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A Comparative Study on Lithium Abundances in Solar-Type Stars With and Without Planets
We have investigated the abundance anomalies of lithium for stars withplanets in the temperature range of 5600-5900 K reported by Israelianand coworkers, as compared to 20 normal stars in the same temperatureand metallicity ranges. Our result indicates a higher probability oflithium depletion for stars with planets in the main-sequence stage. Itseems that stellar photospheric abundances of lithium in stars withplanets may be somewhat affected by the presence of planets. Twopossible mechanisms are considered to account for the lower Liabundances of stars with planets. One is related to the rotation-inducedmixing due to the conservation of angular momentum by the protoplanetarydisk, and the other is a shear instability triggered by planetmigration. These results provide new information on stellar evolutionand the lithium evolution of the Galaxy.

Lithium Abundances of F-, G-, and K-Type Stars: Profile-Fitting Analysis of the Li I 6708 Doublet
An extensive profile-fitting analysis was performed for the Li(+Fe)6707-6708Å feature of nearby 160 F-K dwarfs/subgiants (including27 planet-host stars) in the Galactic disk ( 7000 K ≳Teff ≳ 5000 K, -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.4), in orderto establish the photospheric lithium abundances of these stars. Thenon-LTE effect (though quantitatively insignificant) was taken intoaccount based on our statistical equilibrium calculations, which werecarried out on an adequate grid of models. Our results confirmed most ofthe interesting observational characteristics revealed by recentlypublished studies, such as the bimodal distribution of the Li abundancesfor stars at Teff ≳ 6000 K, the satisfactory agreementof the upper envelope of the A(Li) vs. [Fe/H] distribution with thetheoretical models, the existence of a positive correlation betweenA(Li) and the stellar mass, and the tendency of lower lithium abundancesof planet-host stars (as compared to stars without planets) at thenarrow ``transition'' region of 5900 K ≳ Teff ≳5800 K. The solar Li abundance derived from this analysis is 0.92 (H =12.00), which is by 0.24dex lower than the widely referenced standardvalue of 1.16.

Spectroscopic Study on the Atmospheric Parameters of Nearby F--K Dwarfs and Subgiants
Based on a collection of high-dispersion spectra obtained at OkayamaAstrophysical Observatory, the atmospheric parameters (Teff,log g, vt, and [Fe/H]) of 160 mid-F through early-K starswere extensively determined by the spectroscopic method using theequivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines along with the numericaltechnique of Takeda et al. (2002, PASJ, 54, 451). The results arecomprehensively discussed and compared with the parameter values derivedby different approaches (e.g., photometric colors, theoreticalevolutionary tracks, Hipparcos parallaxes, etc.) as well as with thepublished values found in various literature. It has been confirmed thatour purely spectroscopic approach yields fairly reliable and consistentresults.

Astrometric orbits of SB^9 stars
Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) have been used to deriveastrometric orbital elements for spectroscopic binaries from the newlyreleased Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits(SB^9). This endeavour is justified by the fact that (i) theastrometric orbital motion is often difficult to detect without theprior knowledge of the spectroscopic orbital elements, and (ii) suchknowledge was not available at the time of the construction of theHipparcos Catalogue for the spectroscopic binaries which were recentlyadded to the SB^9 catalogue. Among the 1374 binaries fromSB^9 which have an HIP entry (excluding binaries with visualcompanions, or DMSA/C in the Double and Multiple Stars Annex), 282 havedetectable orbital astrometric motion (at the 5% significance level).Among those, only 70 have astrometric orbital elements that are reliablydetermined (according to specific statistical tests), and for the firsttime for 20 systems. This represents a 8.5% increase of the number ofastrometric systems with known orbital elements (The Double and MultipleSystems Annex contains 235 of those DMSA/O systems). The detection ofthe astrometric orbital motion when the Hipparcos IAD are supplementedby the spectroscopic orbital elements is close to 100% for binaries withonly one visible component, provided that the period is in the 50-1000 drange and the parallax is >5 mas. This result is an interestingtestbed to guide the choice of algorithms and statistical tests to beused in the search for astrometric binaries during the forthcoming ESAGaia mission. Finally, orbital inclinations provided by the presentanalysis have been used to derive several astrophysical quantities. Forinstance, 29 among the 70 systems with reliable astrometric orbitalelements involve main sequence stars for which the companion mass couldbe derived. Some interesting conclusions may be drawn from this new setof stellar masses, like the enigmatic nature of the companion to theHyades F dwarf HIP 20935. This system has a mass ratio of 0.98 but thecompanion remains elusive.

