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# ψ And (Psi Andromedae)

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 A New Stellar Library in the K BandStellar population synthesis models are crucial for the understanding ofthe large amount of data which is being gathered for galaxies at low andhigh redshift, and provide the only way to compare the real world''with the theoretical framework. The best models require extensiveempirical stellar spectral libraries, which at present are starting tobe quite complete in the optical range. However the situation isdifferent in the near-infrared, which observational windows have been,until recently, poorly exploited. This is specially due to the lack ofappropriate instrumentation. We present the preliminary results of anongoing observational program aimed to overcome this problem and toprovide a stellar library in the K band with the required coverage ofphysical stellar parameters: effective temperature, gravity, metallicityand non-solar abundance ratios. In particular, the CO feature at 2.3μ m is a very promising spectroscopic line-strength index that willhelp to face outstanding problems in galaxy formation and evolution. Theavailability of this library will be essential to interpret the stellarcontent of composite stellar populations with EMIR. In addition, thislibrary will be also useful for other purposes, like the study of highlyreddened objects, and the spectral classification of late type stars. Determination of fundamental characteristics for stars of the F, G, and K spectral types. The surface gravities and metallicity parameters.Not Available The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. New and Confirmed Triple Systems with Luminous Cool Primaries and Hot CompanionsIn the course of comparing parameters of evolved cool star plus hotmain-sequence star binaries with theoretical isochrones, somediscrepancies are found between implied stellar masses and thespectroscopic binary mass function or the measured angular separation.These are naturally explained if there is a third star in the system.Multiplicity is also required to explain some comparisons of cool plushot binary'' IUE and optical spectral energy distribution analysis withmeasured flux ratios, especially Tycho's two-color photometry ofseparate components. Out of a sample of 136 cool-plus-hot binary starsystems under study, measurements are now indicating several systemsconsidered double (HD 5373, 23089, 26673, 29094, 49126, 71129, 149379,179002, 187299), and probably a few others (including HD 136415), tohave at least three stellar components. Several other cases of suspectedtriple systems are confirmed. For comparison, there are eight knowntriples included in the project. In all, about 25% of the systemscontain three or more components within a few arcseconds. Estimatedseparations are provided, which may be of use when not known frominterferometry. In general, the triple systems have onepost-main-sequence component and two upper main-sequence components,usually revolving around each other. One new triple system, HD 149379,has as its middle component an F giant in the brief first crossing ofthe Hertzsprung gap. Wing Near-Infrared, TiO-Band, and V-Band Photometry of Chromospherically Active Star λ AndromedaeAs a pilot program, Wing near-IR, TiO-band, and V-band photometry isbeing conducted of the RS Canum Venaticorum type, chromosphericallyactive, G8 IV-III star λ Andromedae. The objective is toinvestigate a possible relationship between variation of the ~54 dayrotationally starspot modulated visual light curve and TiO absorptionstrength. The TiO (γ,0,0) absorption band strength at λ=719nm is very sensitive to temperature for cool stars and manifests itselfin cooler starspot regions (T<=4000 K). TiO photometry has anadvantage over conventional photometry in that it provides unambiguousmeasures of the fractional cool starspot coverage. In addition, as thestars rotate, the variation in the TiO index yields information aboutthe longitudinal distribution of the starspots. Importantly, combiningthe TiO photometry with the V-band and near-IR light curves allows thediscrimination of white-light faculae (=hot spot) and cool starspotcontributions. Initial results of this study indicate that the observedV-band and near-IR continua light variations found for λ Andprimarily arise from bright spot (plage) features rather than darkstarspots as is usually assumed. This is in contrast to current theoriesthat the visual light variation is solely due to dark spots. Modelsusing both bright and dark spot features have been developed and arebeing used to fit the light and TiO-index curves. The models account forcool/hot spot characteristics such as projected filling factor andtemperature. The long-term variation of V light and TiO index have beeninvestigated to search for any activity cycles. Spectral