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|An empirical temperature calibration for the Δ a photometric system . I. The B-type stars|
We establish an empirical effective temperature calibration of mainsequence, luminosity class V to III B-type stars for the Δ aphotometric system which was originally developed to detect magneticchemically peculiar objects of the upper main sequence (early B-type toearly F-type) at 5200 Å. However, this system provides the index(g_1-y) which shows an excellent correlation with (B-V) as well as (b-y)and can be used as an indicator of the effective temperature. This issupplemented by a very accurate color-magnitude diagram, y or V versus(g_1-y), which can be used, for example, to determine the reddening,distance and age of an open cluster. This makes the Δ aphotometric system an excellent tool to investigate theHertzsprung-Russell-Diagram (HRD) in more detail. Using thereddening-free parameters and already established calibrations withinthe Strömgren uvbyβ, Geneva 7-color and Johnson UBV systems, apolynomial fit of third degree for the averaged effective temperaturesto the individual (g_1-y)0 values was derived. For thispurpose, data from the literature as well as new observations were takenresulting in 225 suitable bright normal B-type objects. The statisticalmean of the error for this sample is 238 K which is sufficient toinvestigate the HRD of distant galactic open clusters as well asextragalactic aggregates in the future.
|The standard theory of extinction and the spectrum of stars with very little reddening|
This paper examines the relationship between spectra of stars of samespectral type with extremely low reddenings. According to the standardtheory, the relationship between the spectrum of stars with samespectral type and small, but different reddenings should be different inthe optical and in the UV. This difference is not observed: the ratio ofthe spectra of two stars in directions where the reddening is largeenough to be detected and low enough not to give a noticeable2200Å bump is an exponential of /1/λ from the near-infraredto the far-UV. This result is in conformity with the ideas introduced inpreceding papers: the exponential optical extinction extends to the UV,and the spectrum of stars with enough reddening is contaminated by lightscattered at close angular distance from the stars. An application willbe the determination of the spectrum of a non-reddened star from thespectrum of a star of same spectral type with little reddening.
|Far-ultraviolet extinction and diffuse interstellar bands|
We relate the equivalent widths of the major diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) near 5797 and 5780Å with different colour excesses,normalized by E(B-V), which characterize the growth of interstellarextinction in different wavelength ranges. It is demonstrated that thetwo DIBs correlate best with different parts of the extinction curve,and the ratio of these diffuse bands is best correlated with thefar-ultraviolet (UV) rise. A number of peculiar lines of sight are alsofound, indicating that the carriers of some DIBs and the far-UVextinction can be separated in certain environments, e.g. towards thePer OB2 association.
|B Stars as a Diagnostic of Star Formation at Low and High Redshift|
We have extended the evolutionary synthesis models by Leitherer et al.by including a new library of B stars generated from the IUEhigh-dispersion spectra archive. We present the library and show how thestellar spectral properties vary according to luminosity classes andspectral types. We have generated synthetic UV spectra for prototypicalyoung stellar populations varying the IMF and the star formation law.Clear signs of age effects are seen in all models. The contribution of Bstars in the UV line spectrum is clearly detected, in particular forgreater ages when O stars have evolved. With the addition of the newlibrary we are able to investigate the fraction of stellar andinterstellar contributions and the variation in the spectral shapes ofintense lines. We have used our models to date the spectrum of the localsuper-star cluster NGC 1705-1. Photospheric lines of C III λ1247,Si III λ1417, and S V λ1502 were used as diagnostics todate the burst of NGC 1705-1 at 10 Myr. Interstellar lines are clearlyseen in the NGC 1705-1 spectrum. Broadening and blueshifts of severalresonance lines are stronger in the galaxy spectrum than in our modelsand are confirmed to be intrinsic of the galaxy. Si II λ1261 andAl II λ1671 were found to be pure interstellar lines with anaverage blueshift of 78 km s-1 owing to a directed outflow ofthe interstellar medium. We have selected the star-forming galaxy1512-cB58 as a first application of the new models to high-z galaxies.This galaxy is at z=2.723, it is gravitationally lensed, and its highsignal-to-noise ratio Keck spectrum shows features typical of localstarburst galaxies, such as NGC 1705-1. Models with continuous starformation were found to be more adequate for 1512-cB58 since there arespectral features typical of a composite stellar population of O and Bstars. A model with Z=0.4 Zsolar and an IMF with α=2.8reproduces the stellar features of the 1512-cB58 spectrum.
|An extensive Delta a-photometric survey of southern B and A type bright stars|
Photoelectric photometry of 803 southern BS objects in the Deltaa-system as detection tool for magnetic chemically peculiar (=CP2) starshas been carried out and compared to published spectral types. Thestatistical yield of such objects detected by both techniques ispractically the same. We show that there are several factors whichcontaminate the search for these stars, but this contamination is onlyof the order of 10% in both techniques. We find a smooth transition fromnormal to peculiar stars. Our sample exhibits the largest fraction ofCP2 stars at their bluest colour interval, i.e. 10% of all stars in thecolour range -0.19 <= B-V < -0.10 or -0.10 <= b-y < -0.05.No peculiar stars based on the Delta a-criterion were found at bluercolours. Towards the red side the fraction of CP2 stars drops to about3% for positive values of B-V or b-y with red limits roughlycorresponding to normal stars of spectral type A5. The photometricbehaviour of other peculiar stars: Am, HgMn, delta Del, lambda Boo, Heabnormal stars, as well as Be/shell stars and supergiants shows someslight, but definite deviations from normal stars. Spectroscopic andvisual binaries are not distinguished from normal stars in their Delta abehaviour. The results of this work justify larger statistical work(e.g. in open clusters) employing more time-saving photometric methods(CCD). \newpage Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile. This research has made use of the Simbaddatabase, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Table 2 is only availablein electronic form via anonymous ftp 18.104.22.168 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Ultraviolet Extinction by Interstellar Dust in External Galaxies: M31|
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) spectra ofstars in OB associations of M31 are used to derive the UV extinction byinterstellar dust in M31 by three different methods: (1) comparingspectra of M31 star pairs, (2) comparing spectra of M31 stars to thoseof Galactic standard stars, and (3) comparing M31 star spectra toatmOsphere models. The derived intrinsic M31 extinction curve has anoverall wavelength dependence very similar to that of the averageGalactic extinction curve but possibly has a weaker 2175 A bump,however, with a significance of only 1 σ. This result is differentfrom the LMC (30 Dor)-like curves published earlier, which containedboth intrinsic M31 extinction and "foreground" extinction, and werebased either on low- signal IUE spectra, or on FOS data affected byinaccuracy in the preliminary flux calibration, and were not computedwith the pair method used in this work. In this work, the foregroundextinction component from the Galactic halo is also investigated. Theforeground curve is consistent with the standard curve. While there is aslight indication for a steeper foreground curve than the standard one,the difference is not significant considering the data uncertainties.
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Average unreddened UV flux distributions of OB dwarfs|
The average intrinsic flux distributions for early-type main-sequencestars are obtained from IUE low-dispersion spectra. The colour-excessdereddening method allows stars of various colour excesses to beincluded in the samples. The resulting spectra are free from allinterstellar extinction effects that correlate with E(B-V).
|Far-Ultraviolet (912--1900 Angstrom ) Energy Distribution in Early-Type Main-Sequence Stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...449..280C&db_key=AST
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Rnu-dependent optical and near-ultraviolet extinction|
We have derived extinctions A(lambda)/A(V) at the wavelengths of theuvby filters for 22 stars, with a range of values of Rnu,from the sample of Cardelli, Clayton, & Mathis (1989, hereafterCCM). We have fit these extinctions, and also UBVRIJHKL, IUE and ANSextinction measurements, with linear relations A(lambda)/A/(V) =a+b/Rnu and fit a and b as a function of x(=1/lambda) withpolynomials to obtain an Rnu-dependent mean extinction law(A(x)/A(V) = a(x) + b(x)/Rnu)in the optical andnear-ultraviolet (1.1/micrometer less than or equal to 3.3/micrometer).This law is virtually identical to the CCM extinction law for largevalues of Rnu(Rnu approximately 5) but is slightlylower in the near-ultraviolet for smaller Rnu (Rnuapproximately 3). The extinction law presented here agrees much betterwith a high-resolution extinction curve for the diffuse interstellarmedium (Rnu approximately 3.1), presented by Bastiaansen(1992), than CCM. The deviations of individual extinction curves fromthe mean are dominated by observational errors. The wavelengthresolution of this work is not high enough to show evidence for oragainst the existence of very broad structure in optical extinctioncurves.
|The distribution of interstellar dust in the solar neighborhood|
We surveyed the IRAS data base at the positions of the 1808 O6-B9.5stars in The Bright Star Catalog for extended objects with excessemission at 60 microns, indicating the presence of interstellar dust atthe location of the star. Within 400 pc the filling factor of theinterstellar medium, for dust clouds with a density greater than 0.5/cucm is 14.6 + or - 2.4%. Above a density of 1.0/cu cm, the densitydistribution function appears to follow a power law index - 1.25. Whenthe dust clouds are mapped onto the galactic plane, the sun appears tobe located in a low-density region of the interstellar medium of widthabout 60 pc extending at least 500 pc in the direction of longitudes 80deg - 260 deg, a feature we call the 'local trough'.
|Ultraviolet and optical studies of binaries with luminous cool primaries and hot companions. IV - Further IUE detections|
We have obtained IUE spectra for 31 middle and late-type giant andsupergiant stars whose TD-1 fluxes or ground-based spectra indicate thepresence of a hot component, or whose radial velocities indicate anunseen component. Stellar components earlier than type F1 were detectedin 22 cases. While 20 of the hot secondaries are seen weakly in opticalspectra, two are UV discoveries: HD 58134 and HD 183864. The hotcompanions are classified accurately by temperature class from theirfar-UV spectra. The interstellar extinction of each system and therelative luminosities of the components are derived from the UV andoptical fluxes, using a new grid of UV intrinsic colors for hot dwarfs.We find that many giant stars apparently have companions which are toohot and hence too luminous for consistency with the primary's spectralclassification.
|Spectral synthesis in the ultraviolet. IV - A library of mean stellar groups|
A library of mean UV stellar energy distributions is derived from IUEspectrophotometry of 218 stars. The spectra cover 1230-3200 A with aspectral resolution of about 6 A. They have been corrected forinterstellar extinction and converted to a common flux and wavelengthscale. Individual stars were combined into standard groups according totheir continuum colors, observed UV spectral morphology, MK luminosityclass, and metal abundance. The library consists of 56 groups: 21dwarf(V), 8 subgiant(IV), 16 giant(III), and supergiant(I + II) groups,covering O3-M4 spectral types. A metal-poor sequence is included,containing four dwarf and two giant groups, as is a metal-enhancedsequence with a single dwarf, subgiant, and giant group. Spectralindices characterizing the continuum and several strong absorptionfeatures are examined as temperature, luminosity, and abundancediagnostics. The library is intended to serve as a basis forinterpreting the composite UV spectra of a wide variety of stellarsystems, e.g., elliptical galaxies, starburst systems, and high-redshiftgalaxies.
|The quantitative assessment of UV extinction derived from IUE data of giants and supergiants|
It is shown here that the UV interstellar extinction towards hotluminous stars can be determined as accurately as for hot main-sequencestars. An atlas of IUE dereddened fluxes is presented for 13 lightlyreddened stars within the 1160-3125 A range. The fluxes of these starshow absorption line strengths that allow a rather accurate determinationof relative temperatures and luminosities which is more suitable for thedetermination of UV extinction via the pair method than choosing acomparison star based on quoted optical MK classifications.
|Infrared dust and millimeter-wave carbon monoxide emission in the Orion region|
The far-infrared dust emission seen by the IRAS satellite in the Orionregion is analyzed as a function of the local radiation field intensity,and the dust temperature and opacity are compared with (C-12)O and(C-13)O emission. The infrared radiation is interpreted within theframework of a single-component large grain model and a multicomponentgrain model consisting of subpopulations of grains with size-dependenttemperatures. A strong dependence of the 100-micron optical depthderived is found using the large grain model on the averageline-of-sight dust temperature and radiation field. In the hotenvironment surrounding high-luminosity sources and H II regions, alldust along the line-of-sight radiates at 100 microns, and thedust-to-gas ratio, based on the 100-micron opacity and I(/C-13/O),appears to be in agreement with the standard value, about 1 percent bymass. A relationship is found between the inferred dust-to-gas ratio andthe radiation field intensity responsible for heating the dust which canbe used to estimate the gas column density from the dust opacity derivedfrom the 60- and 100-micron IRAS fluxes.
|The luminosity of the B2 hypergiant HD 80077|
The extremely bright and relatively stable hypergiant HD 80077 is anenigmatic object. Since the star is assumed to have a luminosity of 2 x10 exp 6, considerable variability and a large mass loss rate would beexpected. However, its mass loss rate of (5 +10/-3) x 10 exp -6 solarmass/yr and its variability are very low with respect to its luminosity.The star is assumed to be a member of the cluster Pismis 11, andtherefore to have a known distance. The above-mentioned luminosity hasbeen derived using the apparent visual magnitude, the bolometriccorrection and the distance to Pismis 11. Indications that the star isnot a member of Pismis 11, but a foreground star, therefore having alower luminosity have been looked for. For this, no evidence has beenfound.
|Broad-band photometry of selected southern ultraviolet-bright stars.|
|Spectral synthesis in the ultraviolet. III - The spectral morphology of normal stars in the mid-ultraviolet|
The morphology of 218 mid-UV spectra of stars ranging from O through Kin spectral type is examined. Several new line and continuum indices aredefined and their usefulness as temperature, luminosity, and metallicitydiscriminants is discussed. Mid-UV stellar continua are found to bemarkedly affected by abundance. A UV excess, delta(2600-V), is computedwhich is more sensitive by a factor of 10 to (Fe/H) than is delta(U-B).The relative strength of spectral lines in the mid-UV is not as stronglyaffected by abundance. Mid-UV spectra are much more sensitive to thetemperature of the stellar population than to either metallicity or thedwarf/giant ratio. Mg II 2800 shows unexpected behavior, displaying nosensitivity to abundance for cool stars and a reversed sensitivity in FGdwarfs such that metal-poor stars have stronger Mg II strengths at thesame temperature than more metal-rich stars.
|Circumstellar Clouds around the Group of O-B from the Doublet 2800 MGII Observations|
|Ultraviolet extinction differences within NGC 6530|
Ultraviolet extinction curves are presented for 14 stars in the veryyoung cluster NGC 6530. The variation of the short-wavelength extinctionis consistent with that expected based on random errors alone, althoughthe weakest extinction is found only toward the cluster center.Variations significantly larger than the measurement uncertainty arefound in the area, width, and central peak position of the 2200 Aextinction bump. These parameters are largest in the cluster center anddecrease systematically outwards. Physical processes capable ofmodifying the grains in the H II region containing the cluster arediscussed.
|Ultraviolet interstellar extinction toward NGC 6530 and the intrinsic energy distribution of 9 Sagittarii and HD 165052|
The ultraviolet interstellar extinction curve is determined toward 12early B main-sequence stars and one O8 V star in NGC 6530. Theextinction is found to be uniform across the cluster. At shortwavelengths, the extinction curve of NGC 6530 falls below the averageGalactic curve by a full magnitude, indicating that the population ofsmall grains relative to larger grains is lower than normal. Longward of2830 A the curve is almost coincident with the mean Galactic curve. The2175 A feature is narrower than the average. The derived extinctioncurve is used to deredden the observed fluxes of two early O-type starsin NGC 6530:9 Sgr and HD 165052. The intrinsic continua are compared tomodel atmospheres in the region 1200-8200 A. The LTE, line-blanketedmodels of Kurucz (1979) fit the observations better than the non-LTE,unblanketed models of Mihalas (1972) suggesting that line-blanketingeffects are more important than the non-LTE effects in the atmospheresof these stars. The temperatures of the models that best fit theobservations are lower than the Zanstra temperatures and thetemperatures estimated from the strengths of the He I and He II lines,by 10,000 to 20,000 K.
|Mass to line-strength relations from IUE spectra of early-type stars|
An extensive survey of the 1200-1900 A region in OB type stellar spectraobtained from the IUE archives has been used to establish line-strengthversus spectral-type relationships. One hundred and sixty-threelow-resolution IUE spectra of 124 well-classified O3 to B5 stars wereexamined. Earlier results that the equivalent width of Si IV (1400 A)and C IV (1550 A) features are well correlated with optical spectraltype are confirmed. The equivalent width/spectral type/luminosity classrelations for these features are then established.
|IUE observations of the broad continuum feature at 1400 A in the silicon and related stars|
The upper main sequence chemically peculiar stars have previously beenstudied spectrophotometrically using low-resolution TD-1 spectra. Theseshow that the broad continuum feature at 1400 A is a useful indicator ofSi anomaly. In this paper the observations are extended to IUElow-resolution spectra and it is shown that this feature is indeed wellcorrelated with Si and also with optical chemical peculiarity indices.Its utility in selecting silicon stars is further demonstrated. Thisfeature is likely due to autoionization of Si II and is the bestavailable discriminator of the overabundance of a key element in the Apstars.
|Ultraviolet extinction toward five open clusters, and the accuracy of IUE extinction measurements|
The UV extinction curves of 33 main-sequence B stars in five openclusters are presented and analyzed. An analytic fitting function isintroduced which represents the observed curves and codifies thestructure of the 2175 A extinction bump. A set of extinction parametersare also defined which describe the shape of the far-UV extinction.These data are first used to determine whether the extinction toward anyof the clusters is uniform, i.e., whether it can be represented by asingle curve for the cluster. This is accomplished by comparing theobserved scatter of the far-UV extinction measurements toward a givencluster with that predicted by an error model. The extinction towardfour of the five clusters is found to be uniform. The extinction datafor those clusters with uniform extinction are then used to determinethe observational uncertainties in other extinction parameters for whicha priori error estimates cannot be made. With one exception, all of theparameters which describe the shapes of UV extinction curves differsignificantly from cluster to cluster. The exception is the centralposition of the UV extinction bump, which has the same value for all ofthe cluster extinction curves. Applications and interpretation of theresults are given elsewhere.
|The extinction law in the open cluster NGC 457 and the intrinsic energy distribution of Phi Cassiopeiae (F0 Ia)|
Five early B-type stars near the main-sequence turnoff in NGC 457 havebeen observed at low dispersion with the short-wavelength prime and thelong-wavelength redundant cameras of the IUE satellite. The equivalentwidths of spectral features that are particularly strong and sensitiveto temperature and luminosity were computed in the cluster stars and in20 lightly reddened stars of types O9-B3 and luminosity classes III-V.The comparison of the equivalent widths provides a reliable method forfinding matching pairs. Having identified the best comparison star foreach program star, binned fluxes were used to determine the meanextinction curve. In order to cover the visible region, monochromaticfluxes of Phi Cas were derived from observations with the intensifiedReticon scanner mounted on the No. 2 0.9 m telescope of KPNO, and theywere dereddened with the mean extinction curve of Savage and Mathis.Thus, the intrinsic energy distribution of Phi Cas were determined from1500 to 5800 A for use in a detailed model-atmosphere analysis.
|A catalog of ultraviolet interstellar extinction excesses for 1415 stars|
Ultraviolet interstellar extinction excesses are presented for 1415stars with spectral types B7 and earlier. The excesses with respect to Vare derived from Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS) 5-channel UVphotometry at central wavelengths of approximately 1550, 1800, 2500, and3300 A. A measure of the excess extinction in the 2200-A extinction bumpis also given. The data are valuable for investigating the systematicsof peculiar interstellar extinction and for studying the character of UVinterstellar extinction in the general direction of stars for which theextinction-curve shape is unknown.
|The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematics|
Published uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter.
|IUE low-dispersion reference atlas|
This atlas, published by ESA and essentially devoted to normal stars,presents 229 graphic spectra together with the corresponding fluxes andan ultraviolet spectral type. The preparation of this publicationconfirmed that MK classifications cannot simply be transferred to theultraviolet range. A set of transparencies illustrates the referencesequences constructed from the ultraviolet data. A magnetic-tape copy ofall the spectra pertaining to this atlas is available from the StellarData Center in Strasbourg.
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