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 Unconstrained Astrometric Orbits for Hipparcos Stars with Stochastic SolutionsA considerable number of astrometric binaries whose positions on the skydo not obey the standard model of mean position, parallax, and linearproper motion were observed by the Hipparcos satellite. Some of themremain undiscovered, and their observational data have not been properlyprocessed with the more adequate astrometric model that includesnonlinear orbital motion. We develop an automated algorithm, based ongenetic optimization,'' to solve the orbital fitting problem in themost difficult setup, when no prior information about the orbitalelements is available (from, e.g., spectroscopic data or radial velocitymonitoring). We also offer a technique to accurately compute theprobability that an orbital fit is bogus, that is, that an orbitalsolution is obtained for a single star, and to estimate the probabilitydistributions for the fitting orbital parameters. We test this method onHipparcos stars with known orbital solutions in the catalog and furtherapply it to 1561 stars with stochastic solutions, which may beunresolved binaries. At a confidence level of 99%, orbital fits areobtained for 65 stars, most of which have not been known as binary. Itis found that reliable astrometric fits can be obtained even if theperiod is somewhat longer than the time span of the Hipparcos mission,that is, if the orbit is not closed. A few of the new probable binarieswith A-type primaries with periods 444-2015 days are chemically peculiarstars, including Ap and λ Bootis types. The anomalous spectra ofthese stars are explained by admixtures of light from the unresolved,sufficiently bright and massive companions. We estimate the apparentorbits of four stars that have been identified as members of the ~300Myr old Ursa Major kinematic group. Another four new nearby binaries mayinclude low-mass M-type or brown dwarf companions. Follow-upspectroscopic observations in conjunction with more accurate inclinationestimates will lead to better estimates of the secondary mass. Similarastrometric models and algorithms can be used for binary stars andplanet hosts observed by SIM and Gaia. Stellar Kinematic Groups. II. A Reexamination of the Membership, Activity, and Age of the Ursa Major GroupUtilizing Hipparcos parallaxes, original radial velocities and recentliterature values, new Ca II H and K emission measurements,literature-based abundance estimates, and updated photometry (includingrecent resolved measurements of close doubles), we revisit the UrsaMajor moving group membership status of some 220 stars to produce afinal clean list of nearly 60 assured members, based on kinematic andphotometric criteria. Scatter in the velocity dispersions and H-Rdiagram is correlated with trial activity-based membership assignments,indicating the usefulness of criteria based on photometric andchromospheric emission to examine membership. Closer inspection,however, shows that activity is considerably more robust at excludingmembership, failing to do so only for <=15% of objects, perhapsconsiderably less. Our UMa members demonstrate nonzero vertex deviationin the Bottlinger diagram, behavior seen in older and recent studies ofnearby young disk stars and perhaps related to Galactic spiralstructure. Comparison of isochrones and our final UMa group membersindicates an age of 500+/-100 Myr, some 200 Myr older than thecanonically quoted UMa age. Our UMa kinematic/photometric members' meanchromospheric emission levels, rotational velocities, and scattertherein are indistinguishable from values in the Hyades and smaller thanthose evinced by members of the younger Pleiades and M34 clusters,suggesting these characteristics decline rapidly with age over 200-500Myr. None of our UMa members demonstrate inordinately low absolutevalues of chromospheric emission, but several may show residual fluxes afactor of >=2 below a Hyades-defined lower envelope. If one defines aMaunder-like minimum in a relative sense, then the UMa results maysuggest that solar-type stars spend 10% of their entire main-sequencelives in periods of precipitously low activity, which is consistent withestimates from older field stars. As related asides, we note six evolvedstars (among our UMa nonmembers) with distinctive kinematics that liealong a 2 Gyr isochrone and appear to be late-type counterparts to diskF stars defining intermediate-age star streams in previous studies,identify a small number of potentially very young but isolated fieldstars, note that active stars (whether UMa members or not) in our samplelie very close to the solar composition zero-age main sequence, unlikeHipparcos-based positions in the H-R diagram of Pleiades dwarfs, andargue that some extant transformations of activity indices are notadequate for cool dwarfs, for which Ca II infrared triplet emissionseems to be a better proxy than Hα-based values for Ca II H and Kindices. The Rotation of Binary Systems with Evolved ComponentsIn the present study we analyze the behavior of the rotational velocity,vsini, for a large sample of 134 spectroscopic binary systems with agiant star component of luminosity class III, along the spectral regionfrom middle F to middle K. The distribution of vsini as a function ofcolor index B-V seems to follow the same behavior as their singlecounterparts, with a sudden decline around G0 III. Blueward of thisspectral type, namely, for binary systems with a giant F-type component,one sees a trend for a large spread in the rotational velocities, from afew to at least 40 km s-1. Along the G and K spectral regionsthere are a considerable number of binary systems with moderate tomoderately high rotation rates. This reflects the effects ofsynchronization between rotation and orbital motions. These rotatorshave orbital periods shorter than about 250 days and circular or nearlycircular orbits. Except for these synchronized systems, the largemajority of binary systems with a giant component of spectral type laterthan G0 III are composed of slow rotators. Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associationsRadial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446 Late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups - I. Single starsThis is the first paper of a series aimed at studying the properties oflate-type members of young stellar kinematic groups. We concentrate ourstudy on classical young moving groups such as the Local Association(Pleiades moving group, 20-150Myr), IC 2391 supercluster (35Myr), UrsaMajor group (Sirius supercluster, 300Myr), and Hyades supercluster(600Myr), as well as on recently identified groups such as the Castormoving group (200Myr). In this paper we compile a preliminary list ofsingle late-type possible members of some of these young stellarkinematic groups. Stars are selected from previously established membersof stellar kinematic groups based on photometric and kinematicproperties as well as from candidates based on other criteria such astheir level of chromospheric activity, rotation rate and lithiumabundance. Precise measurements of proper motions and parallaxes takenfrom the Hipparcos Catalogue, as well as from the Tycho-2 Catalogue, andpublished radial velocity measurements are used to calculate theGalactic space motions (U, V, W) and to apply Eggen's kinematic criteriain order to determine the membership of the selected stars to thedifferent groups. Additional criteria using age-dating methods forlate-type stars will be applied in forthcoming papers of this series. Afurther study of the list of stars compiled here could lead to a betterunderstanding of the chromospheric activity and their age evolution, aswell as of the star formation history in the solar neighbourhood. Inaddition, these stars are also potential search targets for directimaging detection of substellar companions. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Sirius Supercluster and Missing Mass near the SunThe Hipparcos results confirm some 50 members of the Sirius superclusterin the Bright Star Catalogue. The resulting, well-definedcolor-luminosity array indicates an age of 4 x 10^8 yr from conventional(no overshoot) models. A comparison of the luminosity function obtainedfrom members in the Bright Star Catalogue, unbiased as to proper motion,and in the Catalogue of Nearby Stars (~27 pc), which are strongly biasedtoward large proper motions, reveals that either most of the smallproper-motion stars near the Sun remain to be identified or theluminosity function of the supercluster is drastically different fromthat of the field stars. A search for low-mass members in a 6 deg x 6deg field in the center of the Ursa Major cluster yielded 10 possiblemembers that lie on the white dwarf sequence, 5 mag below the mainsequence. Luyten (field LP 131) found 368 stars in this field withproper motion exceeding 0.08", and only 19 of these have a positionangle of their proper motion between 0 deg and 98 deg (i.e., thequadrant containing UMa cluster members). The assumption of clustermembership yields a parallax very close to that obtained for brightmembers. Aside from white dwarfs, the possibilities are discussed thatthese stars are (1) brown dwarfs, (2) members of a cluster in the lineof sight to UMa but 100 pc more distant, or (3) reflecting a chain ofvery unlikely coincidences. Star Streams and Galactic StructureAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....112.1595E&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. SANTIAGO 91, a right ascension catalogue of 3387 stars (equinox J2000).The positions in right ascension of 3387 stars belonging to the Santiago67 Catalogue, observed with the Repsold Meridian Circle at Cerro Calan,National Astronomical Observatory, during the period 1989 to 1994, aregiven. The average mean square error of a position, for the wholeCatalogue, is +/-0.009 s. The mean epoch of the catalogue is 1991.84. The position corrections of 1400 stars observed with PA II in San Juan.Not Available Evolved GK stars near the Sun. 2: The young disk populationFrom a sample of nearly 2000 GK giants a group of young disk stars withwell determined space motions has been selected. The zero point of theluminosity calibrations, both from the ultraviolet flux (modifiedStroemgren system) and that in the region of 4200 to 4900 A (DDOsystem), show a discontinuity of about a half magnitude at the border ofthe young disk and old disk domains. The population separation is basedon the space velocity components, which are also an age discriminant,with the population interface near 2 x 109 yr, based onmodels with convective overshoot at the core. This age corresponds togiant masses near 1.7 solar mass, near the critical mass separating theyoung stars that do not burn helium in degenerate cores from older starsthat do. Ten percent of both populations show CN anomalies in that thederived value of P(Fe/H) from CN (Cm) and fromFe(M1) differ by more than 0.1 dex and the weak and strong CNstars occur equally in the old disk but the weak CN stars predominate inthe young disk. Peculiar stars, where flux distortions affect theluminosity calibrations, are of the CH+(Ba II) and CH-(weak G band)variety and represent less than 1% of the stars in both populations. Theyoung disk giants are restricted to ages greater than about109 yr, because younger stars are bright giants orsupergiants (luminosity class 2 or 1), and younger than about 2 x109 yr, because the old disk-young disk boundary occurs near1.7 solar mass. The distribution of heavy element abundances, P(Fe/H),for young disk giants is both more limited in range (+/- 0.4 dex) and isskewed toward higher abundances, compared with the nearly normaldistribution for old disk giants. The distribution of (U,V) velocityvectors gives (U,V,W) and their dispersions = (+17.6 +/- 18.4, -14.8 +/-8.4, -6.9 +/- 13.0) and (+3.6 +/- 38.4, -20.7 +/- 27.5, -6.7 +/-17.3)km/s for young and old disk giants, respectively. Improved Mean Positions and Proper Motions for the 995 FK4 Sup Stars not Included in the FK5 ExtensionNot Available Stellar kinematic groups. I - The Ursa Major groupThe Ursa Major Group (UMaG) is studied as a test case for theauthenticity of Stellar Kinematic Groups, using Coravel radialvelocities, recent compilations of astrometric data, and newspectroscopic observations. Spectroscopic age indicators, particularlyindices of the strength of chromospheric emission, are applied tosolar-type candidate members of UMaG, and it is shown that stars thatmeet the spectroscopic criteria also have kinematics that agree betterwith the space motions of the nucleus of UMaG than does the startingsample as a whole. The primary limitation on the precision of kinematicsis now parallaxes instead of radial velocities. These more restrictivekinematic criteria are then applied to other UMaG candidates and a listsummarizing membership is presented. UMaG is also examined as a cluster,confirming its traditional age of 0.3 Gyr, and a mean Fe/H of -0.08 +/-0.09 for those stars most likely to be bona fide members. The Sirius supercluster in the FK5Fifty-five stars in the FK5 or with PPM(H) quality proper motions arediscussed as members of the Sirius supercluster. The convergent point ofthe supercluster motion is (A, D) = (20.55h -38.1 deg) and the spacevelocity is V(T) = 18.6 + 0.005X km/s, where X is the radial distance ofthe members from the sun. The member stars indicate (Fe/H) Hyades -(Fe/H) Sirius = 0.18 dex from both photometric and spectroscopicevidence. The bulk of the supercluster members fall into two age groups,6.3 x 10 exp 8 and 10 exp 9 yr on the basis of models with convectiveovershoot. The available observations of chromospheric activity in Mg II(h and k) are quantized into three well-defined groups for both Siriussupercluster and Hyades cluster dwarfs. For 20 supercluster members withcluster parallax greater than 0.03 arcsec the ratio ofpi(cluster)/pi(trigonometric) = 0.95 +/- 0.20(sigma). A critical appraisal of published values of (Fe/H) for K II-IV stars'Primary' (Fe/H) averages are presented for 373 evolved K stars ofluminosity classes II-IV and (Fe/H) values beween -0.9 and +0.21 dex.The data define a 'consensus' zero point with a precision of + or -0.018 dex and have rms errors per datum which are typically 0.08-0.16dex. The primary data base makes recalibration possible for the large(Fe/H) catalogs of Hansen and Kjaergaard (1971) and Brown et al. (1989).A set of (Fe/H) standard stars and a new DDO calibration are given whichhave rms of 0.07 dex or less for the standard star data. For normal Kgiants, CN-based values of (Fe/H) turn out to be more precise than manyhigh-dispersion results. Some zero-point errors in the latter are alsofound and new examples of continuum-placement problems appear. Thushigh-dispersion results are not invariably superior to photometricmetallicities. A review of high-dispersion and related work onsupermetallicity in K III-IV star is also given. Large and kinematically unbiased samples of G- and K-type stars. II - Observations of evolved stars in the Bright Star sample. III - Evolved young disk stars in the Bright Star sampleFour color and RI observations were obtained for a large sample ofG-type and K-type stars in the Bright Star Catalogue. Data are firstpresented for 110 evolved stars. Photometry of evolved young diskpopulation stars have then been calibrated for luminosity, reddening,and metallicity on the basis of results for members of the Hyades andSirius superclusters. New DDO results are given for 120 stars. Starbursts, binary stars, and blue stragglers in local superclusters and groups. I - The very young disk and young disk populationsThe distributions in the HR diagram with theoretical time-constant locifor stars in several young clusters and superclusters are compared todemonstrate that 'blue stragglers' in these aggregates are mostfrequently simply single massive (mode B) stars formed in bursts of starformation that occur at discrete intervals in time following theformation of the bulk of the low-mass (mode A) stars in the aggregate.The characteristics of the close binary systems in these aggregates areexamined to show that, in several cases, mass transfer by Roche lobeoverflow has or will occur and that, in some instances, the system wouldhave appeared as a blue straggler prior to the mass-transfer event, and,in other instances, mass transfer will lead to the identification of thesystem as a blue straggler. Thus, it is concluded that the bluestraggler phenomenon has at least two distinct physical origins: it mayoriginate from delayed formation (starbursts) or from 'delayedevolution' in some close binaries (mass transfer from an evolvedprimary). Uvby-Beta Photometry of Equatorial and Southern Bright Stars - Part TwoAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1980A&AS...42..311H&db_key=AST Determination of atmospheric parameters for G and K giants by means of photoelectric indices.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971A&A....15..123H&db_key=AST Stellar groups. I. The Hyades and Sirius groupsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1958MNRAS.118...65E&db_key=AST
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