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νβ Boo (Nu2 Boötis)



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Observed Orbital Eccentricities
For 391 spectroscopic and visual binaries with known orbital elementsand having B0-F0 IV or V primaries, we collected the derivedeccentricities. As has been found by others, those binaries with periodsof a few days have been circularized. However, those with periods up toabout 1000 or more days show reduced eccentricities that asymptoticallyapproach a mean value of 0.5 for the longest periods. For those binarieswith periods greater than 1000 days their distribution of eccentricitiesis flat from 0 to nearly 1, indicating that in the formation of binariesthere is no preferential eccentricity. The binaries with intermediateperiods (10-100 days) lack highly eccentric orbits.

Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear Motion
Useful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr).

Tidal Effects in Binaries of Various Periods
We found in the published literature the rotational velocities for 162B0-B9.5, 152 A0-A5, and 86 A6-F0 stars, all of luminosity classes V orIV, that are in spectroscopic or visual binaries with known orbitalelements. The data show that stars in binaries with periods of less thanabout 4 days have synchronized rotational and orbital motions. Stars inbinaries with periods of more than about 500 days have the samerotational velocities as single stars. However, the primaries inbinaries with periods of between 4 and 500 days have substantiallysmaller rotational velocities than single stars, implying that they havelost one-third to two-thirds of their angular momentum, presumablybecause of tidal interactions. The angular momentum losses increase withdecreasing binary separations or periods and increase with increasingage or decreasing mass.

BVRJK Photometry and a Spectroscopic Study of the Algol Short-Period Binary VV Ursae Majoris
We present the first light curves in the infrared J and K filters of VVUMa and analyze them, together with a new set of BVR light curvesobtained in different runs from 1997 to 2000. Based on the spectra of VVUMa and standard stars in the region 8440-8870 Å, we classify theprimary component of the binary as a type A1.5-2 V star. Evidence ofperiodic small-amplitude variations in the brightness of the system isfound and is more clear during the secondary eclipse orbital phases. Aperiodicity of about 0.51 hr is in good agreement with a previousfinding based on Strömgren photometry, pointing to a real origin inthe system, presumably on low-amplitude pulsations of the primary star.The analysis of the BVRJK light curves, using a code based on ATLASmodel atmospheres, yields new orbital and stellar parameters. We deriveeffective temperatures Teff=9250+/-150 K andTeff=5600+/-100 K for the primary and secondary star,respectively. We challenge the current view that VV UMa is a system withunusually low mass components for their spectral type, and analternative solution is proposed, allowing masses of the stars in theexpected range for their spectral types that are in reasonable agreementwith the available photometric and spectroscopic data. From thevisual-infrared photometry we find no evidence of a significant infraredexcess in the system, deriving an interstellar reddeningE(B-V)<=0.10.

Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin i
This work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XXIII. Measurements during 1982-1997 from Six Telescopes, with 14 New Orbits
We present 2017 observations of 1286 binary stars, observed by means ofspeckle interferometry using six telescopes over a 15 year period from1982 April to 1997 June. These measurements constitute the 23dinstallment in CHARA's speckle program at 2 to 4 m class telescopes andinclude the second major collection of measurements from the MountWilson 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope. Orbital elements are alsopresented for 14 systems, seven of which have had no previouslypublished orbital analyses.

A-shell stars in the Geneva system
Among the various kinds of A stars having a peculiar spectrum, we findthe A-shell stars. Many questions are still open concerning these stars,including their evolutionary status. In the present study we have useddata from the Hipparcos catalogue to examine this point. We have foundthat the majority of A-shell stars are well above the main sequence. Nodifferences could be established between A-shell stars in luminosityclasses III and I and those in luminosity class V as regardsvariability, duplicity, or the importance of the shell feature.

Averaged energy distributions in the stellar spectra.
Not Available

AE and A type shell stars
We present and discuss the observations of 14 Ae and A type shell starsin the visual, the Hα region and the near infrared. At least 57%of these stars are spectrum variables. The Paschen lines are formed in aregion which has the characterics of giant stars. We find that thesystems lie one magnitude above the main sequence and that a largepercentage belong to double and triple systems.

