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|A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars|
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i 100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.
|Neutral carbon and CO emission in the core and the halo of dark cloud Barnard 5|
Aims.The physical conditions and chemical structure in the dark cloud ofBarnard 5 and its surrounding atomic halo is studied.The impact of the halo on the line emission emerging from the molecularcloud is investigated.Methods.We present observations of the [CI]^3P1→ ^3P0 transition of neutral carbon and the low-J transitionsof 12CO and 13CO. The CO maps extend from the core(Av 7) to the northern cloud edge and into the halo(Av 1). They are complemented by deeply integrated [CI]spectra made along a 1D cut of similar extent. Escape probability andphoton-dominated region (PDR) models are employed to interpret theobservations.Results.12CO and 13CO are detected inthe cloud and the halo, while [CI] is detected only toward the molecularcloud. This occurs even though the neutral carbon column density is5 times larger than the CO column density in the halo, but it canbe understood in terms of excitation. The [CI] excitation is governed bycollisions even at the low halo densities, while the CO excitation isdominated by the absorption of line photons emitted by the nearbymolecular cloud. The upper limit on the neutral carbon column density inthe halo is 6× 1015 cm-2. The PDR studiesshow that even small column densities of H2 and CO, such as those in theB5 halo, can significantly change the [CI] and COline emission (pre-shielding). Since this effect decreases the [CI]intensity and increases the CO intensity, the largest impact is notedfor the [CI]/CO line ratios. For the B5 cloud, a PDRmodel with a molecular hydrogen column density of ~6×1019 cm-2 in the halo matches the observed [CI]/COline ratios best. Models with no pre-shielding, in contrast, suggesthigh gas densities that are in conflict with independently deriveddensities. The PDR models with a χ<1 demonstrate that the [CI]/COratios cannot be attributed solely to a reduced FUV field.
|Catalog of Galactic β Cephei Stars|
We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic β Cepheistars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview ofobservational characteristics of all known β Cephei stars, coveringinformation until 2004 June. Ninety-three stars could be confirmed to beβ Cephei stars. We use data from more than 250 papers publishedover the last nearly 100 years, and we provide over 45 notes onindividual stars. For some stars we reanalyzed published data orconducted our own analyses. Sixty-one stars were rejected from the finalβ Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be β Cepheistars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmedβ Cephei stars is also presented.We analyze the β Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributionsof their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radialvelocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm thatthe majority of the β Cephei stars are multiperiodic pulsators. Weshow that, besides two exceptions, the β Cephei stars with highpulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. Those higher amplitude starshave angular rotational velocities in the same range as thehigh-amplitude δ Scuti stars (Prot>~3 days).We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93β Cephei stars are main-sequence objects. We discuss theobservational boundaries of β Cephei pulsation and the physicalparameters of the stars. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modesare near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show thatthe mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 Msolar. Wepoint out that the theoretical instability strip of the β Cepheistars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt toexplain this observation.
|B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?|
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.
|Radial velocities of early-type stars in the Perseus OB2 association|
We present radial velocities for 29 B- and A-type stars in the field ofthe nearby association Perseus OB2. The velocities are derived fromspectra obtained with AURELIE, via cross correlation with radialvelocity standards matched as closely as possible in spectral type. Theresulting accuracy is ~ 2-3 km s-1. We use thesemeasurements, together with published values for a few other early-typestars, to study membership of the association. The mean radial velocity(and measured velocity dispersion) of Per OB2 is 23.5 +/- 3.9 kms-1, and lies ~ 15 km s-1 away from the meanvelocity of the local disk field stars. We identify a number ofinterlopers in the list of possible late-B- and A-type members which wasbased on Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions, and discuss thecolour-magnitude diagram of the association.Based on observations made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS),France.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|Interstellar CO towards X Persei (HD 24534) - II. Two-component model|
The observations made by the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS)aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of molecular CO in absorbing gastowards X Persei are reported. The two-component statistical equilibriummodel incorporating radiative excitation of CO by line emission at thesame velocity that originates in nearby molecular clouds has been usedto reproduce high-resolution GHRS spectra. Earlier analysis indicatesthat the cloud has a complex structure and at least a two-componentmodel should be used to obtain accurate results. The spectra obtainedfrom the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) were used tocomplement GHRS data and constrain the space of possible solutions. Thenew oscillator strengths recommended by Eidelsberg et al. for A-X bandshave been used. The results show that one of the components may beattributed to the Perseus OB2 molecular cloud, and the other componentto an extension of the Taurus dark cloud. The total CO column densityN(CO)=(1.0+/-0.2)×1016cm-2 has beendetermined. According to the results about 85per cent of the observed CObelongs to an extension of the Taurus dark cloud. The CO radiation thatoriginates in nearby molecular clouds may be the dominant excitationmechanism of the observed CO. The early results of 13CO lineanalysis indicate a 13CO/12CO ratio of about 40.
