 1989HD 111812
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 1995-2586-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1125-06601243
BSC 1991HR 4883
HIPHIP 62763

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