Mass determination of astrometric binaries with Hipparcos. II. Selection of candidates and results
In a previous paper (\cite{Mar97}) we have shown that for double starswith orbital periods smaller than about 25 years, it was possible todetermine from the Hipparcos data, the mass ratio B of the components orthe difference between the mass and intensity ratios, beta -B, providedthe orbital elements of the relative orbit are available. From anextensive literature search we have selected 145 potential systems, ofwhich 46 yielded eventually a satisfactory solution. For eight systemswith the largest separations, the peculiarities of the natural directionassociated to the Hipparcos observations, the 'hippacentre', have beenfully exploited to derive the mass ratio of the components without anyadditional assumption. For the remaining 38, the derivation of the massratio was possible only by taking the magnitude difference between thetwo components from other sources. The parallax determinedsimultaneously, is then used to produce the individual masses of thecomponents. The astrophysical relevance of the results is discussed andwhen possible (17 systems) the masses are compared to ground-basedvalues.

Hot Inner Disks that Appear and Disappear around Rapidly Rotating A-Type Dwarfs
At any one time, approximately one-quarter of the most rapidly rotatingnormal A-type dwarfs (V sin i >= 200 km s-1) show shell lines of TiII in the near-ultraviolet. Our observations during 22 years show thatthe lines appear and disappear on timescales of decades but do notdisplay significant changes within 1 year. This implies that they arenot remnants of the star formation but rather are probably caused bysporadic mass-loss events. A working hypothesis is that all A-type starsthat are rotating near their limits have these shells, but for onlyone-quarter of the time. Because these lines do not appear in stars withsmaller sin i, the shells must be disks. These are hot inner disks thatmay or may not be related to the cool outer disks seen by Smith andTerrile around beta Pic or through infrared excesses around Vega andother A-type dwarfs. The similar, limited line widths indicate that thedisks are ~7 R* above the stellar surfaces.

Investigation of a group of rapidly rotating A stars having an emission excess at IRAS wavelengths.
Not Available

The beta Pictoris Phenomenon in A-Shell Stars: Detection of Accreting Gas
We present the results of an expanded survey of A-shell stars using IUEhigh-dispersion spectra and find accreting, circumstellar gas in theline of sight to nine stars, in addition to the previously identifiedbeta Pic, HR 10, and 131 Tau, which can be followed to between +70 and100 km s-1 relative to the star. Two of the program stars, HD 88195 andHD 148283, show variable high-velocity gas. Given the small number ofIUE spectra for our program stars, detection of high-velocity, accretinggas in 2/3 of the A-shell stars sampled indicates that accretion is anintrinsic part of the A-shell phenomenon and that beta Pic is not uniqueamong main-sequence A stars in exhibiting such activity. Our programstars, as a group, have smaller column densities of high-velocity gasand smaller near-IR excesses compared with beta Pic. These features areconsistent with greater central clearing of a remnant debris disk,compared with beta Pic, and suggest that the majority of field A-shellstars are older than beta Pic.

Detection of Accreting, Circumstellar Gas in a lambda Bootis Star: 131 Tauri
We present IUE high-dispersion spectra of the lambda Boo star, 131 Tau(HD 38545), confirming the presence of shell spectral features and alsoproviding the first detection of accreting, circumstellar gas in thespectrum of a lambda Boo star. Accreting gas can be followed in themid-UV Fe II transitions to +80 km s-1 relative to the star.Circumstellar material can be followed to +60 km s-1 relative to thestar in Zn II and is detected, albeit with low S/N, in Si II, Al II, andC I. The IUE data for 131 Tau were compared with archival spectra ofother lambda Boo stars with optical detections of narrow absorptionfeatures, which have previously been interpreted as signatures ofcircumstellar gas. We find that the circumstellar absorption in 131 Taumore closely resembles similar features that are routinely observed inbeta Pic and recently detected in other field A-shell stars.

Polarisation in A-type stars with circumstellar shells.
We present the results of optical linear polarisation measurements ofabout 30 A-type stars that are known to be either Ae/A shell stars orhave shown anomalous emission in the infrared. Compared with the generalpopulation of A-type stars, stars of this group are found to havepolarisation that is also anomalous and is suggested to be circumstellarin origin.

UvbyHbeta_ photometry of main sequence A type stars.
We present Stroemgren uvby and Hbeta_ photometry for a set of575 northern main sequence A type stars, most of them belonging to theHipparcos Input Catalogue, with V from 5mag to 10mag and with knownradial velocities. These observations enlarge the catalogue we began tocompile some years ago to more than 1500 stars. Our catalogue includeskinematic and astrophysical data for each star. Our future goal is toperform an accurate analysis of the kinematical behaviour of these starsin the solar neighbourhood.

The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

Radial velocity studies of A-type shell stars.
We have measured radial velocities for a sample of A-type shell stars.We examine the results for the H I, Ti II and Ca II shell lines andcompared them with the radial velocities derived for the underlyingstars. We found that the A-type shell stars reproduce on a smaller scalethe phenomena observed in B-type shell stars.

