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Forty Years of Spectroscopic Stellar Astrophysics in Japan
The development of Japanese spectroscopic stellar astrophysics in therecent 40 years is reviewed from an observational point of view. In thisarticle, the research activities are provisionally divided into fourfields: hot stars, hot emission-line (Be) stars, cool stars, and otherstars. Historical developments of the observational facilities atOkayama Astrophysical Observatory (spectrographs and detectors) are alsosummarized in connection with the progress in scientific researchactivities.

Astrometric orbits of SB^9 stars
Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) have been used to deriveastrometric orbital elements for spectroscopic binaries from the newlyreleased Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits(SB^9). This endeavour is justified by the fact that (i) theastrometric orbital motion is often difficult to detect without theprior knowledge of the spectroscopic orbital elements, and (ii) suchknowledge was not available at the time of the construction of theHipparcos Catalogue for the spectroscopic binaries which were recentlyadded to the SB^9 catalogue. Among the 1374 binaries fromSB^9 which have an HIP entry (excluding binaries with visualcompanions, or DMSA/C in the Double and Multiple Stars Annex), 282 havedetectable orbital astrometric motion (at the 5% significance level).Among those, only 70 have astrometric orbital elements that are reliablydetermined (according to specific statistical tests), and for the firsttime for 20 systems. This represents a 8.5% increase of the number ofastrometric systems with known orbital elements (The Double and MultipleSystems Annex contains 235 of those DMSA/O systems). The detection ofthe astrometric orbital motion when the Hipparcos IAD are supplementedby the spectroscopic orbital elements is close to 100% for binaries withonly one visible component, provided that the period is in the 50-1000 drange and the parallax is >5 mas. This result is an interestingtestbed to guide the choice of algorithms and statistical tests to beused in the search for astrometric binaries during the forthcoming ESAGaia mission. Finally, orbital inclinations provided by the presentanalysis have been used to derive several astrophysical quantities. Forinstance, 29 among the 70 systems with reliable astrometric orbitalelements involve main sequence stars for which the companion mass couldbe derived. Some interesting conclusions may be drawn from this new setof stellar masses, like the enigmatic nature of the companion to theHyades F dwarf HIP 20935. This system has a mass ratio of 0.98 but thecompanion remains elusive.

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.

The Henize sample of S stars. IV. New symbiotic stars
The properties of the few symbiotic stars detected among the 66 binary Sstars from the Henize sample are discussed. Two stars (Hen 18 and Hen121) exhibit both a strong blue-violet continuum and strongHalpha emission (FWHM of 70 km s-1), whereas Hen134 and 137 exhibit weak Halpha emission. TheHalpha profiles are typical of non-dusty symbiotic starsbelonging to class S-3 as defined by Van Winckel et al. (1993, A&AS102, 401). In that class as in the Henize symbiotic S stars, He I, [NII] or [S II] emission lines are absent, suggesting that the nebulardensity is high but the excitation rather low. The radial velocity ofthe centre of the Halpha emission is identical to that of thecompanion star (at least for Hen 121 where this can be checked from theavailable orbital elements), thus suggesting that the Halphaemission originates in gas moving with the companion star. For Hen 121,this is further confirmed by the disappearance of the ultraviolet Balmercontinuum when the companion is eclipsed by the S star. Hen 121 is thusthe second eclipsing binary star discovered among extrinsic S stars (thefirst one is HD 35155). A comparison of the available data on orbitalperiods and Halpha emission leads to the conclusion thatHalpha emission in s stars seems to be restricted to binarysystems with periods in the range 600-1000 d, in agreement with thesituation prevailing for red symbiotic stars (excluding symbioticnovae). Symbiotic S stars are found among the most evolved extrinsic Sstars. Based on observations carried out at the European SouthernObservatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile; program 60.E-0805) and at the Swiss70 cm telescope (La Silla, Chile).

Near-infrared observations of candidate extrinsic S stars
Photometric observations in the near infrared for 161 S stars, including18 Tc-rich (intrinsic) stars, 19 Tc-deficient (extrinsic) ones and 124candidates for Tc-deficient S stars, are presented in this paper. Basedon some further investigations into the infrared properties of bothTc-rich and Tc-deficient S stars, 104 candidates are identified as verylikely Tc-deficient S stars. The large number of infrared-selectedTc-deficient S stars provides a convenient way to study the physicalproperties and the evolutionary status of this species of S stars.

