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 Precise radial velocities of giant stars. I. Stable starsContext: .Future astrometric missions such as SIM PlanetQuest need verystable reference stars. K giants have large luminosities, which placethem at large distances and thus the jitter of their photocenters bycompanions is relatively small. Therefore K giants would be best suitedas references. To confirm this observationally a radial velocity surveyis performed to quantify the level of intrinsic variability in Kgiants. Aims: .From this radial velocity survey we present 34 Kgiants with an observed standard deviation of the radial velocity ofless than 20 m/s. These stars are considered "stable" and can be used asradial velocity standards. Methods: .The radial velocity surveycontains 179 K giants. All K giants have a declination between -30°and +65° and visual magnitude of 3{-}6 mag. The CoudéAuxiliary Telescope (CAT) at UCO/Lick Observatory is used to obtainradial velocities with an accuracy of 5{-}8 m/s. The number of epochsfor the 34 stable stars ranges from 11 to 28 with a total timespan ofthe observations between 1800 and a little over 2200 days. Results: .The observational results of the 34 "stable" stars are showntogether with a discussion about their position in the MV vs.B-V diagram and some conclusions concerning the radial velocityvariability of K giants. These results are in agreement with thetheoretical predictions. K giants in a certain range of theMV vs. B-V diagram are suitable reference stars. Group, field and isolated early-type galaxies - I. Observations and nuclear dataThis is the first paper of a series on the investigation of stellarpopulation properties and galaxy evolution of an observationallyhomogeneous sample of early-type galaxies in groups, field and isolatedgalaxies.Here we present high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectroscopyof 86 nearby elliptical and S0 galaxies. Eight of them are isolated,selected according to a rigorous criterion, which guarantees a genuinelow-density subsample. The present survey has the advantage of coveringa larger wavelength range than normally found in the literature, whichincludes [OIII]λ5007 and Hα, both lines important foremission correction. Among the 86 galaxies with S/N >= 15 (perresolution element, for re/8 central aperture), 57 have theirHβ-index corrected for emission (the average correction is 0.190Åin Hβ) and 42 galaxies reveal [OIII]λ5007 emission,of which 16 also show obvious Hα emission. Most of the galaxies inthe sample do not show obvious signs of disturbances nor tidal featuresin the morphologies, although 11 belong to the Arp catalogue of peculiargalaxies; only three of them (NGC 750, 751 and 3226) seem to be stronglyinteracting. We present the measurement of 25 central line-strengthindices calibrated to the Lick/IDS system. Kinematic information isobtained for the sample. We analyse the line-strength index versusvelocity dispersion relations for our sample of mainly low-densityenvironment galaxies, and compare the slope of the relations withcluster galaxies from the literature. Our main findings are that theindex-σ0 relations presented for low-density regionsare not significantly different from those of cluster E/S0s. The slopeof the index-σ0 relations does not seem to change forearly-type galaxies of different environmental densities, but thescatter of the relations seems larger for group, field and isolatedgalaxies than for cluster galaxies. Radial Velocities of Late-Type Field Subgiant StarsHigh-dispersion coudé spectra were observed and measured for 43field subgiants of the G and K spectral types, with the intent ofsearching for hitherto undiscovered spectroscopic binaries. Statisticalanalysis of the measurements revealed no definite but two possible newbinaries. We present the data and discuss the statistical analysis usedto test for new binaries. Additionally, we discuss the techniques forhigh precision of radial-velocity measurement, and the systematic errorsthat interfere with that goal. UVBLUE: A New High-Resolution Theoretical Library of Ultraviolet Stellar SpectraWe present an extended ultraviolet-blue (850-4700 Å) library oftheoretical stellar spectral energy distributions computed at highresolution, λ/Δλ=50,000. The UVBLUE grid, as wenamed the library, is based on LTE calculations carried out with ATLAS9and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz and consists of nearly 1800entries that cover a large volume of the parameter space. It spans arange in Teff from 3000 to 50,000 K, the surface gravityranges from logg=0.0 to 5.0 with Δlogg=0.5 dex, while sevenchemical compositions are considered:[M/H]=-2.0,-1.5,-1.0,-0.5,+0.0,+0.3, and +0.5 dex. For its coverageacross the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, this library is the mostcomprehensive one ever computed at high resolution in theshort-wavelength spectral range, and useful application can be foreseenfor both the study of single stars and in population synthesis models ofgalaxies and other stellar systems. We briefly discuss some relevantissues for a safe application of the theoretical output to ultravioletobservations, and a comparison of our LTE models with the non-LTE (NLTE)ones from the TLUSTY code is also carried out. NLTE spectra are found,on average, to be slightly redder'' compared to the LTE ones for thesame value of Teff, while a larger difference could bedetected for weak lines, which are nearly wiped out by the enhanced coreemission component in case of NLTE atmospheres. These effects seem to bemagnified at low metallicity (typically [M/H]<~-1). A match with aworking sample of 111 stars from the IUE atlas, with availableatmosphere parameters from the literature, shows that UVBLUE modelsprovide an accurate description of the main mid- and low-resolutionspectral features for stars along the whole sequence from the B to ~G5type. The comparison sensibly degrades for later spectral types, withsupergiant stars that are in general more poorly reproduced than dwarfs.As a possible explanation of this overall trend, we partly invoke theuncertainty in the input atmosphere parameters to compute thetheoretical spectra. In addition, one should also consider the importantcontamination of the IUE stellar sample, where the presence of binaryand variable stars certainly works in the sense of artificiallyworsening the match between theory and observations. Diameters of Mira Stars Measured Simultaneously in the J, H, and K' Near-Infrared BandsWe present the first spatially resolved observations of a sample of 23Mira stars simultaneously measured in the near-infrared J, H, and K'bands. The technique used was optical long-baseline interferometry, andwe present for each star visibility amplitude measurements as a functionof wavelength. We also present characteristic sizes at each spectralband, obtained by fitting the measured visibilities to a simple uniformdisk model. This approach reveals the general relation J diameter < Hdiameter < K' diameter. Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclustersThe availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165} The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. Synthetic Lick Indices and Detection of α-enhanced Stars. II. F, G, and K Stars in the -1.0 < [Fe/H] < +0.50 RangeWe present an analysis of 402 F, G, and K solar neighborhood stars, withaccurate estimates of [Fe/H] in the range -1.0 to +0.5 dex, aimed at thedetection of α-enhanced stars and at the investigation of theirkinematical properties. The analysis is based on the comparison of 571sets of spectral indices in the Lick/IDS system, coming from fourdifferent observational data sets, with synthetic indices computed withsolar-scaled abundances and with α-element enhancement. We useselected combinations of indices to single out α-enhanced starswithout requiring previous knowledge of their main atmosphericparameters. By applying this approach to the total data set, we obtain alist of 60 bona fide α-enhanced stars and of 146 stars withsolar-scaled abundances. The properties of the detected α-enhancedand solar-scaled abundance stars with respect to their [Fe/H] values andkinematics are presented. A clear kinematic distinction betweensolar-scaled and α-enhanced stars was found, although a one-to-onecorrespondence to thin disk'' and thick disk'' components cannot besupported with the present data. Interrelations between V il and S tr photometric systems: The luminosity indicator (v - X)Using the largest database of near-IR Ca II Triplet indices currentlyavailable (Cenarro et al. \cite{Cenarro01a},b), we confirm our findingabout the influence of the Ca II stellar lines on the X magnitude ofthe Vilnius photometric system. This effect is significant for spectralsub-classes from early F until mid K. For this spectral range there is alinear relation between the v-X index and the strength of the infraredCa II Triplet, which implies that the Ca II H&K lines shouldinfluence the difference in a similar way. For the spectral intervalstudied, v-X repeats the behavior of the Ca II Triplet with respect togravity, temperature and metallicity. The Ca II Triplet lines are apowerful diagnostic of the stellar populations in galaxies because oftheir sensitivity to the main stellar atmospheric parameters. Being mucheasily achievable observationally and virtually reddening free, the v-Xindex may find similar applications. v-X is log g sensitive butadditional means are required to break the dwarf - giant duplicity. Forthis purpose we have studied the variation of thev(Strömgren)-B(Johnson) index with gravity, temperature and theequivalent width of the Ca II Triplet. Sincev(Strömgren)-B(Johnson) have a none overlapping variation with theCa II Triplet the dwarfs and giants may be separated and Teffand log g may be estimated. The v(Strömgren)-B(Johnson) index hasfurthermore the advantage that E(v-B) ~ 0.25E(B-V).Based on CDS data. A Strategy for Identifying the Grid Stars for the Space Interferometry MissionWe present a strategy to identify several thousand stars that areastrometrically stable at the microarcsecond level for use in the SpaceInterferometry Mission (SIM) astrometric grid. The requirements on thegrid stars make this a rather challenging task. Taking a variety ofconsiderations into account, we argue for K giants as the best type ofstars for the grid, mainly because they can be located at much largerdistances than any other type of star owing to their intrinsicbrightness. We show that it is possible to identify suitable candidategrid K giants from existing astrometric catalogs. However, double starshave to be eliminated from these candidate grid samples, since theygenerally produce much larger astrometric jitter than tolerable for thegrid. The most efficient way to achieve this is probably by means of aradial velocity survey. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach,we repeatedly measured the radial velocities for a preselected sample of86 nearby Hipparcos K giants with precisions of 5-8 m s-1.The distribution of the intrinsic radial velocity variations for thebona fide single K giants shows a maximum around 20 m s-1,which is small enough not to severely affect the identification ofstellar companions around other K giants. We use the results of ourobservations as input parameters for Monte Carlo simulations on thepossible design of a radial velocity survey of all grid stars. Ourfavored scenario would result in a grid which consists to 68% of truesingle stars and to 32% of double or multiple stars with periods mostlylarger than 200 years, but only 3.6% of all grid stars would displayastrometric jitter larger than 1 μas. This contamination level isprobably tolerable. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 K-Band Calibration of the Red Clump LuminosityThe average near-infrared (K-band) luminosity of 238 Hipparcos red clumpgiants is derived and then used to measure the distance to the Galacticcenter. These Hipparcos red clump giants have been previously employedas I-band standard candles. The advantage of the K-band is a decreasedsensitivity to reddening and perhaps a reduced systematic dependence onmetallicity. In order to investigate the latter, and also to refer ourcalibration to a known metallicity zero point, we restrict our sample ofred clump calibrators to those with abundances derived fromhigh-resolution spectroscopic data. The mean metallicity of the sampleis [Fe/H]=-0.18 dex (σ=0.17 dex). The data are consistent with nocorrelation between MK and [Fe/H] and only weakly constrainthe slope of this relation. The luminosity function of the sample peaksat MK=-1.61+/-0.03 mag. Next, we assemble published opticaland near-infrared photometry for ~20 red clump giants in a Baade'swindow field with a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-0.17+/-0.09 dex, whichis nearly identical to that of the Hipparcos red clump. Assuming thatthe average (V-I)0 and (V-K)0 colors of these twored clumps are the same, the extinctions in the Baade's window field arefound to be AV=1.56, AI=0.87, andAK=0.15, in agreement with previous estimates. We derive thedistance to the Galactic center: (m-M)0=14.58+/-0.11 mag, orR=8.24+/-0.42 kpc. The uncertainty in this distance measurement isdominated by the small number of Baade's window red clump giantsexamined here. Ca II activity and rotation in F-K evolved starsCa II H and K high resolution observations for 60 evolved stars in thefield and in 5 open clusters are presented. From these spectrachromospheric fluxes are derived, and a homogeneous sample of more than100 giants is built adding data from the literature. In addition, formost stars, rotational velocities were derived from CORAVELobservations. By comparing chromospheric emission in the cluster starswe confirm the results of Pasquini & Brocato (1992): chromosphericactivity depends on the stellar effective temperature, and mass, whenintermediate mass stars (M ~ 4 Msun) are considered. TheHyades and the Praesepe clump giants show the same level of activity, asexpected from stars with similar masses and effective temperatures. Adifference of up to 0.4 dex in the chromospheric fluxes among the Hyadesgiants is recorded and this sets a clear limit to the intrinsic spreadof stellar activity in evolved giants. These differences in otherwisevery similar stars are likely due to stellar cycles and/or differencesin the stellar initial angular momentum. Among the field stars none ofthe giants with (V-R)o < 0.4 and Ia supergiants observedshows a signature of Ca II activity; this can be due either to the realabsence of a chromosphere, but also to other causes which preclude theappearance of Ca II reversal. By analyzing the whole sample we find thatchromospheric activity scales linearly with stellar rotational velocityand a high power of stellar effective temperature: F'k ~Teff7.7 (Vsini)0.9. This result can beinterpreted as the effect of two chromospheric components of differentnature: one mechanical and one magnetic. Alternatively, by using theHipparcos parallaxes and evolutionary tracks, we divide the sampleaccording to the stellar masses, and we follow the objects along anevolutionary track. For each range of masses activity can simply beexpressed as a function of only one parameter: either theTeff or the angular rotation Omega , with laws F'k~ Omega alpha , because angular velocity decreases witheffective temperature along an evolutionary track. By using theevolutionary tracks and the observed Vsini we investigate the evolutionof the angular momentum for evolved stars in the range 1-5Msun. For the 1.6-3 solar mass stars the data are consistentwith the IOmega =const law while lower and higher masses follow a lawsimilar to IOmega 2=const, where I is the computed stellarmomentum of inertia. We find it intriguing that Vsini remains almostconstant for 1Msun stars along their evolution; if a similarbehavior is shared by Pop II stars, this could explain the relativelyhigh degree of activity observed in Pop II giants. Finally, through theuse of models, we have verified the consistency of the F'k ~Omega alpha and the IOmega beta = Const lawsderived, finding an excellent agreement. This representation, albeitcrude (the models do not consider, for instance, mass losses) representsthe evolution of Ca II activity and of the angular momentum in asatisfactory way in most of the portion of HR diagram analyzed.Different predictions could be tested with observations in selectedclusters. Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla. Tables 1-3are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Lithium and rotation on the subgiant branch. II. Theoretical analysis of observationsLithium abundances and rotation, determined for 120 subgiant stars inLèbre et al. (1999) are analyzed. To this purpose, theevolutionary status of the sample as well as the individual masses havebeen determined using the HIPPARCOS trigonometric parallax measurementsto locate very precisely our sample stars in the HR diagram. We look atthe distributions of A_Li and Vsini with mass when stars evolve from themain sequence to the subgiant branch. For most of the stars in oursample we find good agreement with the dilution predictions. However,the more massive cool stars with upper limits of Li abundances show asignificant discrepancy with the theoretical predictions, even if theNon-LTE effects are taken into account. For the rotation behaviour, ouranalysis confirms that low mass stars leave the main sequence with a lowrotational rate, while more massive stars are slowed down only whenreaching the subgiant branch. We also checked the connection between theobserved rotation behaviour and the magnetic braking due to thedeepening of the convective envelope. Our results shed new light on thelithium and rotation discontinuities in the evolved phase. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Empirical calibration of the lambda 4000 Å breakEmpirical fitting functions, describing the behaviour of the lambda 4000Ä break, D4000, in terms of effective temperature,metallicity and surface gravity, are presented. For this purpose, thebreak has been measured in 392 stars from the Lick/IDS Library. We havefollowed a very detailed error treatment in the reduction and fittingprocedures, allowing for a reliable estimation of the breakuncertainties. This calibration can be easily incorporated into stellarpopulation models to provide accurate predictions of the break amplitudefor, relatively old, composite systems. Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Absolute declinations with the photoelectric astrolabe at Calern Observatory (OCA)A regular observational programme with a photoelectric astrolabe havebeen performed at Observatoire du Calern" (Observatoire de laCôte d'Azur, OCA, phi = +43() o44′55.011″; lambda =-0() h27() m42.44() s, Calern, Caussols, France) for the last twentyyears. It has been almost fully automatized between 1984 and 1987. Since1988 the photoelectric astrolabe was used without any modification. Inaddition to determining the daily orientation of the local vertical, theyearly analysis of the residuals permits to derive corrections to theused star catalogue \cite[(Vigouroux et al. 1992)]{vig92}. A globalreduction method was applied for the ASPHO observations. The new form ofthe equations \cite[(Martin & Leister 1997)]{mar97} give us thepossibility of using the entire set of the observing program using datataken at two zenith distances (30() o and 45() o). The program containsabout 41648 stars' transits of 269 different stars taken atObservatoire du Calern" (OCA). The reduction was based on theHIPPARCOS system. We discuss the possibility of computing absolutedeclinations through stars belonging simultaneously to the 30() o and45() o zenith distances programmes. The absolute declination correctionswere determined for 185 stars with precision of 0.027arcsec and thevalue of the determined equator correction is -0.018arcsec +/-0.005arcsec . The instrumental effects were also determined. The meanepoch is 1995.29. Catalogue only available at CDS in electronic from viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K starsA catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Lithium and rotation on the subgiant branch. I. Observations and spectral analysisWe have obtained new high resolution spectroscopic observations of thelithium line at 6707.81 Angstroms and derived lithium abundances (A_Li )by spectral synthesis for a sample of about 120 F-, G- and K-typePopulation I subgiant stars. For each of these stars, high precisionrotational velocity obtained with the CORAVEL spectrometer is available.We present the behavior of the lithium abundance as a function ofeffective temperature, which shows a sort of discontinuity around 5600K, somewhat later than the well known rotational discontinuity. based onobservations collected at the Observatoire de Haute--Provence (France)and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla (Chile). Photometric Separation of Stellar Properties Using SDSS FiltersUsing synthetic photometry of Kurucz model spectra, we explore thecolors of stars as a function of temperature, metallicity, and surfacegravity with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) filters, u'g'r'i'z'. Thesynthetic colors show qualitative agreement with the few publishedobservations in these filters. We find that the locus of synthetic starsis basically two-dimensional for 4500 < T < 8000 K, whichprecludes simultaneous color separation of the three basic stellarcharacteristics we consider. Colors including u' contain the mostinformation about normal stellar properties; measurements in this filterare also important for selecting white dwarfs. We identify two differentsubsets of the locus in which the loci separate by either metallicity orsurface gravity. For 0.5 < g' - r' < 0.8 (corresponding roughly toG stars), the locus separates by metallicity; for photometric error of afew percent, we estimate metallicity to within ~0.5 dex in this range.In the range -0.15 < g' - r' < 0.00 (corresponding roughly to Astars), the locus shows separation by surface gravity. In both cases, weshow that it is advantageous to use more than two colors whendetermining stellar properties by color. Strategic observations in SDSSfilters are required to resolve the source of a ~5% discrepancy betweensynthetic colors of Gunn-Stryker stars, Kurucz models, and externaldeterminations of the metallicities and surface gravities. The syntheticstar colors can be used to investigate the properties of any normal starand to construct analytic expressions for the photometric prediction ofstellar properties in special cases. Rotational Velocities of Late-Type StarsA calibration based on the results of Gray has been used to determineprojected rotational velocities for 133 bright stars with spectral typesof F, G, or K, most of which appear in {\it The Bright Star Catalogue}.The vast majority have {\it v} sin {\it i} $\leq$ 10 km s$^{-1}$ and,thus, are slow rotators. With the new calibration, projected rotationalvelocities have been determined for a sample of 111 late-type stars,most of which are chromospherically active. Some of the stars have hadtheir rotational velocities measured for the first time. (SECTION:Stars) Classification of Population II Stars in the Vilnius Photometric System. II. ResultsThe results of photometric classification of 848 true and suspectedPopulation II stars, some of which were found to belong to Population I,are presented. The stars were classified using a new calibrationdescribed in Paper I (Bartkevicius & Lazauskaite 1996). We combinethese results with our results from Paper I and discuss in greaterdetail the following groups of stars: UU Herculis-type stars and otherhigh-galactic-latitude supergiants, field red horizontal-branch stars,metal-deficient visual binaries, metal-deficient subgiants, stars fromthe Catalogue of Metal-deficient F--M Stars Classified Photometrically(MDPH; Bartkevicius 1993) and stars from one of the HIPPARCOS programs(Bartkevicius 1994a). It is confirmed that high galactic latitudesupergiants from the Bartaya (1979) catalog are giants or even dwarfs.Some stars, identified by Rose (1985) and Tautvaisiene (1996a) as fieldRHB stars, appear to be ordinary giants according to our classification.Some of the visual binaries studied can be considered as physical pairs.Quite a large fraction of stars from the MDPH catalog are found to havesolar metallicity. A number of new possible UU Herculis-type stars, RHBstars and metal-deficient subgiants are identified. H gamma and H delta Absorption Features in Stars and Stellar PopulationsThe H gamma and H delta absorption features are measured in a sample of455 (out of an original 460) Lick/IDS stars with pseudo--equivalentwidth indices. For each Balmer feature, two definitions, involving anarrow (~20 Angstroms) and a wide (~40 Angstroms) central bandpass, aremeasured. These four new Balmer indices augment 21 indices previouslydetermined by Worthey et al., and polynomial fitting functions that giveindex strengths as a function of stellar temperature, gravity, and[Fe/H] are provided. The new indices are folded into models for theintegrated light of stellar populations, and predictions are given forsingle-burst stellar populations of a variety of ages and metallicities.Contrary to our initial hopes, the indices cannot break a degeneracybetween burst age and burst strength in post-starburst objects, but theyare successful mean-age indicators when used with sensitive metallicityindicators. An appendix gives data, advice, and examples of how totransform new spectra to the 25-index Lick/IDS system. The Stellar Populations of Spiral Disks.I.A New Observational Approach: Description of the Technique and Spectral Gradients for the Inter-Arm Regions of NGC 4321 (M100)We describe an imaging method that makes use of interference filters toprovide integrated stellar spectral indices for spiral disks to faintsurface brightness limits. We use filters with bandpasses { ~ 60Angstroms\ }FWHM, centered on the Mg and Fe features (lambda lambda 5176Angstroms \ and 5270 Angstroms respectively) allowing the determinationof the spatial distribution of the Lick indices Mg2 andFe5270. These two indices have been extensively modeled by differentgroups and used in the past mainly for the study of elliptical galaxies,bulges, and globular clusters. Azimuthal integration of the underlyingsmooth stellar signal, after removal of the signature of the spiral armsand associated extreme pop. I structures, provides measurements of thesespectral indices useful to radial distances where the surface brightnessof the galaxy reaches ~ 24mu_V . As a first example of this techniqueand its possibilities we conduct a preliminary study of the SABbc galaxyNGC 4321 (M 100). We present spectral gradients for the inter-armstellar population to about 4 exponential scale lengths. There is someevidence for a discontinuity in the run of the Mg2 index nearcorotation, which we interpret as evidence for bar- driven secularevolution. There is also evidence that Mg is overabundant with respectto Fe in the inner regions of the projected image. A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Doppler imaging of stellar surface structure. III. The X-ray source HD 116544 = IN Virginis.We present the first Doppler image of the EXOSAT X-ray source EXO1321.8-0203, recently identified to be a chromospherically active starexhibiting periodic light variations and consequently named INVirginis.Our high-resolution spectra show INVirginis to be a single-linedspectroscopic binary with an orbital period of 8.2 days, very strongCaII emission, and an inverse P-Cygni type Hα line profile. Adetailed spectrum synthesis yields a photospheric temperature of4600+/-70 K and logg=3.5-4.0 and slight overabundance of the heavyelements but otherwise solar abundances. We redetermine the photometricperiod from a new set of photometry obtained with a roboticphotoelectric telescope in the years 1994 and 1995 and conclude that INVirginis is more likely a K2-3 subgiant instead of a K5 dwarf or K4subgiant as previously published. The Doppler images from March 1994show a cool polar spot that is dominated by a large appendage reaching alatitude of +40°. Its average temperature difference, photosphereminus polar spot, is 1000K. Additionally, three equatorial spots areclearly recovered but have {DELTA}T=~400K. Possibly, we also detected awarm equatorial feature with {DELTA}T=~-150K. We emphasize that Dopplerimaging of IN Virginis is very challenging because of both the smallvsin i of the star (24.0km/s) and its relatively cool photospherecausing many weak absorption-line blends. Still, maps from the differentlines appear encouragingly similar. On the Determination of Empirical Stellar Flux ScalesSeveral studies have appeared in the literature describing methods forderiving stellar continuum fluxes as simple functions of Johnson colorindices. In previous papers, we have used similar relations to derive CaII H and K line core fluxes for dwarf stars on Lowell Observatory'sSolar-Stellar Spectrograph (SSS) program. Our desire is to present ourdata, and complementary data from the Mt. Wilson and National SolarObservatory stellar and solar programs, in terms of physical fluxes.However, our existing relations break down for mid-K and later stars andfor giant stars, which form an important element of our target list. Inthis work I have used a broader range of spectrophotometry and angulardiamters than in our previous work to derive empirical flux scales forspectral types A to early M, luminosity classes I to V, and for fourcolor indices, Johnson B-V, V-R, R-I, and Stromgren b-y. In this paper,I describe the methods I used and present the desired flux scales. Icompare the results with those from earlier studies and present examplesof the use of the flux scales. The data and results are available on theWorld Wide Web. (SECTION: Stars) Ca II H and K Filter Photometry on the UVBY System. II. The Catalog of ObservationsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....109.2828T&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Old stellar populations. 5: Absorption feature indices for the complete LICK/IDS sample of starsTwenty-one optical absorption features, 11 of which have been previouslydefined, are automatically measured in a sample of 460 stars. FollowingGorgas et al., the indices are summarized in fitting functions that giveindex strengths as functions of stellar temperature, gravity, and(Fe/H). This project was carried out with the purpose of predictingindex strengths in the integrated light of stellar populations ofdifferent ages and metallicities, but the data should be valuable forstellar studies in the Galaxy as well. Several of the new indices appearto be promising indicators of metallicity for old stellar populations. Acomplete list of index data and atmospheric parameters is available incomputer-readable form.
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