|On the Expansion of Stellar Association Per OB2|
|UBV beta Database for Case-Hamburg Northern and Southern Luminous Stars|
A database of photoelectric UBV beta photometry for stars listed in theCase-Hamburg northern and southern Milky Way luminous stars surveys hasbeen compiled from the original research literature. Consisting of over16,000 observations of some 7300 stars from over 500 sources, thisdatabase constitutes the most complete compilation of such photometryavailable for intrinsically luminous stars around the Galactic plane.Over 5000 stars listed in the Case-Hamburg surveys still lackfundamental photometric data.
|Long-term visual spectrophotometric behaviour of Be stars|
The long-term spectrophotometric variations of 49 Be stars are studiedusing the U and V magnitudes of the UBV system, the total Balmerdiscontinuity D and the visible gradient Phi _rb. BCD spectrophotometricand photometric data in five different photometric systems, obtained inmost cases since 1950 and reduced to the BCD system, were used. The(U,D), (V,D), (Phi _rb,D) and (Phi _rb,V) correlations obtained differfrom star to star and they can be single or double-valued. They differclearly for Be phases or Be-shell phases. Be stars with small Vsin ishowing the ``spectrophotometric shell behaviour'': D > D_*, werefound. This finding implies either that strongly flattened models ofcircumstellar envelopes are in doubt for these stars, or that not all Bestars are rapid rotators. Comparison of observed variations with thosepredicted for model Be stars with spherical circumstellar envelopes ofvariable densities and dimensions implies that spectrophotometricpatterns of Be phases are due to circumstellar envelopes in low opacityregimes, while those of spectrophotometric shell phases are due tocircumstellar envelopes in high opacity regimes. In a given star, theenvelope regions responsible for the observed variations of D and Phi_rbin spectrophotometric shell phases seem to be smaller and denser thanthose producing the observed variations of these parameters inspectrophotometric Be phases. The high positive RV found in strong shellphases might favor the formation of compact circumstellar layers nearthe star. Figure 6 is only available in electronic form at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle|
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.
|Rotational Velocity Determinations for 164 Be and B Stars|
Rotational velocities, v sin i, have been obtained for 96 Be and 68normal B stars by measurements of the FWHM of the He I lambda-4471 line(for spectral types B0-B4.5) and Mg II lambda-4481 (for types B5-B9.5).The consistency of various published sources is examined. (SECTION:Stars)
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).|
The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51.