Binary star speckle measurements during 1989-1993 from the SAO 6 M and 1 M telescopes in Zelenchuk
We have continued to survey visual and interferometric binary stars withsignificant orbital motion by means of speckle method at the telescopesof the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Zelenchuk. Here wepresent the lists of 267 speckle observations made with the 6 m and the1 m telescopes in the period May 1989-November 1993.

All-sky Stromgren photometry of speckle binary stars
All-sky Stromgren photometric observations were obtained for 303 specklebinaries. Most stars were in the range of V = 5-8. These data, whencombined with ratios of intensities from the CHARA speckle photometryprogram, will allow the determination of photometric indices for theindividual components of binary stars with separations as small as 0.05arcsec. These photometric indices will complement the stellar massesfrom the speckle interferometry observations to provide a much improvedmass-luminosity relationship.

ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. X - A further survey for duplicity among the bright stars
Speckle interferometric observations are reported for 1123 starsselected from the Yale Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) in a continuingeffort to detect new binaries among the bright stars. Thirty-twopreviously unresolved binaries have been detected, including companionsto Xi UMa and 15 S Mon. Measures of 107 previously resolved systems,many of which resulted from earlier speckle observations, are alsopresented. No evidence of duplicity within a specific (m, Delta-m, rho)window of detectability was found for 984 bright stars. Many of thesystems discovered earlier have shown significant orbital motions, andwe present preliminary orbital elements for six binaries. This efforthas resulted in the discovery of 75 new, bright binaries. We considersome aspects of the duplicity frequencies among the diverse spectral andluminosity classes represented in this sample. We anticipate that thecompletion of a speckle survey of the BSC would lead to the discovery ofat least 200 additional binary systems with angular separations mostlybelow 0.20 arcsec. Many of these will have periods of the order of onedecade and will be accessible to complementary radial velocity programsof enhanced precision.

Interferometric observations of double stars in 1986-1990
A tabulation is presented for the measurements of double stars that havebeen conducted with the photometric phase-grating interferometer of theMt. Sanglok 1-m reflector. The tabulation encompasses the observationepoch, the position angle, the separation in arcsec, the magnitudedifference, formal errors in P.A. and separation, SAO number, andcoordinates for 2000.0.

Speckle Measurements of Binary Stars / 6-METER Telescope - 1987-1988
Not Available

Anomalous infrared emitters among A-type stars
Spectroscopic observations of a sample of 26 stars have been analyzed inthe blue and near-IR to find out if anomalous IR emitters (AIEs) have aspectral signature. It is found that many, but not all, such starsexhibit shell characteristics. Analysis of available IRAS photometricobservations of A-type stars shows that the detection of circumstellarfeatures depends strongly on the number of IR bands at which the objectwas observed. Out of the 707 stars observed by IRAS, 41 AIEs, or 5.7percent, are found. Among nonsupergiant AIEs, 23 percent show shellfeatures. The true percentage of AIEs among A-type stars is estimated tobe 1.5 percent in a volume-corrected sample. A list of 24 stars whichwere apparently not previously detected as AIEs is given.

AE and A-type shell stars in the near infrared
Spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared of a number of Ae and Ashell stars are presented. It is shown that shells can be detectedthrough the enhancement of the lambda 7773 line and through otherspectroscopic criteria.

A first catalogue of speckle-interferometric measurements of binary stars made with 6-m telescope of the USSR AS.
Not Available

ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. V - Measurements during 1988-1989 from the Kitt Peak and the Cerro Tololo 4 M telescopes
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990AJ.....99..965M&db_key=AST

Search for Beta Pictoris-like star
The results are reported of a systematic search for Beta Pic-like stars,undertaken at ESO, CFHT and OHP. The candidate stars, either IRAS excessstars or shell stars, are investigated by means of high resolutionspectroscopy in the Ca II and Na I lines, which in the case of Beta Pic,are very peculiar. The observations are presented and it is shown thatamong the selected stars, few do show spectral similarities with BetaPic. Some interesting cases, HR10, HR2174, HR9043 and HR6519 arediscussed.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:15h31m47.00s
Apparent magnitude:5.02
Distance:131.752 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-18.5
Proper motion Dec:-12.4
B-T magnitude:5.105
V-T magnitude:4.992

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesNu2 Boötis
Bayerνβ Boo
Flamsteed53 Boo
HD 1989HD 138629
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3055-2340-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1275-08684020
BSC 1991HR 5774
HIPHIP 76041

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