A multi-epoch spectrophotometric atlas of symbiotic stars
A multi-epoch, absolute-fluxed spectral atlas extending from about 3200to 9000 Å is presented for 130 symbiotic stars, including membersof the LMC, SMC and Draco dwarf galaxies. The fluxes are accurate tobetter than 5% as shown by comparison with Tycho and ground-basedphotometric data. The spectra of 40 reference objects (MKK cool giantstandards, Mira and Carbon stars, planetary nebulae, white dwarfs, hotsub-dwarfs, Wolf-Rayet stars, classical novae, VV Cep and Herbig Ae/Beobjects) are provided to assist the interpretation of symbiotic starspectra. Astrometric positions and counterparts in astrometriccatalogues are derived for all program symbiotic stars. The spectra areavailable in electronic form from the authors. Based on observationscollected with the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory (ESO,Chile) and of the Padova & Asiago Astronomical Observatories(Italy). Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form (a) at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/383/188, and (b) from thepersonal home page http://ulisse.pd.astro.it/symbio_atlas/ Figures 4-256are only available in electronic form (a) at http://www.edpsciences.organd (b) from the personal home pagehttp://ulisse.pd.astro.it/symbio_atlas/

Nucleosynthesis and Mixing on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. III. Predicted and Observed s-Process Abundances
We present the results of s-process nucleosynthesis calculations forasymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of different metallicities anddifferent initial stellar masses (1.5 and 3 Msolar), and wepresent comparisons of them with observational constraints fromhigh-resolution spectroscopy of evolved stars over a wide metallicityrange. The computations were based on previously published stellarevolutionary models that account for the third dredge-up phenomenonoccurring late on the AGB. Neutron production is driven by the13C(α,n)16O reaction during the interpulseperiods in a tiny layer in radiative equilibrium at the top of the He-and C-rich shell. The neutron source 13C is manufacturedlocally by proton captures on the abundant 12C; a few protonsare assumed to penetrate from the convective envelope into the radiativelayer at any third dredge-up episode, when a chemical discontinuity isestablished between the convective envelope and the He- and C-richzones. A weaker neutron release is also guaranteed by the marginalactivation of the reaction 22Ne(α,n)25Mgduring the convective thermal pulses. Owing to the lack of a consistentmodel for 13C formation, the abundance of 13Cburnt per cycle is allowed to vary as a free parameter over a wideinterval (a factor of 50). The s-enriched material is subsequently mixedwith the envelope by the third dredge-up, and the envelope compositionis computed after each thermal pulse. We follow the changes in thephotospheric abundance of the Ba-peak elements (heavy s [hs]) and thatof the Zr-peak ones (light s [ls]), whose logarithmic ratio [hs/ls] hasoften been adopted as an indicator of the s-process efficiency (e.g., ofthe neutron exposure). Our model predictions for this parameter show acomplex trend versus metallicity. Especially noteworthy is theprediction that the flow along the s-path at low metallicities drainsthe Zr and Ba peaks and builds an excess at the doubly magic208Pb, which is at the termination of the s-path. We thendiscuss the effects on the models of variations in the crucialparameters of the 13C pocket, finding that they are notcritical for interpreting the results. The theoretical predictions arecompared with published abundances of s-elements for AGB giants ofclasses MS, S, SC, post-AGB supergiants, and for various classes ofbinary stars, which supposedly derive their composition by mass transferfrom an AGB companion. This is done for objects belonging both to theGalactic disk and to the halo. The observations in general confirm thecomplex dependence of neutron captures on metallicity. They suggest thata moderate spread exists in the abundance of 13C that isburnt in different stars. Although additional observations are needed,it seems that a good understanding has been achieved of s-processoperation in AGB stars. Finally, the detailed abundance distributionincluding the light elements (CNO) of a few s-enriched stars atdifferent metallicities are examined and satisfactorily reproduced bymodel envelope compositions.

Stellar and circumstellar evolution of long period variable stars
In a first paper, HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data were used tocalibrate both infrared K and IRAS luminosities at the same time askinematic parameters of Long Period Variable stars (LPVs). Individualestimated absolute magnitudes and a probabilistic assignation togalactic populations were deduced from these calibrations for each LPVof our sample. Here we propose a scenario of simultaneous stellar andcircumstellar evolution according to the galactic populations. Thetransitory states of S and Tc stars allow us to confirm the location ofthe first dredge-up at Mbol=-3.5. There is also evidencesuggesting that a previous enrichment in s-elements from a more evolvedcompanion may accelerate the evolution along the AGB. The possibleevolution to OH LPVs is included in this scenario, and any of thesestars may have a mass at the limit of the capability for a C enrichmentup to C/O > 1. A list of bright massive LPVs with peculiar envelopeand luminosity properties is proposed as Hot Bottom Burning candidates.The He-shell flash star, R Cen, is found to be exceptionally bright andcould become, before leaving the AGB, a C-rich LPV brighter than theusual luminosity limit of carbon stars.