Classification of the Hot Components of a Large Sample of Stars with Composite Spectra, and Implication for the Absolute Magnitudes of the Cool Supergiant Components.A sample of 135 stars with composite spectra has been observed in thenear-UV spectral region with the Aurélie spectrograph at theObservatoire de Haute-Provence. Using the spectral classifications ofthe cool components previously determined with near infrared spectra, weobtained reliable spectral types of the hot components of the samplesystems. The hot components were isolated by the subtraction methodusing MK standards as surrogates of the cool components. We also derivedthe visual magnitude differences between the components usingWillstrop's normalized stellar flux ratios. We propose a photometricmodel for each of these systems on the basis of our spectroscopic dataand the Hipparcos data. We bring to light a discrepancy for the Gsupergiant primaries between the visual absolute magnitudes deduced fromHipparcos parallaxes and those tabulated by Schmidt-Kaler for the GIbstars: we propose a scale of Mv-values for these stars incomposite systems. By way of statistics, about 75% of the hot componentsare dwarf or subgiant stars, and 25% should be giants. The distributionin spectral types is as follows: 41% of B-type components, 57% of typeA, and 2% of type F; 68% of the hot components have a spectral type inthe range B7 to A2. The distribution of the ΔMv-valuesshows a maximum near 0.75 mag. Speckle Observations of Composite Spectrum Stars with PISCO in 1993-1998We present speckle interferometry observations of 47 composite spectrumstars obtained between 1993 and 1998 at the Pic du Midi Observatory withthe PISCO speckle camera. 76% of over 150 independent 10 minutesequences of observations led to a companion detection. Binary componentangular separations ranged from 0.05" to 1.2". We also obtained a seriesof 23 measurements of an additional nine close binaries. PISCOobservations confirm, for the first time since their discovery, theduplicity of HD 29104 (L4), HD 83808 (WGT 1Aa), HD 183912 Aa' (BON Ap),and HD 156729 (HR 6436). Discovered as double by Hipparcos, theparticularly difficult to resolve HD 156729 was observed despite thelarge magnitude difference, Δm=4.2, between its two components.Based on observations made with the Télescope Bernard Lyot at Picdu Midi Observatory, France. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved stars. II. Ib supergiant starsRotational velocity vsin i and mean radial velocity are presented for asample of 231 Ib supergiant stars covering the spectral region F, G andK. This work is the second part of the large survey carried out with theCORAVEL spectrometer to establish the behavior of the rotation for starsevolving off the main sequence (De Medeiros & Mayor 1999). Thesedata will add constraints to the study of the rotational behavior inevolved stars, as well as solid information concerning tidalinteractions in binary systems and on the link between rotation,chemical abundance and activity in stars of intermediate masses. Basedon observations collected at the Haute-Provence Observatory,Saint-Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/395/97 Sodium enrichment of stellar atmospheres. I. Non-variable supergiants and bright giants48 supergiants and bright giants have been observed in order toinvestigate the sodium enrichment of their atmospheres and itsconnection with stellar gravity. We present the equivalent widths of the6154 Å and 6160 Å Na I lines measured from the programspectra, the results of effective temperature determinations, the NLTEsodium abundances, and the derived relation between the sodiumoverabundance and surface gravity. A Large Spectral Class Dependence of the Wilson-Bappu Effect among Luminous StarsThe striking correlation between Ca II K-line emission width andabsolute visual magnitude has not previously been well calibrated forstars more luminous than giants. From a sample of binary systems fit toisochrones, we find deviations of more than 2 mag, correlated withspectral class, between these binarity Mv values and theWilson-Bappu relation. Additional Mv values derived fromHipparcos parallaxes are used to explore the systematics. The spectralclass dependence vanishes for K-line parameterlogW0<=1.80. Linear spectral class corrections are derivedfor the more luminous stars, with logW0>=2.00, while atable is provided for the transition region. The dispersion from theserelations is about +/-0.6 mag. This recalibration extends thedemonstrated applicability of the Wilson-Bappu technique toMv~=-5 or distance ~20 kpc. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222 Spectral Classification of Unresolved Binary Stars with Artificial Neural NetworksAn artificial neural network technique has been developed to performtwo-dimensional spectral classification of the components of binarystars. The spectra are based on the 15 Å resolution near-infrared(NIR) spectral classification system described by Torres-Dodgen &Weaver. Using the spectrum with no manual intervention except wavelengthregistration, a single artificial neural network (ANN) can classifythese spectra with Morgan-Keenan types with an average accuracy of about2.5 types (subclasses) in temperature and about 0.45 classes inluminosity for up to 3 mag of difference in luminosity. The error intemperature classification does not increase substantially until thesecondary contributes less than 10% of the light of the system. Byfollowing the coarse-classification ANN with a specialist ANN, the meanabsolute errors are reduced to about 0.5 types in temperature and 0.33classes in luminosity. The resulting ANN network was applied to sevenbinary stars. ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XXIII. Measurements during 1982-1997 from Six Telescopes, with 14 New OrbitsWe present 2017 observations of 1286 binary stars, observed by means ofspeckle interferometry using six telescopes over a 15 year period from1982 April to 1997 June. These measurements constitute the 23dinstallment in CHARA's speckle program at 2 to 4 m class telescopes andinclude the second major collection of measurements from the MountWilson 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope. Orbital elements are alsopresented for 14 systems, seven of which have had no previouslypublished orbital analyses. Determination of the characteristics of stars of spectral types F,G,K. The effective temperatures.Not Available Library of Medium-Resolution Fiber Optic Echelle Spectra of F, G, K, and M Field Dwarfs to Giant StarsWe present a library of Penn State Fiber Optic Echelle (FOE)observations of a sample of field stars with spectral types F to M andluminosity classes V to I. The spectral coverage is from 3800 to 10000Å with a nominal resolving power of 12,000. These spectra includemany of the spectral lines most widely used as optical and near-infraredindicators of chromospheric activity such as the Balmer lines (Hαto Hepsilon), Ca II H & K, the Mg I b triplet, Na I D_1, D_2, He ID_3, and Ca II IRT lines. There are also a large number of photosphericlines, which can also be affected by chromospheric activity, andtemperature-sensitive photospheric features such as TiO bands. Thespectra have been compiled with the goal of providing a set of standardsobserved at medium resolution. We have extensively used such data forthe study of active chromosphere stars by applying a spectralsubtraction technique. However, the data set presented here can also beutilized in a wide variety of ways ranging from radial velocitytemplates to study of variable stars and stellar population synthesis.This library can also be used for spectral classification purposes anddetermination of atmospheric parameters (T_eff, logg, [Fe/H]). A digitalversion of all the fully reduced spectra is available via ftp and theWorld Wide Web (WWW) in FITS format. A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 StarsUltraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories. Spectral classifications in the near infrared of stars with composite spectra. III. Study of a sample of 137 objects with the Aurelie spectrographWe provide spectral classifications for a sample of 137 stars mentionedas having composite spectra. The classifications were carried out on 33Angstroms /mm spectra in the region 8370 - 8870 Angstroms. Of these 137objects, 115 correspond in the infrared to cool stars (G, K or M) ofluminosity classes III, II and I; for 22 stars, we find only hot spectraof types B, A, F or Am, so that they do not fulfil our definition ofcomposite spectra. We detect four new Am stars, and one Am star (HD70826) turns out to be a composite spectrum object. As in Paper II, thecool components of composite spectra show a strong concentration in thevicinity of G8III. Based upon observations carried out at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Ultraviolet and Optical Studies of Binaries with Luminous Cool Primaries and Hot Companions. V. The Entire IUE SampleWe have obtained or retrieved IUE spectra for over 100 middle- andlate-type giant and supergiant stars whose spectra indicate the presenceof a hot component earlier than type F2. The hot companions areclassified accurately by temperature class from their far-UV spectra.The interstellar extinction of each system and the relative luminositiesof the components are derived from analysis of the UV and opticalfluxes, using a grid of UV intrinsic colors for hot dwarfs. We find thatthere is fair agreement in general between current UV spectralclassification and ground-based hot component types, in spite of thedifficulties of assigning the latter. There are a few cases in which thecool component optical classifications disagree considerably with thetemperature classes