Abundance trends in kinematical groups of the Milky Way's disk
We have compiled a large catalogue of metallicities and abundance ratiosfrom the literature in order to investigate abundance trends of severalalpha and iron peak elements in the thin disk and the thick disk of theGalaxy. The catalogue includes 743 stars with abundances of Fe, O, Mg,Ca, Ti, Si, Na, Ni and Al in the metallicity range -1.30 < [Fe/H]< +0.50. We have checked that systematic differences betweenabundances measured in the different studies were lower than randomerrors before combining them. Accurate distances and proper motions fromHipparcos and radial velocities from several sources have been retreivedfor 639 stars and their velocities (U, V, W) and galactic orbits havebeen computed. Ages of 322 stars have been estimated with a Bayesianmethod of isochrone fitting. Two samples kinematically representative ofthe thin and thick disks have been selected, taking into account theHercules stream which is intermediate in kinematics, but with a probabledynamical origin. Our results show that the two disks are chemicallywell separated, they overlap greatly in metallicity and both showparallel decreasing alpha elements with increasing metallicity, in theinterval -0.80 < [Fe/H] < -0.30. The Mg enhancement with respectto Fe of the thick disk is measured to be 0.14 dex. An even largerenhancement is observed for Al. The thick disk is clearly older than thethin disk with tentative evidence of an AMR over 2-3 Gyr and a hiatus instar formation before the formation of the thin disk. We do not observea vertical gradient in the metallicity of the thick disk. The Herculesstream has properties similar to that of the thin disk, with a widerrange of metallicity. Metal-rich stars assigned to the thick disk andsuper-metal-rich stars assigned to the thin disk appear as outliers inall their properties.

Lithium abundances of the local thin disc stars
Lithium abundances are presented for a sample of 181 nearby F and Gdwarfs with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes. The stars are on circularorbits about the Galactic centre and, hence, are identified as belongingto the thin disc. This sample is combined with two published surveys toprovide a catalogue of lithium abundances, metallicities ([Fe/H]),masses, and ages for 451 F-G dwarfs, almost all belonging to the thindisc. The lithium abundances are compared and contrasted with publishedlithium abundances for F and G stars in local open clusters. The fieldstars span a larger range in [Fe/H] than the clusters for which [Fe/H]~=0.0 +/- 0.2. The initial (i.e. interstellar) lithium abundance of thesolar neighbourhood, as derived from stars for which astration oflithium is believed to be unimportant, is traced from logɛ(Li) =2.2 at [Fe/H]=-1 to logɛ(Li) = 3.2 at +0.1. This form for theevolution is dependent on the assumption that astration of lithium isnegligible for the stars defining the relation. An argument is advancedthat this latter assumption may not be entirely correct, and, theevolution of lithium with [Fe/H] may be flatter than previouslysupposed. A sharp Hyades-like Li dip is not seen among the field starsand appears to be replaced by a large spread among lithium abundances ofstars more massive than the lower mass limit of the dip. Astration oflithium by stars of masses too low to participate in the Li dip isdiscussed. These stars show little to no spread in lithium abundance ata given [Fe/H] and mass.

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

The Rise of the s-Process in the Galaxy
From newly obtained high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectrathe abundances of the elements La and Eu have been determined over thestellar metallicity range -3<[Fe/H]<+0.3 in 159 giant and dwarfstars. Lanthanum is predominantly made by the s-process in the solarsystem, while Eu owes most of its solar system abundance to ther-process. The changing ratio of these elements in stars over a widemetallicity range traces the changing contributions of these twoprocesses to the Galactic abundance mix. Large s-process abundances canbe the result of mass transfer from very evolved stars, so to identifythese cases we also report carbon abundances in our metal-poor stars.Results indicate that the s-process may be active as early as[Fe/H]=-2.6, although we also find that some stars as metal-rich as[Fe/H]=-1 show no strong indication of s-process enrichment. There is asignificant spread in the level of s-process enrichment even at solarmetallicity.

Stellar Chemical Signatures and Hierarchical Galaxy Formation
To compare the chemistries of stars in the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal(dSph) satellite galaxies with stars in the Galaxy, we have compiled alarge sample of Galactic stellar abundances from the literature. Whenkinematic information is available, we have assigned the stars tostandard Galactic components through Bayesian classification based onGaussian velocity ellipsoids. As found in previous studies, the[α/Fe] ratios of most stars in the dSph galaxies are generallylower than similar metallicity Galactic stars in this extended sample.Our kinematically selected stars confirm this for the Galactic halo,thin-disk, and thick-disk components. There is marginal overlap in thelow [α/Fe] ratios between dSph stars and Galactic halo stars onextreme retrograde orbits (V<-420 km s-1), but this is notsupported by other element ratios. Other element ratios compared in thispaper include r- and s-process abundances, where we find a significantoffset in the [Y/Fe] ratios, which results in a large overabundance in[Ba/Y] in most dSph stars compared with Galactic stars. Thus, thechemical signatures of most of the dSph stars are distinct from thestars in each of the kinematic components of the Galaxy. This resultrules out continuous merging of low-mass galaxies similar to these dSphsatellites during the formation of the Galaxy. However, we do not ruleout very early merging of low-mass dwarf galaxies, since up to one-halfof the most metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]<=-1.8) have chemistries that arein fair agreement with Galactic halo stars. We also do not rule outmerging with higher mass galaxies, although we note that the LMC and theremnants of the Sgr dwarf galaxy are also chemically distinct from themajority of the Galactic halo stars. Formation of the Galaxy's thickdisk by heating of an old thin disk during a merger is also not ruledout; however, the Galaxy's thick disk itself cannot be comprised of theremnants from a low-mass (dSph) dwarf galaxy, nor of a high-mass dwarfgalaxy like the LMC or Sgr, because of differences in chemistry.The new and independent environments offered by the dSph galaxies alsoallow us to examine fundamental assumptions related to thenucleosynthesis of the elements. The metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]<=-1.8)in the dSph galaxies appear to have lower [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] than[Mg/Fe] ratios, unlike similar metallicity stars in the Galaxy.Predictions from the α-process (α-rich freeze-out) would beconsistent with this result if there have been a lack of hypernovae indSph galaxies. The α-process could also be responsible for thevery low Y abundances in the metal-poor stars in dSph's; since [La/Eu](and possibly [Ba/Eu]) are consistent with pure r-process results, thelow [Y/Eu] suggests a separate r-process site for this light(first-peak) r-process element. We also discuss SNe II rates and yieldsas other alternatives, however. In stars with higher metallicities([Fe/H]>=-1.8), contributions from the s-process are expected; [(Y,La, and Ba)/Eu] all rise as expected, and yet [Ba/Y] is still muchhigher in the dSph stars than similar metallicity Galactic stars. Thisresult is consistent with s-process contributions from lower metallicityAGB stars in dSph galaxies, and is in good agreement with the slowerchemical evolution expected in the low-mass dSph galaxies relative tothe Galaxy, such that the build-up of metals occurs over much longertimescales. Future investigations of nucleosynthetic constraints (aswell as galaxy formation and evolution) will require an examination ofmany stars within individual dwarf galaxies.Finally, the Na-Ni trend reported in 1997 by Nissen & Schuster isconfirmed in Galactic halo stars, but we discuss this in terms of thegeneral nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich elements. We do not confirm thatthe Na-Ni trend is related to the accretion of dSph galaxies in theGalactic halo.

The [Zn/Fe] - [Fe/H] trend for disk and halo stars
Zn abundances, derived from a model atmosphere analysis of theλ6362.35 Å Zn I line, are presented for 44 thin disk, 10thick disk and 8 halo dwarf stars in the metallicity range -1.0 <[Fe/H] < +0.2. It is found that [Zn/Fe] in thin disk stars shows aslight increasing trend with decreasing metallicity reaching a value[Zn/Fe] ≃ +0.1 at [Fe/H] = -0.6. The thick disk stars in themetallicity range -0.9 < [Fe/H] < -0.6 have an average [Zn/Fe]≃ +0.15 dex, whereas five alpha-poor and Ni-poor halo stars in thesame metallicity range have [Zn/Fe] ≃ 0.0 dex. These resultsindicate that Zn is not an exact tracer of Fe as often assumed inabundance studies of damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs). A betterunderstanding of the nucleosynthesis of Zn is needed in order to obtainmore detailed information on the past history of star formation in DLAsfrom e.g. the observed sulphur/zinc ratio.Based on observations collected at the National AstronomicalObservatories, Xinglong, China and the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile (ESO No. 67.D-0106).

The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of ˜14 000 F and G dwarfs
We present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our˜63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the ``G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989

Contributions to the Nearby Stars (NStars) Project: Spectroscopy of Stars Earlier than M0 within 40 Parsecs: The Northern Sample. I.
We have embarked on a project, under the aegis of the Nearby Stars(NStars)/Space Interferometry Mission Preparatory Science Program, toobtain spectra, spectral types, and, where feasible, basic physicalparameters for the 3600 dwarf and giant stars earlier than M0 within 40pc of the Sun. In this paper, we report on the results of this projectfor the first 664 stars in the northern hemisphere. These resultsinclude precise, homogeneous spectral types, basic physical parameters(including the effective temperature, surface gravity, and overallmetallicity [M/H]), and measures of the chromospheric activity of ourprogram stars. Observed and derived data presented in this paper arealso available on the project's Web site.

Stellar Kinematic Groups. II. A Reexamination of the Membership, Activity, and Age of the Ursa Major Group
Utilizing Hipparcos parallaxes, original radial velocities and recentliterature values, new Ca II H and K emission measurements,literature-based abundance estimates, and updated photometry (includingrecent resolved measurements of close doubles), we revisit the UrsaMajor moving group membership status of some 220 stars to produce afinal clean list of nearly 60 assured members, based on kinematic andphotometric criteria. Scatter in the velocity dispersions and H-Rdiagram is correlated with trial activity-based membership assignments,indicating the usefulness of criteria based on photometric andchromospheric emission to examine membership. Closer inspection,however, shows that activity is considerably more robust at excludingmembership, failing to do so only for <=15% of objects, perhapsconsiderably less. Our UMa members demonstrate nonzero vertex deviationin the Bottlinger diagram, behavior seen in older and recent studies ofnearby young disk stars and perhaps related to Galactic spiralstructure. Comparison of isochrones and our final UMa group membersindicates an age of 500+/-100 Myr, some 200 Myr older than thecanonically quoted UMa age. Our UMa kinematic/photometric members' meanchromospheric emission levels, rotational velocities, and scattertherein are indistinguishable from values in the Hyades and smaller thanthose evinced by members of the younger Pleiades and M34 clusters,suggesting these characteristics decline rapidly with age over 200-500Myr. None of our UMa members demonstrate inordinately low absolutevalues of chromospheric emission, but several may show residual fluxes afactor of >=2 below a Hyades-defined lower envelope. If one defines aMaunder-like minimum in a relative sense, then the UMa results maysuggest that solar-type stars spend 10% of their entire main-sequencelives in periods of precipitously low activity, which is consistent withestimates from older field stars. As related asides, we note six evolvedstars (among our UMa nonmembers) with distinctive kinematics that liealong a 2 Gyr isochrone and appear to be late-type counterparts to diskF stars defining intermediate-age star streams in previous studies,identify a small number of potentially very young but isolated fieldstars, note that active stars (whether UMa members or not) in our samplelie very close to the solar composition zero-age main sequence, unlikeHipparcos-based positions in the H-R diagram of Pleiades dwarfs, andargue that some extant transformations of activity indices are notadequate for cool dwarfs, for which Ca II infrared triplet emissionseems to be a better proxy than Hα-based values for Ca II H and Kindices.

Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. II. The epoch 2001 [Fe/H] catalog
This paper describes the derivation of an updated statistical catalog ofmetallicities. The stars for which those metallicities apply are ofspectral types F, G, and K, and are on or near the main sequence. Theinput data for the catalog are values of [Fe/H] published before 2002February and derived from lines of weak and moderate strength. Theanalyses used to derive the data have been based on one-dimensional LTEmodel atmospheres. Initial adjustments which are applied to the datainclude corrections to a uniform temperature scale which is given in acompanion paper (see Taylor \cite{t02}). After correction, the data aresubjected to a statistical analysis. For each of 941 stars considered,the results of that analysis include a mean value of [Fe/H], an rmserror, an associated number of degrees of freedom, and one or moreidentification numbers for source papers. The catalog of these resultssupersedes an earlier version given by Taylor (\cite{t94b}).Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/731

Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. I. The epoch 2001 temperature catalog
This paper is one of a pair in which temperatures and metallicitycatalogs for class IV-V stars are considered. The temperature catalogdescribed here is derived from a calibration based on stellar angulardiameters. If published calibrations of this kind are compared by usingcolor-index transformations, temperature-dependent differences among thecalibrations are commonly found. However, such differences are minimizedif attention is restricted to calibrations based on Johnson V-K. Acalibration of this sort from Di Benedetto (\cite{dib98}) is thereforetested and adopted. That calibration is then applied to spectroscopicand photometric data, with the latter predominating. Cousins R-Iphotometry receives special attention because of its high precision andlow metallicity sensitivity. Testing of temperatures derived from thecalibration suggests that their accuracy and precision are satisfactory,though further testing will be warranted as new results appear. Thesetemperatures appear in the catalog as values of theta equiv5040/T(effective). Most of these entries are accompanied by measured orderived values of Cousins R-I. Entries are given for 951 stars.Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/721

Multiplicity among solar-type stars. III. Statistical properties of the F7-K binaries with periods up to 10 years
Two CORAVEL radial velocity surveys - one among stars in the solarneighbourhood, the other in the Pleiades and in Praesepe - are merged toderive the statistical properties of main-sequence binaries withspectral types F7 to K and with periods up to 10 years. A sample of 89spectroscopic orbits was finally obtained. Among them, 52 relate to afree-of-bias selection of 405 stars (240 field stars and 165 clusterstars). The statistics corrected for selection effects yield thefollowing results: (1) No discrepancy is found between the binariesamong field stars and the binaries in open cluster. The distributions ofmass ratios, of periods, the period-eccentricity diagram and the binaryfrequencies are all within the same error intervals. (2) Thedistribution of mass ratios presents two maxima: a broad peak from q ~0.2 to q ~ 0.7, and a sharp peak for q > 0.8 (twins). Both arepresent among the early-type as well as among the late-type part of thesample, indicating a scale-free formation process. The peak for q >0.8 gradually decreases when long-period binaries are considered.Whatever their periods, the twins have eccentricities significantlylower than the other binaries, confirming a difference in the formationprocesses. Twins could be generated by in situ formation followed byaccretion from a gaseous envelope, whereas binaries with intermediatemass ratios could be formed at wide separations, but they are madecloser by migration led by interactions with a circumbinary disk. (3)The frequency of binaries with P<10 years is about 14%. (4) About0.3% of binaries are expected to appear as false positives in a planetsearch. Therefore, the frequency of planetary systems among stars ispresently 7+4-2%. The extension of thedistribution of mass ratios in the planetary range would result in avery sharp and very high peak, well separated from the binary stars withlow mass ratios. Based on photoelectric radial-velocity measurementscollected at Haute-Provence observatory and on observations made withthe ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.

The C and N abundances in disk stars
Abundance analysis of carbon and nitrogen has been performed for asample of 90 F and G type main-sequence disk stars with a metallicityrange of -1.0 < [Fe/H] <+0.2 using the \ion{C} i and N I lines. Weconfirm a moderate carbon excess in the most metal-poor disk dwarfsfound in previous investigations. Our results suggest that carbon isenriched by superwinds of metal-rich massive stars at the beginning ofthe disk evolution, while a significant amount of carbon is contributedby low-mass stars in the late stage. The observed behavior of [N/Fe] isabout solar in the disk stars, irrespective of the metallicity. Thisresult suggests that nitrogen is produced mostly by intermediate-massstars. Based on observations carried out at National Astrono- micalObservatories (Xinglong, China).

Europium abundances in F and G disk dwarfs
Europium abundances for 74 F and G dwarf stars of the galactic disk havebeen determined from the 4129.7 Å Eu II line. The stars wereselected from the sample of Edvardsson et al. (1993) and [Eu/Fe] shows asmaller scatter and a slightly weaker trend with [Fe/H] than found byWoolf et al. (1995). The data of the two analyses are homogenized andmerged. We also discuss the adopted effective temperature scale. Basedon observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Tables 2 and 6 are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcal?J/A+A/381/500

A revision of the solar neighbourhood metallicity distribution
We present a revised metallicity distribution of dwarfs in the solarneighbourhood. This distribution is centred on solar metallicity. Weshow that previous metallicity distributions, selected on the basis ofspectral type, are biased against stars with solar metallicity orhigher. A selection of G-dwarf stars is inherently biased againstmetal-rich stars and is not representative of the solar neighbourhoodmetallicity distribution. Using a sample selected on colour, we obtain adistribution where approximately half the stars in the solarneighbourhood have metallicities higher than [Fe/H]=0. The percentage ofmid-metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]<-0.5) is approximately 4 per cent, inagreement with present estimates of the thick disc. In order to have ametallicity distribution comparable to chemical evolution modelpredictions, we convert the star fraction to mass fraction, and showthat another bias against metal-rich stars affects dwarf metallicitydistributions, due to the colour (or spectral type) limits of thesamples. Reconsidering the corrections resulting from the increasingthickness of the stellar disc with age, we show that the simpleclosed-box model with no instantaneous recycling approximation gives areasonable fit to the observed distribution. Comparisons with theage-metallicity relation and abundance ratios suggest that the simpleclosed-box model may be a viable model of the chemical evolution of theGalaxy at solar radius.

Ultra-Lithium-deficient Halo Stars and Blue Stragglers: A Common Origin?
We present data for four ultra-Li-deficient, warm, halo stars. The Lideficiency of two of these is a new discovery. Three of the four starshave effective temperatures Teff~6300 K, in contrast topreviously known Li-deficient halo stars, which spanned the temperaturerange of the Spite plateau. In this paper we propose that these andpreviously known ultra-Li-deficient halo stars may have had theirsurface lithium abundances reduced by the same mechanism as produceshalo field blue stragglers. Even though these stars have yet to revealthemselves as blue stragglers, they might be regarded as``blue-stragglers-to-be.'' In our proposed scenario, the surfaceabundance of Li in these stars could be destroyed (1) during the normalpre-main-sequence single-star evolution of their low-mass precursors,(2) during the post-main-sequence evolution of an evolved mass donor,and/or (3) via mixing during a mass-transfer event or stellar merger.The warmest Li-deficient stars at the turnoff would be regarded asemerging ``canonical'' blue stragglers, whereas cooler ones representsub-turnoff-mass blue-stragglers-to-be. The latter are presently hiddenon the main sequence, Li depletion being possibly the clearest signatureof their past history and future significance. Eventually, themain-sequence turnoff will reach down to their mass, exposing thoseLi-depleted stars as canonical blue stragglers when normal stars of thatmass evolve away. Arguing against this unified view is the observationthat the three Li-depleted stars at Teff~=6300 K are allbinaries, whereas very few of the cooler systems show evidence forbinarity; it is thus possible that two separate mechanisms areresponsible for the production of Li-deficient main-sequence halo stars.Based on observations obtained with the University College Londonéchelle spectrograph (UCLES) on the Anglo-Australian Telescope(AAT) and the Utrecht échelle spectrograph (UES) on the WilliamHerschel Telescope (WHT).

Three Wide-Separation L Dwarf Companions from the Two Micron All Sky Survey: Gliese 337C, Gliese 618.1B, and HD 89744B
We present two confirmed wide-separation L dwarf common proper-motioncompanions to nearby stars and one candidate identified from the TwoMicron All Sky Survey. Spectral types from optical spectroscopy are L0V, L2.5 V, and L8 V. Near-infrared, low-resolution spectra of thecompanions are provided, as well as a grid of known objects spanning M6V-T dwarfs to support spectral type assignment for these and future Ldwarfs in the z'JHK bands. Using published measurements, weestimate ages of the companions from physical properties of theprimaries. These crude ages allow us to estimate companion masses usingtheoretical low-mass star and brown dwarf evolutionary models. The new Ldwarfs in this paper bring the number of known wide-binary(Δ>=100 AU) L dwarf companions of nearby stars to nine. One ofthe L dwarfs is a wide-separation companion to the F7 IV-V+extrasolarplanet system HD 89744Ab. Portions of the data presented here wereobtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as ascientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, theUniversity of California, and the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration. The Observatory was made possible by the generousfinancial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Observations at thePalomar Observatory were made as part of a continuing collaborationbetween the California Institute of Technology and Cornell University.The 60 inch telescope at Palomar Mountain is jointly owned by theCalifornia Institute of Technology and the Carnegie Institution ofWashington.

Stellar encounters with the solar system
We continue our search, based on Hipparcos data, for stars which haveencountered or will encounter the solar system(García-Sánchez et al. \cite{Garcia}). Hipparcos parallaxand proper motion data are combined with ground-based radial velocitymeasurements to obtain the trajectories of stars relative to the solarsystem. We have integrated all trajectories using three different modelsof the galactic potential: a local potential model, a global potentialmodel, and a perturbative potential model. The agreement between themodels is generally very good. The time period over which our search forclose passages is valid is about +/-10 Myr. Based on the Hipparcos data,we find a frequency of stellar encounters within one parsec of the Sunof 2.3 +/- 0.2 per Myr. However, we also find that the Hipparcos data isobservationally incomplete. By comparing the Hipparcos observations withthe stellar luminosity function for star systems within 50 pc of theSun, we estimate that only about one-fifth of the stars or star systemswere detected by Hipparcos. Correcting for this incompleteness, weobtain a value of 11.7 +/- 1.3 stellar encounters per Myr within one pcof the Sun. We examine the ability of two future missions, FAME andGAIA, to extend the search for past and future stellar encounters withthe Sun.

Lithium abundances for 185 main-sequence stars: Galactic evolution and stellar depletion of lithium
We present a survey of lithium abundances in 185 main-sequence fieldstars with 5600 <~ Teff <~ 6600 K and -1.4 <~ [Fe/H]<~ +0.2 based on new measurements of the equivalent width of thelambda 6708 Li I line in high-resolution spectra of 130 stars and areanalysis of data for 55 stars from Lambert et al. (\cite{Lambert91}).The survey takes advantage of improved photometric and spectroscopicdeterminations of effective temperature and metallicity as well as massand age derived from Hipparcos absolute magnitudes, offering anopportunity to investigate the behaviour of Li as a function of theseparameters. An interesting result from this study is the presence of alarge gap in the log varepsilon (Li) - Teff plane, whichdistinguishes ``Li-dip'' stars like those first identified in the Hyadescluster by Boesgaard & Tripicco (\cite{Boesgaard86}) from otherstars with a much higher Li abundance. The Li-dip stars concentrate on acertain mass, which decreases with metallicity from about 1.4Msun at solar metallicity to 1.1 Msun at [Fe/H] =~-1.0. Excluding the Li-dip stars and a small group of lower mass starswith Teff < 5900 K and log varepsilon (Li) < 1.5, theremaining stars, when divided into four metallicity groups, may show acorrelation between Li abundance and stellar mass. The dispersion aroundthe log varepsilon (Li)-mass relation is about 0.2 dex below [Fe/H] =~-0.4 and 0.3 dex above this metallicity, which cannot be explained byobservational errors or differences in metallicity. Furthermore, thereis no correlation between the residuals of the log varepsilon (Li)-massrelations and stellar age, which ranges from 1.5 Gyr to about 15 Gyr.This suggests that Li depletion occurs early in stellar life and thatparameters other than stellar mass and metallicity affect the degree ofdepletion, e.g. initial rotation velocity and/or the rate of angularmomentum loss. It cannot be excluded, however, that a cosmic scatter ofthe Li abundance in the Galaxy at a given metallicity contributes to thedispersion in Li abundance. These problems make it difficult todetermine the Galactic evolution of Li from the data, but a comparisonof the upper envelope of the distribution of stars in the log varepsilon(Li) - [Fe/H] plane with recent Galactic evolutionary models by Romanoet al. (\cite{Romano99}) suggests that novae are a major source for theLi production in the Galactic disk; their occurrence seems to be theexplanation for the steep increase of Li abundance at [Fe/H] =~ -0.4.Based on observations carried out at Beijing Astronomical Observatory(Xinglong, PR China) and European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/371/943 and athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Chemical composition of 90 F and G disk dwarfs
High resolution, high S/N spectra have been obtained for a sample of 90F and G main-sequence disk stars covering the metallicity range -1.0< [Fe/H] < +0.1, and have been analysed in a parallel way to thework of Edvardsson et al. (\cite{Edvardsson93a}) in order to re-inspecttheir results and to reveal new information on the chemical evolution ofthe Galactic disk. Compared to Edvardsson et al. the present studyincludes several improvements. Effective temperatures are based on theAlonso et al. (\cite{Alonso96}) calibration of color indices by theinfrared flux method and surface gravities are calculated from Hipparcosparallaxes, which also allow more accurate ages to be calculated from acomparison of M_V and T_eff with isochrones. In addition, more reliablekinematical parameters are derived from Hipparcos distances and propermotions in combination with accurate radial velocities. Finally, alarger spectral coverage, 5600 - 8800 Ä, makes it possible toimprove the abundance accuracy by studying more lines and to discussseveral elements not included in the work of Edvardsson et al. Thepresent paper provides the data and discusses some general results ofthe abundance survey. A group of stars in the metallicity range of -1.0< [Fe/H] < -0.6 having a small mean Galactocentric distance in thestellar orbits, R_m < 7 kpc, are shown to be older than the otherdisk stars and probably belong to the thick disk. Excluding these stars,a slight decreasing trend of [Fe/H] with increasing R_m and age isfound, but a large scatter in [Fe/H] (up to 0.5 dex) is present at agiven age and R_m. Abundance ratios with respect to Fe show, on theother hand, no significant scatter at a given [Fe/H] . The derivedtrends of O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Ni and Ba as a function of [Fe/H] agreerather well with those of Edvardsson et al., but the overabundance of Naand Al for metal-poor stars found in their work is not confirmed.Furthermore, the Galactic evolution of elements not included inEdvardsson et al., K, V and Cr, is studied. It is concluded that theterms ``alpha elements" and ``iron-peak elements" cannot be used toindicate production and evolution by specific nucleosynthesis processes;each element seems to have a unique enrichment history. Based onobservations carried out at the Beijing Astronomical Observatory,Xinglong, PR China.}\fnmsep\thanks{ Tables~3, 4 and 5 are only availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.htmlor\protect\\ http://www.edpsciences.org

Abundances of light elements in metal-poor stars. III. Data analysis and results
We present the results of the analysis of an extensive set of new andliterature high quality data concerning Fe, C, N, O, Na, and Mg. Thisanalysis exploited the T_eff scale determined in Gratton et al. (1996a),and the non-LTE abundance corrections computed in Gratton et al.(1999a). Results obtained with various abundance indices are discussedand compared. Detailed comparison with models of galactic chemicalevolution will be presented in future papers of this series. Our non-LTEanalysis yields the same O abundances from both permitted and forbiddenlines for stars with T_eff >4600 K, in agreement with King (1993),but not with other studies using a lower T_eff -scale for subdwarfs.However, we obtain slightly smaller O abundances for the most luminousmetal-poor field stars than for fainter stars of similar metallicities,an effect attributed to inadequacies of the adopted model atmospheres(Kurucz 1992, with overshooting) for cool stars. We find a nearlyconstant O overundance in metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]<-0.8), at a meanvalue of 0.46+/- 0.02 dex (sigma =0.12, 32 stars), with only a gentleslope with [Fe/H] ( ~ -0.1); this result is different from the steeperslope recently obtained using OH band in the near UV. If only bonafideunmixed stars are considered, C abundances scale with Fe ones (i.e.[C/Fe]~ 0) down to [Fe/H] ~ -2.5. Due to our adoption of a differentT_eff scale, we do not confirm the slight C excess in the most metalpoor disk dwarfs (-0.8<[Fe/H]<-0.4) found in previousinvestigations. Na abundances scale as Fe ones in the high metallicityregime, while metal-poor stars present a Na underabundance. None of thefield stars analyzed belong to the group of O-poor and Na-rich starsobserved in globular clusters. Na is deficient with respect to Mg inhalo and thick disk stars; within these populations, Na deficiency maybe a slow function of [Mg/H]. Solar [Na/Mg] ratios are obtained for thindisk stars. Tables~ 2 to 9 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strabg.fr/Abstract.html

Sc and Mn abundances in disk and metal-rich halo stars
Sc and Mn abundances are determined for 119 F and G main-sequence starswith -1.4 < [Fe/H] < +0.1, representing stars from the thin disk,the thick disk and the halo. The results indicate that Sc behaves likean alpha element, showing a decreasing [Sc/Fe] with increasingmetallicity in disk stars and a dual pattern in the kinematicallyselected halo stars. In contrast, Mn shows an increase from [Mn/Fe] =~-0.5 at [Fe/H] = -1.4 to zero at solar metallicity. There appears to bea discontinuity or sharp increase of [Mn/Fe] at [Fe/H] =~ -0.7corresponding to the transition between the thick and the thin disk. Itis discussed if supernovae of Type Ia are a major source of Mn in theGalactic disk or if the trend of [Mn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] can be explained bynucleosynthesis in Type II supernovae with a strong metallicitydependence of the yield. Based on observations carried out at theEuropean Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and Beijing AstronomicalObservatory, Xinglong, China

A Consistency Test of Spectroscopic Gravities for Late-Type Stars
Chemical analyses of late-type stars are usually carried out followingthe classical recipe: LTE line formation and homogeneous,plane-parallel, flux-constant, and LTE model atmospheres. We reviewdifferent results in the literature that have suggested significantinconsistencies in the spectroscopic analyses, pointing out thedifficulties in deriving independent estimates of the stellarfundamental parameters and hence, detecting systematic errors. Thetrigonometric parallaxes measured by the Hipparcos mission provideaccurate appraisals of the stellar surface gravity for nearby stars,which are used here to check the gravities obtained from thephotospheric iron ionization balance. We find an approximate agreementfor stars in the metallicity range -1.0<=[Fe/H]<=0, but thecomparison shows that the differences between the spectroscopic andtrigonometric gravities decrease toward lower metallicities for moremetal-deficient dwarfs (-2.5<=[Fe/H]<=-1.0), which casts a shadowupon the abundance analyses for extreme metal-poor stars that make useof the ionization equilibrium to constrain the gravity. The comparisonwith the strong-line gravities derived by Edvardsson and Fuhrmannconfirms that this method provide systematically larger gravities thanthe ionization balance. The strong-line gravities get closer to thephysical ones for the stars analyzed by Fuhrmann, but they are evenfurther away than the iron ionization gravities for the stars of lowergravities in Edvardsson's sample. The confrontation of the deviations ofthe iron ionization gravities in metal-poor stars, reported here withdepartures from the excitation balance found in the literature, showthat they are likely to be induced by the same physical mechanism.

Stellar Encounters with the Oort Cloud Based on HIPPARCOS Data
We have combined Hipparcos proper-motion and parallax data for nearbystars with ground-based radial velocity measurements to find stars thatmay have passed (or will pass) close enough to the Sun to perturb theOort cloud. Close stellar encounters could deflect large numbers ofcomets into the inner solar system, which would increase the impacthazard at Earth. We find that the rate of close approaches by starsystems (single or multiple stars) within a distance D (in parsecs) fromthe Sun is given by N= 3.5D^2.12 Myr^-1, less than the number predictedby a simple stellar dynamics model. However, this value is clearly alower limit because of observational incompleteness in the Hipparcosdata set. One star, Gliese 710, is estimated to have a closest approachof less than 0.4 pc 1.4 Myr in the future, and several stars come within1 pc during a +/-10 Myr interval. We have performed dynamicalsimulations that show that none of the passing stars perturb the Oortcloud sufficiently to create a substantial increase in the long-periodcomet flux at Earth's orbit.

The galactic lithium evolution revisited
The evolution of the 7Li abundance in the Galaxy has beencomputed by means of the two-infall model of Galactic chemicalevolution. We took into account several stellar 7Li sources:novae, massive AGB stars, C-stars and Type II SNe. In particular, weadopted new theoretical yields for novae. We also took into account the7Li production from GCRs. In particular, the absolute yieldsof 7Li, as suggested by a recent reevaluation of thecontribution of GCR spallation to the 7Li abundance, havebeen adopted. We compared our theoretical predictions for the evolutionof 7Li abundance in the solar neighborhood with a newcompilation of data, where we identified the population membership ofthe stars on a kinematical basis. A critical analysis of extantobservations revealed a possible extension of the Li plateau towardshigher metallicities (up to [Fe/H] ~ -0.5 or even -0.3) with a steeprise afterwards. We conclude that 1) the 7Li contributionfrom novae is required in order to reproduce the shape of the growth ofA(Li) versus [Fe/H], 2) the contribution from Type II SNe should belowered by at least a factor of two, and 3) the 7Liproduction from GCRs is probably more important than previouslyestimated, in particular at high metallicities: by taking into accountGCR nucleosynthesis we noticeably improved the predictions on the7Li abundance in the presolar nebula and at the present timeas inferred from measures in meteorites and T Tauri stars, respectively.We also predicted a lower limit for the present time 7Liabundance expected in the bulge, a prediction which might be tested byfuture observations. Tables~3 and 4 are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to: cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:09h14m20.60s
Apparent magnitude:5.13
Distance:19.562 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-9.8
Proper motion Dec:-30.6
B-T magnitude:5.902
V-T magnitude:5.255

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Flamsteed16 UMa
HD 1989HD 79028
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 4135-1915-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1500-05154686
BSC 1991HR 3648
HIPHIP 45333

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