Lower limits on the maximum orbital frequency around rotating strange stars
Observations of kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the X-rayfluxes of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) have been used in attempts toconstrain the external metric of the compact members of these binaries,as well as their masses and the equations of state of matter atsupranuclear denisties. We compute the maximum orbital frequency ofstable circular motion around uniformly rotating strange stars describedby the MIT bag model. The calculations are performed for both normal andsupramassive constant baryon mass sequences of strange stars rotating atall possible rates. We find the lower limits on the maximum orbitalfrequency and discuss them for a range of masses and for all rotationalfrequencies allowed in the model considered. We show that for slowly andmoderately rotating strange stars the maximum value of orbital frequencycan be a good indicator of the mass of the compact object. However, forrapidly rotating strange stars the same value of orbital frequency inthe innermost stable circular orbit is obtained for stars with massesranging from that of a planetoid to about three solar masses. Atsufficiently high rotation rates of the strange star, the rotationalperiod alone constrains the stellar mass to a surprisingly narrow range.

Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrations
In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr).

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

The Chemical Composition and Orbital Parameters of Barium Stars
Not Available

A catalogue of symbiotic stars
We present a new catalogue of symbiotic stars. In our list we include188 symbiotic stars as well as 30 objects suspected of being symbiotic.For each star, we present basic observational material: coordinates, Vand K magnitudes, ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR), X-ray and radioobservations. We also list the spectral type of the cool component, themaximum ionization potential observed, references to finding charts,spectra, classifications and recent papers discussing the physicalparameters and nature of each object. Moreover, we present the orbitalphotometric ephemerides and orbital elements of known symbioticbinaries, pulsational periods for symbiotic Miras, Hipparcos parallaxesand information about outbursts and flickering.

Re-processing the Hipparcos Transit Data and Intermediate Astrometric Data of spectroscopic binaries. I. Ba, CH and Tc-poor S stars
Only 235 entries were processed as astrometric binaries with orbits inthe Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogue (\cite{Hipparcos}). However, theIntermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) and Transit Data (TD) made availableby ESA make it possible to re-process the stars that turned out to bespectroscopic binaries after the completion of the Catalogue. This paperillustrates how TD and IAD may be used in conjunction with the orbitalparameters of spectroscopic binaries to derive astrometric parameters.The five astrometric and four orbital parameters (not already known fromthe spectroscopic orbit) are derived by minimizing an objective function(chi 2) with an algorithm of global optimization. This codehas been applied to 81 systems for which spectroscopic orbits becameavailable recently and that belong to various families ofchemically-peculiar red giants (namely, dwarf barium stars, strong andmild barium stars, CH stars, and Tc-poor S stars). Among these 81systems, 23 yield reliable astrometric orbits. These 23 systems make itpossible to evaluate on real data the so-called ``cosmic error''described by Wielen et al. (1997), namely the fact that an unrecognizedorbital motion introduces a systematic error on the proper motion.Comparison of the proper motion from the Hipparcos catalogue with thatre-derived in the present work indicates that the former are indeed faroff the present value for binaries with periods in the range 3 to ~ 8years. Hipparcos parallaxes of unrecognized spectroscopic binaries turnout to be reliable, except for systems with periods close to 1 year, asexpected. Finally, we show that, even when a complete orbital revolutionwas observed by Hipparcos, the inclination is unfortunately seldomprecise. Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satelliteoperated by the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).

Spectrophotometry of three S stars and thirteen carbon N stars
The absolute energy distributions in the visual spectra (lambdalambda3200-7600 Angstroms) of 13 N carbon stars and three S stars have beeninvestigated. The spectral resolution of the data is 50 Angstroms andthe relative rms error is 2-5%. Our data supplement and extend theAlmaty and other spectrophotometric catalogs that are lacking in thesetypes of objects. The results can be compared with model atmospheres andalso used in other studies.

A search for Technetium in semiregular variables
We searched for the lines of Tc in the spectra of Semiregular variables(SRVs) in the wavelength region from 4180 to 4300 Å using highresolution spectroscopy. Tc as an s-process element is produced on thethermally pulsing AGB and is therefore a good indicator for theevolutionary status of Semiregular variables. Combining our results withprevious investigations we get a database large enough for a statisticalstudy. Tc is not found in SRVs with periods below 100 days, spectraltypes earlier than M5 and photospheric IRAS colours. These objects are`blue' SRVs in the classification system of Kerschbaum & Hron(\cite{KH94}). Among the `red' SRVs (periods longer than 100 days) thefraction of stars showing Tc in their spectra is about 15 % with aprobably lower fraction among the stars with periods above 150 days.This is significantly lower than for the typical Miras. Taking intoaccount the probable conditions for the occurence of the third dredge-upand the expected behavior of the Tc abundance along an evolutionarytrack on the AGB, our results support an evolutionary scenario from`blue' SRVs (early AGB) to `red' SRVs (early TP-AGB) and on to longperiod Miras. Only the most massive (masses above 2M_ȯ) stars showTc during the SRV stage. The luminosities of the Tc-rich SRVs and Mirasare compatible with theoretical estimates of the minimum core massrequired for the third dredge-up. Based on observations collected at theEuropean Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO No.54.E-0350), theGerman Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, operated by theMax-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the SpanishNational Commission for Astronomy, and Kitt Peak National Observatory,USA.

Heavy-element abundances in seven SC stars and several related stars
We employ spectra of resolution 20-35,000 of seven SC stars, four Sstars, two Ba stars, and two K-M stars to derive abundances of a varietyof elements from Sr to Eu relative to iron. Special attention is paid toRb and Tc, and to the ratio of the heavy s-process species to the lights-process elements. Abundances are derived in LTE, both by using modelatmospheres in which the carbon and oxygen abundances are nearly equaland by using curves of growth. Spectrum synthesis is used for criticallines, such as the 5924-A line of Tc and the 7800-A line of Rb. For mostof the heavy-element stars, the enhancement of the s-process elements isabout a factor of 10. The ratio of the heavy to light s-process speciesis not far from solar, except for RR Her, for which the same ratio is +0.45 dex. For Tc the blending by other lines is severe. While we haveprobably detected the 5924-A line, we can only present abundances in theless-than-or-equal-to category.

On the Variability of S Stars as Observed by the Hipparcos
The Hipparcos photometry of S type stars shows that they are allvariable. The intrinsic S stars show a larger range of amplitudes thando the extrinsic S stars.

The Infrared Spectral Classification of Oxygen-rich Dust Shells
This paper presents infrared spectral classifications for a flux-limitedsample of 635 optically identified oxygen-rich variables includingsupergiants and sources on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Severalclasses of spectra from oxygen-rich dust exist, and these can bearranged in a smoothly varying sequence of spectral shapes known as thesilicate dust sequence. Classification based on this sequence revealsseveral dependencies of the dust emission on the properties of thecentral star. Nearly all S stars show broad emission features fromalumina dust, while most of the supergiants exhibit classic featuresfrom amorphous silicate dust. Mira variables with symmetric light curvesgenerally show broad alumina emission, while those with more asymmetriclight curves show classic silicate emission. These differences may arisefrom differences in the photospheric C/O ratio.

Spectra of Cool Stars in the J Band (1.0-1.3 μm) at Medium Resolution
A spectroscopic survey of 103 cool S-, C-, and M-type stars wasundertaken with the Kitt Peak cryogenic spectrograph on the 1.3 mtelescope to make a detailed search for new molecular bands in the1.0-1.3 μm J-band region. While the spectra have high signal-to-noiseratios and good repeatability, no strong new features were found. Higherresolution spectra of a small sample of representative stars observedwith the 4 m Fourier transform spectrometer were invoked in order toidentify the features in these spectra. With few exceptions, the detailsof these spectra are well understood. Laboratory spectra were obtainedto aid in the identification of some weak features. Spectral featuresfrom dominant lines of Ti, Fe, Al, Si, Mn, Na, and K, and molecularbands due to TiO, TiS, ZrO, ZrS, VO, H_2O, and CN, have been identifiedin the spectra. Several weak unidentified bands are found.

Continuous declination system set up by observations of photoelectric astrolabe Mark I In Irkutsk. The first results of international cooperation between CSAO and VS NIIFTRI
The Photoelectric Astrolabe Mark I (PHA I) has been revised with a newcombined prism which could work as an almucantar with zenith distance of45(deg) , to measure continuous declinations at the latitude of Irkutsk,Russia (phi = 52fdg2 ). The PHA I has been working at the astronomicalbase of VS NIIFTRI in Irkutsk since Nov. 1995 based on an internationalcooperation agreement of near 4 years for star catalogue and EOPmeasurements. The first observing program was ended in June 1997, givingcorrections in both right ascension and declination to 200 stars with noblind zone in declination determination, which most astrolabe cataloguesin the world usually would have. Appendix is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

A CORAVEL radial-velocity monitoring of S stars: Symbiotic activity vs. orbital separation. III.
Orbital elements are presented for the Tc-poor S stars HR 363 (= HD7351) and HD 191226. With an orbital period of 4592 d (=12.6 y), HR 363has the longest period known among S stars, and yet it is a strong X-raysource. Its X-ray flux is similar to that of HD 35155, an S star withone of the shortest orbital periods (640 d). This surprising result isput in perspective with other diagnostics of binary interaction observedin binary S stars. They reveal that there is no correlation between thelevel of binary interaction and the orbital period. All these activitydiagnostics moreover exhibit a strong time-variability. In thewell-documented case of HR 1105, this time-variability appears to be acombination of orbital modulation and secular variation. A stream of gasfrom the red-giant wind, which is heated when funneled through the innerLagrangian point, has been proposed as the source of the hard photons\cite[(Shcherbakov & Tuominen 1992).]{S} Different viewing angles ofthe stream during the orbital cycle account for the orbital modulation,whereas long-term fluctuations of the mass-loss rate account for thesecular variations. Little dependence to the orbital separation isexpected for this kind of activity. If such streams are causing theactivity observed in the other binary S stars as well, it would providea natural explanation for the absence of correlation between orbitalperiods and activity levels, since the red-giant mass loss rate would bethe dominant factor. The existence of such funneled streams is moreoverpredicted by smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of mass transferin detached binary systems. Based on observations performed with theSwiss telescope at the Haute-Provence Observatory, France.

CO observations and mass loss of MS- and S-stars
We present (12) CO J = 1-0 and 2-1 observations of 14 S-stars, andreport 6 new detections. Two stars were observed in the (13) CO J = 1-0and 2-1 lines, and one tentative 2-1 detection is reported. Acompilation is presented of all CO observations of S-stars. The stars inthis sample are separated into ``intrinsic'' and ``extrinsic'' S-stars,based on direct observation of the Technetium line, or infraredproperties. The dust mass loss rate per unit distance is derived fromIRAS 60 mu m data taking into the fact that for small mass loss ratesthe observed flux is an overestimate of the excess emission due to dust.The gas mass loss rate per unit distance is derived from CO data.Distances and luminosities are estimated, partly from hipparcos parallaxdata. The largest mass loss rate derived is that for W Aql with(0.8-2.0) x 10(-5) {Msun} yr(-1) , and the lowest is that foro Ori with <1.2 x 10(-9) {Msun} yr(-1) . The S-starswithout Tc have smaller mass loss rates, than those with Tc. Diagramsshowing mass loss rate, dust-to-gas ratio and expansion velocity versuspulsation period are presented, and compared to similar data for carbon-and oxygen-rich Miras. The S-Miras stand not out in any way from the C-or O-Miras in these diagrams. In the diagram with expansion velocityversus pulsation period, the S-SRs span the same range in velocity asthe S-Miras, but they have periods which are about a factor of 2.5shorter. This was previously noted for O-rich SRs. As in that case, themost straightforward explanantion is that the SRs among the S-starspulsate in a higher order pulsation mode. Based on data from the ESAhipparcos astrometry satellite.

BVRI photometry of the extrinsic S star HR 1105
BVRI photometry of the extrinsic S star HR 1105 shows a stable periodiclight variability with a period of 24.76 days superimposed upon longterm changes presumably related to the orbital period. The variationsare in phase for all four magnitudes with the amplitude of thisvariability being about the same for B and V, but smaller for R and evensmaller for I. As the primary is a M3 III star, these brightness changesare mostly likely due to the pulsation of the primary star. Table 1 isonly available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Infrared study of the two categories of S stars
Photometric observations of 20 Tc-deficient and 24 Tc-rich S stars inthe near infrared are presented in this paper. With the IRAS data,infrared two color diagrams, IRAS low-resolution spectra and energydistributions are discussed to summarize the way to segregate Tc-richstars from Tc-deficient ones.

Insights into the formation of barium and Tc-poor S stars from an extended sample of orbital elements
The set of orbital elements available for chemically-peculiar red giant(PRG) stars has been considerably enlarged thanks to a decade-longCORAVEL radial-velocity monitoring of about 70 barium stars and 50 Sstars. When account is made for the detection biases, the observedbinary frequency among strong barium stars, mild barium stars andTc-poor S stars (respectively 35/37, 34/40 and 24/28) is compatible withthe hypothesis that they are all members of binary systems. Thesimilarity between the orbital-period, eccentricity and mass-functiondistributions of Tc-poor S stars and barium stars confirms that Tc-poorS stars are the cooler analogs of barium stars. A comparative analysisof the orbital elements of the various families of PRG stars, and of asample of chemically-normal, binary giants in open clusters, revealsseveral interesting features. The eccentricity - period diagram of PRGstars clearly bears the signature of dissipative processes associatedwith mass transfer, since the maximum eccentricity observed at a givenorbital period is much smaller than in the comparison sample of normalgiants. be held The mass function distribution is compatible with theunseen companion being a white dwarf (WD). This lends support to thescenario of formation of the PRG star by accretion of heavy-element-richmatter transferred from the former asymptotic giant branch progenitor ofthe current WD. Assuming that the WD companion has a mass in the range0.60+/-0.04 Msb ȯ, the masses of mild and strong barium starsamount to 1.9+/-0.2 and 1.5+/-0.2 Msb ȯ, respectively. Mild bariumstars are not restricted to long-period systems, contrarily to what isexpected if the smaller accretion efficiency in wider systems were thedominant factor controlling the pollution level of the PRG star. Theseresults suggest that the difference between mild and strong barium starsis mainly one of galactic population rather than of orbital separation,in agreement with their respective kinematical properties. There areindications that metallicity may be the parameter blurring the period -Ba-anomaly correlation: at a given orbital period, increasing levels ofheavy-element overabundances are found in mild barium stars, strongbarium stars, and Pop.II CH stars, corresponding to a sequence ofincreasingly older, i.e., more metal-deficient, populations. PRG starsthus seem to be produced more efficiently in low-metallicitypopulations. Conversely, normal giants in barium-like binary systems mayexist in more metal-rich populations. HD 160538 (DR Dra) may be such anexample, and its very existence indicates at least that binarity is nota sufficient condition to produce a PRG star. This paper is dedicated tothe memory of Antoine Duquennoy, who contributed many among theobservations used in this study

The HIPPARCOS Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of S stars: probing nucleosynthesis and dredge-up
HIPPARCOS trigonometrical parallaxes make it possible to compare thelocation of Tc-rich and Tc-poor S stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR)diagram: Tc-rich S stars are found to be cooler and intrinsicallybrighter than Tc-poor S stars. The comparison with the Genevaevolutionary tracks reveals that the line marking the onset of thermalpulses on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) matches well the observedlimit between Tc-poor and Tc-rich S stars. Tc-rich S stars are, asexpected, identified with thermally-pulsing AGB stars of low andintermediate masses, whereas Tc-poor S stars comprise mostly low-massstars (with the exception of 57 Peg) located either on the red giantbranch or on the early AGB. Like barium stars, Tc-poor S stars are knownto belong exclusively to binary systems, and their location in the HRdiagram is consistent with the average mass of 1.6+/-0.2 Msb ȯderived from their orbital mass-function distribution (Jorissen et al.1997, A&A, submitted). A comparison with the S stars identified inthe Magellanic Clouds and in the Fornax dwarf elliptical galaxy revealsthat they have luminosities similar to the galactic Tc-rich S stars.However, most of the surveys of S stars in the external systems did notreach the lower luminosities at which galactic Tc-poor S stars arefound. The deep Westerlund survey of carbon stars in the SMC uncovered afamily of faint carbon stars that may be the analogues of thelow-luminosity, galactic Tc-poor S stars. Based on data from theHIPPARCOS astrometry satellite

The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:03h42m09.30s
Apparent magnitude:5.1
Distance:159.49 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-18.2
Proper motion Dec:19.4
B-T magnitude:7.265
V-T magnitude:5.284

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesBD Camelopardalis
HD 1989HD 22649
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 4066-1732-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1500-03307333
BSC 1991HR 1105
HIPHIP 17296

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