inferred from our analysis of UV and opticalphotometry. The extinction parameter agrees moderately well with otherdeterminations of B-V color excess. Many systems are worthy of furtherstudy especially to establish their spectroscopic orbits. Further workis planned to estimate luminosities of the cool components from the dataherein; in many cases, these luminosities' accuracies should becomparable to or exceed those of the Hipparcos parallaxes. Continuous declination system set up by observations of photoelectric astrolabe Mark I In Irkutsk. The first results of international cooperation between CSAO and VS NIIFTRIThe Photoelectric Astrolabe Mark I (PHA I) has been revised with a newcombined prism which could work as an almucantar with zenith distance of45(deg) , to measure continuous declinations at the latitude of Irkutsk,Russia (phi = 52fdg2 ). The PHA I has been working at the astronomicalbase of VS NIIFTRI in Irkutsk since Nov. 1995 based on an internationalcooperation agreement of near 4 years for star catalogue and EOPmeasurements. The first observing program was ended in June 1997, givingcorrections in both right ascension and declination to 200 stars with noblind zone in declination determination, which most astrolabe cataloguesin the world usually would have. Appendix is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. Temperatures for A0-K0 Supergiants from 13-Color PhotometryObservations on the 13-color photometric system are reported for 71A0-K0 supergiant stars brighter than V=6.0. Three independent methods todetermine the effective temperatures for A0-K0 supergiants from their13C photometry are discussed: 1) Calibrations between T$eff$and reddening-free indices are developed; temperatures were collectedfrom the literature for the calibration stars, and most of them werespectroscopically determined. 2) An empirical correlation betweenintrinsic colors in the 13C system and T$eff$ has beenderived. 3) The unreddened colors are compared with synthetic colorscalculated by Kurucz (1989); this leads to simultaneous estimates forT$eff$ and log $g$. The estimated uncertainties inT$eff$ by the three methods are comparable and areapproximately plus or minus 200-300K. (SECTION: Stars) The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circleThe sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30. Classification of Population II Stars in the Vilnius Photometric System. II. ResultsThe results of photometric classification of 848 true and suspectedPopulation II stars, some of which were found to belong to Population I,are presented. The stars were classified using a new calibrationdescribed in Paper I (Bartkevicius & Lazauskaite 1996). We combinethese results with our results from Paper I and discuss in greaterdetail the following groups of stars: UU Herculis-type stars and otherhigh-galactic-latitude supergiants, field red horizontal-branch stars,metal-deficient visual binaries, metal-deficient subgiants, stars fromthe Catalogue of Metal-deficient F--M Stars Classified Photometrically(MDPH; Bartkevicius 1993) and stars from one of the HIPPARCOS programs(Bartkevicius 1994a). It is confirmed that high galactic latitudesupergiants from the Bartaya (1979) catalog are giants or even dwarfs.Some stars, identified by Rose (1985) and Tautvaisiene (1996a) as fieldRHB stars, appear to be ordinary giants according to our classification.Some of the visual binaries studied can be considered as physical pairs.Quite a large fraction of stars from the MDPH catalog are found to havesolar metallicity. A number of new possible UU Herculis-type stars, RHBstars and metal-deficient subgiants are identified. Cirrus Color Variations Due to Enhanced Radiation FieldsWe have investigated the variations in 12/100, 25/100, 60/100, and 12/25mu m colors for seven main-sequence B stars and three F and Gsupergiants associated with infrared cirrus. All sources displayed anincrease in 60/100 color above the background cirrus color. In two ofthe sources, epsilon Apodis and HR 890, the 12/100 and 25/100 colorsdecline toward the embedded star in a similar fashion to the IR colorsof S264 and the Rosette Nebula. Current grain models composed ofequilibrium-heated submicron grains, transiently heated small grains,and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons cannot account for the colorvariations observed around epsilon Aps and HR 890. The supergiantsexhibited 12/100 and 25/100 increases, suggesting that the colordeficits observed for the B stars are due to an enhancement in the softUV component of the radiation field only. A candidate explanation forthe color variations is a conglomerate small grain component, composedof very small grains and/or large molecules, that is fragmented in theenhanced radiation field around epsilon Aps and HR 890. ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XVII. Measurements During 1993-1995 From the Mount Wilson 2.5-M Telescope.