|Two partially overlapping clouds of different optical properties in the Perseus OB2 association.|
The paper considers the properties of H I clouds seen in front of thetwo "arms" of the giant CO complex observed in Perseus (Per OB2association - see Fig. 1). The clouds observed towards both "arms" showstriking differences in the pattern of interstellar absorptions: theshapes of the extinction curves derived from vacuum-UV photometric andspectroscopic data, the strength ratio of the two major diffuseinterstellar bands: 5780 and 5797 and, probably in the strengths ofmolecular features. The diffuse band ratio which varies across the PerOB2 association suggests, together with the varying widths of sodiumlines, that two, partially overlapping clouds, differing strongly in theoptical properties, are situated towards the aggregate. Only towards oneof the "arms" we observe the absorption features of simple, interstellarmolecules such as CN or CH. The results suggest that at least theperipheral layers of giant molecular clouds, giving birth to OBassociations, are not well-mixed, containing thus H I clouds ofdifferent provenience. The hypothesis that giant clouds are formed bygathering diffuse interstellar clouds gets support.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|AG Persei: Absolute dimensions and membership of Perseus OB2|
Accurate physical parameters for the B-type eclipsing binary AG Per (HD25833; B4 V, V = 6.7, P = 2.03 days) have been determined for a completere-analysis of available light curves and recent spectrscopic elements(Popper & Hill 1991). The components have masses of 5.36 +/- 0.16and 4.90 +/- 0.13 solar mass and radii of 2.99 +/- 0.07 and 2.60 +/-0.07 solar radii, respectively, and they are among the least evolved Bstars with well-determined dimensions. Effective temperatures of 18 200+/- 800 K and 17b 400 +/- 800 K are derived. The orbit is slightlyeccentric (e = 0.0710 +/- 0.0010) and shows apsidal motion with awell-established period of U = 75.6 +/- 0.6 yr. Comparison with stellarevolution models based on the latest opacity library by Rogers &Iglesias (1992) and including a moderate amount of convectiveovershooting (Claret & Gimenez 1992) shows AG Per to be young; anage of about 4-6 107 yr is derived from the scale independentmasses and radii. AG Per is too little evolved to provide anyconstraints on the amount of convective overshooting. The mean densityconcentration coefficient determined from the apsidal motion parameters,log k2 = -2.14 +/- 0.04, agrees well with that computed forthe models, provided a relativistic correction based on the generalrelativity theory is included. In its present formulation andcalibration the alternative non-symmetric gravitational theory proposedby Moffat (1989) is not supported. AG Per is generally accepted as amember of Per OB2. We find a distance of 355 +/- 30 pc for the binary,compared to 330-420 pc given by various authors for the association. Newstellar models and calibrations indicate a photometric age of about1-1.5 107 yr for Per OB2, larger than previously obtained butstill well below that of AG Per (4-6 107 yr. This weakens thestatus of AG as a member. New observations of (potential Per OB2members, including fainter stars, are clearly needed.
|The distribution of interstellar dust in the solar neighborhood|
We surveyed the IRAS data base at the positions of the 1808 O6-B9.5stars in The Bright Star Catalog for extended objects with excessemission at 60 microns, indicating the presence of interstellar dust atthe location of the star. Within 400 pc the filling factor of theinterstellar medium, for dust clouds with a density greater than 0.5/cucm is 14.6 + or - 2.4%. Above a density of 1.0/cu cm, the densitydistribution function appears to follow a power law index - 1.25. Whenthe dust clouds are mapped onto the galactic plane, the sun appears tobe located in a low-density region of the interstellar medium of widthabout 60 pc extending at least 500 pc in the direction of longitudes 80deg - 260 deg, a feature we call the 'local trough'.
|Interstellar extinction in the direction of the open cluster IC 348 and the Per OB2 association|
The relationship between interstellar extinction and distance in thedirection of dark clouds in the areas around the open cluster IC 348 andthe association Per OB2 is determined using the results of photoelectricphotometry of 189 stars in the Vilnius photometric system. Two absorbinglayers are found. The nearest layer, covering the whole area around IC348, shows the mean extinction A(V) of about 0.7 mag. It begins at thedistance of 160 pc and probably is an extension of the Taurus darkclouds to the northwest. The second absorbing layer has the form of achain of dark condensations named L1468, L1470, and L1471 and is at 260pc distance. This layer has a higher density, its mean extinction beingabout 2.0 mag. The cluster IC 348 is at about the same distance and isphysically related to the dark cloud L1470. The distance of the Per OB2association is found to be 340 pc and the mean extinction of its membersis 0.95 mag. A model of the spatial distribution of the Perseus andTaurus dark clouds based on photometric distance determinations in thisand previous papers is proposed. Six stars in the IC 348 area aresuspected to have emission in the H-alpha line.
|Catalogue of Hydrogen Line Spectral Profiles of 236 B-Stars A-Stars and F-Stars|
|Fourth preliminary catalogue of stars, right ascension observed with photoelectric transit instrument (PPCP4).|
|Atlas of extinction curves derived from ultraviolet spectra of the TD-1 satellite|
The collection of 166 extinction curves derived from the publishedlow-resolution spectra acquired with the aid of the spectrometer onboard the TD-1 satellite is presented. The observed variety ofextinction laws is apparently due to the varied physical parameters ofinterstellar clouds; for example, the bright stars, included in thesample of TD-1 material, are very likely to be obscured by single clouds(interstellar or circumstellar). The system of standards constructedwith the aid of a special procedure allowing the possible effects ofspectral mismatch to be avoided and making possible the derivation ofextinction curves even in cases of very small E(B-V)S, was applied. Thecurves are presented in the form of plots, normalized to E(B-V) = 1.
|Absolute magnitudes of B emission line stars - Correlation between the luminosity excess and the effective temperature|
A new determination of the visual absolute magnitude of Be stars iscarried out. For this, a new calibration of visual absolute magnitudesof B stars of luminosity classes, V, IV, and III is first obtained froma sample of 215 stars. The absolute luminosity excess in the visual isdetermined for a sample of 49 Be stars. It is found that this excess iscorrelated with the effective temperature of the underlying stars. Awell defined correlation between this excess and the emission in thefirst two Balmer lines is established. From these results, using asimple model of circumstellar envelope, it is inferred that the zones ofthe circumstellar envelope contributing to the emission in the continuumand in the lines have to be rather small. It is also deduced that theemission measure of the envelope is correlated with the temperature ofthe central star and that the irregular photometric variations of Bestars are an envelope-opacity phenomenon.
|Catalogue of i and w/w crit values for rotating early type stars|
|Third preliminary catalogue of stars observed with the photoelectric astrolabe of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory.|
|Empirical temperature calibrations for early-type stars|
Three temperature calibrations of suitable photometric quantities havebeen derived for O and B stars. A sample of 120 stars with reliableT(eff.) determinations has been used for establishing each calibration.The different calibrations have been critically discussed and compared.Temperature determinations for 1009 program stars have been obtainedwith an accuracy of the order of 10 percent.
|The vicinity of Omicron Per|
The region around the B1 III star Omicron Per (HD 23180) in the emissionof the J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 lines of C-12O and C-13O with about 1 arcminresolution. The molecular cloud morphology suggests the presence of awarm hole near the position of the star. It is tempting to think thatOmicron Per is the cause of this molecular gap. However, the observedheating of the cloud edge, as well as optical, infrared (IRAS) andcarbon recombination line data, all suggest that the local ultravioletfield is enhanced only by a factor 10-100. Therefore Omicron Per must belocated at least a few parsecs away from the cloud, and the precisealignment of the observed hole with the star is probably mainly due tochance. Furthermore, other neighboring OB stars could contributeappreciably (even more than Omicron Per) to the ultraviolet enhancementwhich seems to extend over several degrees on the north-east edge of thePerseus local molecular cloud.
|Helium abundance in the atmospheres of B stars in open clusters|
The model-atmosphere method is applied to 6-m telescope spectrograms of46 B stars in the Per OB2 and Sco-Cen associations and in the alpha Percluster and the Pleiades to determine effective temperatures, surfacegravities, and helium abundances log epsilon(He). To within the erorrs,each cluster has the same mean epsilon(He).
|Observations of interstellar diffuse absorption band at 4430 A|
Observations of the interstellar diffuse absorption band at 4430 A for800 O and B stars in Neckel's (1967) catalog are being carried out, and482 spectra obtained up to September 1983 have been reduced. It isconfirmed that the strength of the interstellar diffuse absorption bandat 4430 A does not simply relate to the abundance of interstellar grainson the line of sight. The relation between the color excess E(B-V) andthe equivalent width of the band to the direction of l = 130-140 deg andb = -5 to +5 deg shows that some parameter(s) other than E(B-V) is (are)needed to understand the cause of this band.
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