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 First Test of the DRAGON EquipmentDRAGON equipment is a new astronomical instrument designed to carry outmany types of experimental investigations related to adaptive optics,active optics, observational astronomy and astronomical instrumentation.In this paper we present the results of the first instrument testing atthe OAN-Tonantzintla Mexican Observatory. A 10 μm spectroscopic survey of Herbig Ae star disks: Grain growth and crystallizationWe present spectroscopic observations of a large sample of Herbig Aestars in the 10 μm spectral region. We perform compositional fits ofthe spectra based on properties of homogeneous as well as inhomogeneousspherical particles, and derive the mineralogy and typical grain sizesof the dust responsible for the 10 μm emission. Several trends arereported that can constrain theoretical models of dust processing inthese systems: i) none of the sources consists of fully pristine dustcomparable to that found in the interstellar medium; ii) all sourceswith a high fraction of crystalline silicates are dominated by largegrains; iii) the disks around more massive stars (M  2.5{M}ȯ, L  60 {L}ȯ) have a higherfraction of crystalline silicates than those around lower mass stars,iv) in the subset of lower mass stars (M  2.5 {M}ȯ)there is no correlation between stellar parameters and the derivedcrystallinity of the dust. The correlation between the shape andstrength of the 10 micron silicate feature reported by van Boekel et al.(2003) is reconfirmed with this larger sample. The evidence presented inthis paper is combined with that of other studies to present a likelyscenario of dust processing in Herbig Ae systems. We conclude that thepresent data favour a scenario in which the crystalline silicates areproduced in the innermost regions of the disk, close to the star, andtransported outward to the regions where they can be detected by meansof 10 micron spectroscopy. Additionally, we conclude that the finalcrystallinity of these disks is reached very soon after active accretionhas stopped. First results from the ESO VLTI calibrators programThe ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is one of the leadinginterferometric facilities. It is equipped with several 8.2 and 1.8 mtelescopes, a large number of baselines up to 200 m, and with severalsubsystems designed to enable high quality measurements and to improvesignificantly the limits of sensitivities currently available tolong-baseline interferometry. The full scientific potential of the VLTIcan be exploited only if a consistent set of good quality calibrators isavailable. For this, a large number of observations of potentialcalibrators have been obtained during the commissioning phase of theVLTI. These data are publicly available. We briefly describe theinterferometer, the VINCI instrument used for the observations, the dataflow from acquisition to processed results, and we present and commenton the volume of observations gathered and scrutinized. The result is alist of 191 calibrator candidates, for which a total of 12 066observations can be deemed of satisfactory quality. We present a generalstatistical analysis of this sample, using as a starting point theangular diameters previously available in the literature. We derive thegeneral characteristics of the VLTI transfer function, and its trendwith time in the period 2001 through mid-2004. A second paper will bedevoted to a detailed investigation of a selected sample, aimed atestablishing a VLTI-based homogeneous system of calibrators. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclustersThe availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165} The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. Improved Astrometry and Photometry for the Luyten Catalog. II. Faint Stars and the Revised CatalogWe complete construction of a catalog containing improved astrometry andnew optical/infrared photometry for the vast majority of NLTT starslying in the overlap of regions covered by POSS I and by the secondincremental Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) release, approximately 44%of the sky. The epoch 2000 positions are typically accurate to 130 mas,the proper motions to 5.5 mas yr-1, and the V-J colors to0.25 mag. Relative proper motions of binary components are measured to 3mas yr-1. The false-identification rate is ~1% for11<~V<~18 and substantially less at brighter magnitudes. Theseimprovements permit the construction of a reduced proper-motion diagramthat, for the first time, allows one to classify NLTT stars intomain-sequence (MS) stars, subdwarfs (SDs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We inturn use this diagram to analyze the properties of both our catalog andthe NLTT catalog on which it is based. In sharp contrast to popularbelief, we find that NLTT incompleteness in the plane is almostcompletely concentrated in MS stars, and that SDs and WDs are detectedalmost uniformly over the sky δ>-33deg. Our catalogwill therefore provide a powerful tool to probe these populationsstatistically, as well as to reliably identify individual SDs and WDs. Dating the Almagest star catalogue using proper motions : a reconsideration.Not Available JHK Standards for Small TelescopesThe AAVSO Futures meeting, held in Madison, WI, in May 2001, proposedthat the AAVSO support near-infrared research with small telescopes. Aphotometer, the SSP-4, has been developed to provide J- and H-bandcapability for a reasonable cost. However, proper calibrated photometryrequires a set of standard stars. This paper describes such a set ofstars, suitable for small telescopes, and with accurate coordinates,proper motions, and high-quality magnitudes. Kinematics of Hipparcos Visual Binaries. II. Stars with Ground-Based Orbital SolutionsThis paper continues kinematical investigations of the Hipparcos visualbinaries with known orbits. A sample, consisting of 804 binary systemswith orbital elements determined from ground-based observations, isselected. The mean relative error of their parallaxes is about 12% andthe mean relative error of proper motions is about 4%. However, even 41%of the sample stars lack radial velocity measurements. The computedGalactic velocity components and other kinematical parameters are usedto divide the stars with known radial velocities into kinematical agegroups. The majority (92%) of binaries from the sample are thin diskstars, 7.6% have thick disk kinematics and only two binaries have halokinematics. Among them, the long-period variable Mira Ceti has a verydiscordant {Hipparcos} and ground-based parallax values. From the wholesample, 60 stars are ascribed to the thick disk and halo population.There is an urgent need to increase the number of the identified halobinaries with known orbits and substantially improve the situation withradial velocity data for stars with known orbits. CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. First evidence of the finite horizontal extent of the optical turbulence layers. Implications for new adaptive optics techniquesIt was recently shown (Masciadri et al. \cite{mas00}; Masciadri\cite{mas01a}), using a numerical simulation (Meso-Nh model), thatconsidering horizontally uniform CN2 can havesevere consequences. For example, the integration of theCN2 along lines of sight different from the zenithgives variations that can be larger than 0.50arcsec . In this paper wetry to validate this result following two approaches. (a) numericalapproach: we compare measured and simulated CN2profiles. The first ones were obtained with a Generalized Scidar (GS)and the latter are simulated with the Meso-Nh model at the same azimuthand elevation as those of the observations. Further measurements (DIMM,mast and balloons) are considered in order to support the comparison.(b) experimental approach: we compare CN2 profilesmeasured (almost simultaneously) by a GS along different lines of sight.The results of this study show that (1) the horizontal size of theturbulent layers can be finite, (2) the simulations and the measurementsare well correlated and (3) for the first time, we show that the modelcan reproduce observed seeing values that vary as much as 0.50arcsecduring the same night. This definitely shows that the numericalsimulations are a useful tool in the context of the turbulencecharacterization for astronomical applications. Finally, we discuss theimplications that a finite horizontal size of the turbulent layers couldhave on new adaptive optics techniques, particularly in applications tothe extremely large size telescopes. Statistics of spectroscopic sub-systems in visual multiple starsA large sample of visual multiples of spectral types F5-M has beensurveyed for the presence of spectroscopic sub-systems. Some 4200 radialvelocities of 574 components were measured in 1994-2000 with thecorrelation radial velocity meter. A total of 46 new spectroscopicorbits were computed for this sample. Physical relations are establishedfor most of the visual systems and several optical components areidentified as well. The period distribution of sub-systems has a maximumat periods from 2 to 7 days, likely explained by a combination of tidaldissipation with triple-star dynamics. The fraction of spectroscopicsub-systems among the dwarf components of close visual binaries withknown orbits is similar to that of field dwarfs, from 11% to 18% percomponent. Sub-systems are more frequent among the components of widevisual binaries and among wide tertiary components to the known visualor spectroscopic binaries - 20% and 30%, respectively. In triple systemswith both outer (visual) and inner (spectroscopic) orbits known, we findan anti-correlation between the periods of inner sub-systems and theeccentricities of outer orbits which must be related to dynamicalstability constraints. Tables 1, 2, and 6 are only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/382/118 Binary Star Observations in Selected Instants of Good SeeingVideo recordings of images of binary stars at the focus of a 0.36mtelescope have been used to select images recorded in instants of goodseeing. The selected images have been analysed to give separations andposition angles for the binary systems which are in good agreement withvalues predicted from previous observations. In these exploratoryobservations it has been shown that separations of 0.9 arcseconds can bemeasured with an accuracy of ~2% and position angles to ~1-2 degreeswhen the average seeing was ~1.3 arcseconds. These observationsdemonstrated that the diffraction limit of the telescope could bereached when the seeing was a factor of 2-3 greater than it. A binarywith three magnitudes difference in the brightness of its components hasbeen measured with comparable accuracy although difficulties areanticipated for binaries with components closer than ~2 arcseconds withthis magnitude difference. The limiting magnitude is determined by theneed to limit exposure times of individual frames to be comparable withor less than the atmospheric coherence time. On the Wilson-Bappu relationship in the Mg II k lineAn investigation is carried out on the Wilson-Bappu effect in the Mg Iik line at 2796.34 Å. The work is based on a selection of 230 starsobserved by both the IUE and HIPPARCOS satellites, covering a wide rangeof spectral types (F to M) and absolute visual magnitudes (-5.4<=MV <=9.0). A semi-automatic procedure is used to measurethe line widths, which applies also in the presence of strong centralabsorption reversal. The Wilson-Bappu relationship here provided isconsidered to represent an improvement over previous recent results forthe considerably larger data sample used, as well as for a properconsideration of the measurement errors. No evidence has been found fora possible dependence of the WB effect on stellar metallicity andeffective temperature. Diffraction-limited 800 nm imaging with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical TelescopeA quantitative assessment is presented of diffraction-limited stellarimages with Strehl ratios of 0.25-0.30 obtained by selection ofshort-exposure CCD images of stars brighter than +6 m at 810 nm with theNordic Optical Telescope. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Moderate-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Cool Stars: A New K-Band LibraryI present an atlas of near-infrared K-band spectra of 31 late-typegiants and supergiants and two carbon stars. The spectra were obtainedat resolving powers of 830 and 2000, and have a signal-to-noise ratio>~100. These data are complemented with results from similar existinglibraries in both K and H band, and they are used to identify varioustools useful for stellar population studies at moderate resolution. Ifocus on several of the most prominent absorption features and (1)investigate the effects of spectral resolution on measurements of theirequivalent width (EW), (2) examine the variations with stellarparameters of the EWs, and (3) construct composite indices as indicatorsof stellar parameters and of the contribution from excess continuumsources commonly found in star-forming and AGN galaxies. Among thefeatures considered, the 12CO (2,0) and 12CO (6,3)bandheads together with the Si I 1.59 μm feature, first proposed byOliva, Origlia, and coworkers, constitute the best diagnostic set forstellar spectral classification and for constraining the excesscontinuum emission. The Ca I 2.26 μm and Mg I 2.28 μm featuresoffer alternatives in the K band to the 12CO (6,3) bandheadand Si I feature. Interferometric imaging tests for the Large Binocular TelescopeWe present an experiment of interferometric imaging for the LargeBinocular Telescope (LBT), conducted at the 1.5 m TIRGO infraredtelescope. The raw data were produced by simulating the LBT pupil with amask on the secondary mirror. Two different conditions of D/r_0 , whereD is the single aperture diameter and r_0 the Fried parameter, weresimulated by the choice of D ; field rotation was simulated by rotatingthe mask. The data set collected consists of several sequences of shortexposure interferograms of one point-like and one binary star in theJ-band, for two different D/r_0 conditions. We show preliminary results,in particular concerning the fringe contrast loss with integration time.The ability of a Lucy-Richardson-based deconvolution algorithm toreconstruct an object from a set of LBT-like interferometric real datawas demonstrated on the binary star gamma Leo. The retrieved binaryparameter values are compared to catalog values, and a good astrometricagreement is found. Photometric and resolution limitations are alsodiscussed. In a first part, the reconstruction method and preliminarynumerical simulations of LBT image restoration using this method arepresented. Based on observations collected at TIRGO (Gornergrat,Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CNR-CAISMI, Arcetri, Italy. Ca II activity and rotation in F-K evolved starsCa II H and K high resolution observations for 60 evolved stars in thefield and in 5 open clusters are presented. From these spectrachromospheric fluxes are derived, and a homogeneous sample of more than100 giants is built adding data from the literature. In addition, formost stars, rotational velocities were derived from CORAVELobservations. By comparing chromospheric emission in the cluster starswe confirm the results of Pasquini & Brocato (1992): chromosphericactivity depends on the stellar effective temperature, and mass, whenintermediate mass stars (M ~ 4 Msun) are considered. TheHyades and the Praesepe clump giants show the same level of activity, asexpected from stars with similar masses and effective temperatures. Adifference of up to 0.4 dex in the chromospheric fluxes among the Hyadesgiants is recorded and this sets a clear limit to the intrinsic spreadof stellar activity in evolved giants. These differences in otherwisevery similar stars are likely due to stellar cycles and/or differencesin the stellar initial angular momentum. Among the field stars none ofthe giants with (V-R)o < 0.4 and Ia supergiants observedshows a signature of Ca II activity; this can be due either to the realabsence of a chromosphere, but also to other causes which preclude theappearance of Ca II reversal. By analyzing the whole sample we find thatchromospheric activity scales linearly with stellar rotational velocityand a high power of stellar effective temperature: F'k ~Teff7.7 (Vsini)0.9. This result can beinterpreted as the effect of two chromospheric components of differentnature: one mechanical and one magnetic. Alternatively, by using theHipparcos parallaxes and evolutionary tracks, we divide the sampleaccording to the stellar masses, and we follow the objects along anevolutionary track. For each range of masses activity can simply beexpressed as a function of only one parameter: either theTeff or the angular rotation Omega , with laws F'k~ Omega alpha , because angular velocity decreases witheffective temperature along an evolutionary track. By using theevolutionary tracks and the observed Vsini we investigate the evolutionof the angular momentum for evolved stars in the range 1-5Msun. For the 1.6-3 solar mass stars the data are consistentwith the IOmega =const law while lower and higher masses follow a lawsimilar to IOmega 2=const, where I is the computed stellarmomentum of inertia. We find it intriguing that Vsini remains almostconstant for 1Msun stars along their evolution; if a similarbehavior is shared by Pop II stars, this could explain the relativelyhigh degree of activity observed in Pop II giants. Finally, through theuse of models, we have verified the consistency of the F'k ~Omega alpha and the IOmega beta = Const lawsderived, finding an excellent agreement. This representation, albeitcrude (the models do not consider, for instance, mass losses) representsthe evolution of Ca II activity and of the angular momentum in asatisfactory way in most of the portion of HR diagram analyzed.Different predictions could be tested with observations in selectedclusters. Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla. Tables 1-3are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The CaII-M_v Correlation (Wilson-Bappu Effect) Calibrated by HIPPARCOS ParallaxesWe have used Hipparcos parallaxes to derive absolute visual magnitudesof G, K, and M stars with Ca II emission line widths previously measuredby O. C. Wilson. A linear relationship similar to the one derivedoriginally by Wilson & Bappu and improved by Lutz & Kelker wasfound from M_v=+7 to -2. For stars brighter than M_v=-2 a substantialnumber of stars show Ca II emission lines that are broader than expectedfrom the linear fit. Most of those stars are bright giants andsupergiants of type G. In appendices we show some sample Ca II profilesand identify emission lines of Fe II as well as the Hepsilon line insome stars. A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 StarsUltraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories. Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K starsA catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Non-LTE Analysis of the Oxygen lambda lambda 7771--5 Triplet in Mid-G through Early-K GiantsAn extensive spectral-synthesis analysis in the neighborhood of the O I7771--5 lines (including also the lines of Fe I, Nd II, and CN) wascarried out for thirty-two giant stars at the spectral type of mid-Gthrough early-K, and their photospheric oxygen abundances were derivedfrom these triplet lines based on detailed statistical-equilibriumcalculations, aiming to assess the importance of the non-LTE effectquantitatively as well as to examine the reliability of the abundancesderived from this near-IR triplet compared to those obtained from theforbidden line widely invoked. It turned out that the expected(negative) non-LTE correction ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 dex, the extent ofwhich is somewhat smaller than has been reported by Eriksson and Toft(1979, AAA 25.114.007). The resulting non-LTE abundances were found toagree in most cases with those determined from the published equivalentwidths of the forbidden O I 6300 line with no serious systematicdescrepancy, though some showing appreciable scatters. The possiblesources of uncertainties in oxygen-abundance determination are furtherexamined, and the relevant characteristics of the resulting abundances,such as the [O/Fe] ratio in G--K giants, are discussed. The central depth of the Ca II triplet lines as a discriminant of chromospheric activity in late type starsNot Available Radii and effective temperatures for K and M giants and supergiants. II.Not Available Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. IX. Calibrated Stellar Spectra Using DIRBE RadiometryThe absolute calibration of the COBE/DIRBE data in the range 1-25 μmis examined through the in-band fluxes of DIRBE's own set ofpoint-source calibration objects. Using the values of DIRBE fluxesexpected for Sirius and for 10 of our published set of absolutelycalibrated K and M giants that are in common with DIRBE's owncalibration network, I find consistency with the project's formal basis,namely, our published calibrated spectrum of Sirius. This consistencymeans that one can use the DIRBE radiometry to construct absolutelycalibrated stellar templates'' (i.e., continuous calibrated spectrafrom 1 to 35 μm) on the assumption that the intrinsic stellarspectrum of a star of given spectral class matches the intrinsicspectrum for the star of the same spectral class among the set of K andM giants, the spectrum of which has been absolutely defined. Thistechnique is validated using a set of early M giants withwell-characterized ground-based photometry and confirmed with IRASlow-resolution spectra. Broad-band JHK(L') photometry of a sample of giants with 0.5 > [Fe/H] > -3We present the results of a three-year campaign of broad-band photometryin the near-infrared J, H, K and L' bands for a sample of approximately250 giant stars carried out at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife,Spain). Transformations of the Telescopio Carlos Sanchez systeminto/from several currently used infrared systems are extended to theredward part of the colour axis. The linearity of our photometric systemin the range -3 mag [Fe/H] >-3. Data of comparable quality previouslypublished have been added to the sample in order to increase thereliability of the relations to be obtained. We also provide mean IRcolours for giant stars according to spectral type.ables 1, 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form via the CDS(anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Mixing processes during the evolution of red giants with moderate metal deficiencies: the role of molecular-weight barriersWe have assembled accurate abundance data for Li, C, and N as well asthe (12}C/({13)) C ratio for five field giants with [Fe/H] =~ - 0.6including Arcturus and two stars in the globular cluster 47 Tuc. Usingtheir very precise Mbol values obtained from HIPPARCOSparallaxes, we can place them into an evolutionary sequence. Thesequence shows that the (12}C/({13)) C ratios drops from ~ 20 to near 7between Mbol =3D +1 and +0.5, while Li disappears. At thesame time the (12}C/({14)) N ratio diminishes by 0.2 to 0.4 dex. The twostars in 47 Tuc with Mbol near -2.0 show even lower (12}C/({14)) Nratios by 0.4 dex indicating further mixing as they evolved to the topof the red giant branch. These observations confirm the existence of anextra-mixing process that becomes efficient on the red giant branch onlywhen the low-mass stars reach the so-called luminosity function bump. Weuse the values of the carbon isotopic ratio observed in our sample toget constraints on the mu -barriers that may shield the central regionsof a star from extra-mixing. We show that the same value of the criticalgradient of molecular weight leads to (12}C/({13)) C ratios observed atdifferent metallicities. This observational critical mu -gradient'' isin very good agreement with the one which is expected to stabilizemeridional circulation. This result provides strong clues on the natureof the extra-mixing which occurs on the RGB, and indicates that it isrelated to rotation. Based partially on observations obtained at theDominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council, Canada GPM - compiled catalogue of absolute proper motions of stars in selected areas of sky with galaxies.Not Available
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