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1639H&db_key=AST A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html MSC - a catalogue of physical multiple starsThe MSC catalogue contains data on 612 physical multiple stars ofmultiplicity 3 to 7 which are hierarchical with few exceptions. Orbitalperiods, angular separations and mass ratios are estimated for eachsub-system. Orbital elements are given when available. The catalogue canbe accessed through CDS (Strasbourg). Half of the systems are within 100pc from the Sun. The comparison of the periods of close and widesub-systems reveals that there is no preferred period ratio and allpossible combinations of periods are found. The distribution of thelogarithms of short periods is bimodal, probably due to observationalselection. In 82\% of triple stars the close sub-system is related tothe primary of a wide pair. However, the analysis of mass ratiodistribution gives some support to the idea that component masses areindependently selected from the Salpeter mass function. Orbits of wideand close sub-systems are not always coplanar, although thecorresponding orbital angular momentum vectors do show a weak tendencyof alignment. Some observational programs based on the MSC aresuggested. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Spectral classifications in the near infrared of stars with composite spectra. II. Study of a sample of 180 starsA sample of 180 supposedly composite-spectrum stars has been studied onthe basis of spectra obtained in the near infrared (8370-8780 Angstroms)at a dispersion of 33 Anstroms/mm. The objective was to study the coolercomponents of the systems. Of our sample, 120 are true compositespectra, 35 are hot spectra of types B, F and 25 are Am stars. We find astrong concentration of the cooler components of the composite spectraaround G8III. In view of the difficulty of classifying compositespectra, because of the super position of an early type dwarf and a latetype giant or supergiant spectrum, we have made several tests to controlthe classification based upon the infrared region. Since all tests gavepositive results, we conclude that our classifications can be consideredas being both reliable and homogeneous. Table \ref{tab1} is alsoavailable electronically at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstracts.html} Based upon observationscarried out at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS). Hybrid stars and the reality of "dividing lines" among G to K bright giants and supergiants.We present results of pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of 15 hybridstars/candidates, which have been analyzed in a homogenous way. 7 ofthese stars were observed in X-rays for the first time. 12 out of 15hybrid stars have been detected as X-ray sources, some of them close tothe detection limit. We conclude that essentially all hybrid stars asdefined by the simultaneous presence of transition region line emissionand cool stellar winds are X-ray sources if exposed sufficiently deep.The X-ray luminosities of hybrid stars cover a range between 2x10^27^and ~10^30^erg/s. Their X-ray surface fluxes can be as low as =~20erg/cm^2^/s and thus considerably lower than those of normal luminosityclass (LC) III giants. X-ray spectra of hybrid stars tend to be harderthan that of normal LC III giants, moreover, the X-ray brightest starshave the hardest spectra. We find that for K II giants the normalizedX-ray flux versus C IV flux obeys a power law with an exponent a=2.9,steeper than among normal giants (1.5). Hybrid K II stars are X-rayunderluminous by a factor of 5 to 20 compared to LC III giants at thesame level of normalized CIV flux f_CIV_/f_bol_; hybrid G supergiantsare even more X-ray deficient. We reanalyze the CaII wind dividing lineand find it vertical at B-V=1.45 for LC III giants. It is nearlyhorizontal between B-V=1.45 and 1.0 (at M_bol_=~-2...-3), and not welldefined for supergiants with B-V<1.0. We therefore suggest thatpossibly all LC II and Ib G and K giants are hybrid stars and that the"dividing line" concept in its simplest form is not valid for G/K giantsbrighter than M_bol_=~-2. Hybrid stars are supposed to be evolvedintermediate mass stars and their coronal activity may in principle bedetermined by the individual history of each star.
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 Constellation: Andromeda Right ascension: 23h46m02.10s Declination: +46Â°25'13.0" Apparent magnitude: 4.95 Distance: 401.606 parsecs Proper motion RA: 10.5 Proper motion Dec: -9 B-T magnitude: 6.372 V-T magnitude: 5.088

Catalogs and designations:
 Proper Names Psi Andromedae   (Edit) Bayer ψ And Flamsteed 20 And HD 1989 HD 223047 TYCHO-2 2000 TYC 3638-2516-1 USNO-A2.0 USNO-A2 1350-18661433 BSC 1991 HR 9003 HIP HIP 117221 → Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR