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Physical parameters and wind properties of galactic early B supergiants
We present optical studies of the physical and wind properties, plus CNOchemical abundances, of 25 O9.5-B3 Galactic supergiants. We employnon-LTE, line blanketed, extended model atmospheres, which provide amodest downward revision in the effective temperature scale of early Bsupergiants of up to 1-2 kK relative to previous non-blanketed results.The so-called "bistability jump" at B1 (Teff ˜ 21 kK)from Lamers et al. is rather a more gradual trend (with large scatter)from v&infy;/vesc˜3.4 for B0-0.5 supergiantsabove 24 kK to v&infy;/vesc˜ 2.5 for B0.7-1supergiants with 20 kK ≤ Teff ≤ 24 kK, andv&infy;/vesc˜ 1.9 for B1.5-3 supergiants below20 kK. This, in part, explains the break in observed UV spectralcharacteristics between B0.5 and B0.7 subtypes as discussed by Walbornet al. We compare derived (homogeneous) wind densities with recentresults for Magellanic Cloud B supergiants and generally confirmtheoretical expectations for stronger winds amongst Galacticsupergiants. However, winds are substantially weaker than predictionsfrom current radiatively driven wind theory, especially at mid-Bsubtypes, a problem which is exacerbated if winds are already clumped inthe Hα line forming region. In general, CNO elemental abundancesreveal strongly processed material at the surface of Galactic Bsupergiants, with mean N/C and N/O abundances 10 and 5 times higher thanthe Solar value, respectively, with HD 2905 (BC0.7 Ia) indicating thelowest degree of processing in our sample, and HD 152236 (B1.5Ia+) the highest.

Correlation patterns between 11 diffuse interstellar bands and ultraviolet extinction
We relate the equivalent widths of 11 diffuse interstellar bands,measured in the spectra of 49 stars, to different colour excesses in theultraviolet. We find that most of the observed bands correlatepositively with the extinction in the neighbourhood of the2175-Åbump. Correlation with colour excesses in other parts of theextinction curve is more variable from one diffuse interstellar band toanother; we find that some diffuse bands (5797, 5850 and 6376 Å)correlate positively with the overall slope of the extinction curve,while others (5780 and 6284 Å) exhibit negative correlation. Wediscuss the implications of these results on the links between thediffuse interstellar band carriers and the properties of theinterstellar grains.

On the Nature of the LBV/WR Eclipsing Binary System HD 5980
HD 5980 is a multiple star system in the Small Magellanic Cloud thatunderwent a luminous blue variable-like eruption in 1993-1994. Theerupting star (star A) forms part of a close eclipsing binary whosecompanion's (star B) Wolf-Rayet nature has recently been questioned. Thedata analyzed in this paper cover the period 1979-2002, and support theWNE classification of star B. The orbital phase-dependent variations ofultraviolet Pabsorption lines imply that the wind speed of star A is1700-2200s-1 and that of star B is 2600-3100s-1. These allow an estimateof the wind-wind collision (wwc) shock cone geometry and line profilesfrom the wwc region. Given the assumed mass-loss rates, only a smallfraction of the observed emission line profiles may originate in the wwcregion. The star A+star B binary pair is likely the result of evolutionwith mass transfer and/or evolution with rapid rotation, and provides amagnificent opportunity for studying the processes that occur in massivemultiple systems at the stages of stellar evolution just prior to thesupernova event.

Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S Database
We have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

High-Resolution Observations of Interstellar Ca I Absorption-Implications for Depletions and Electron Densities in Diffuse Clouds
We present high-resolution (FWHM~0.3-1.5 km s-1) spectra,obtained with the AAT UHRF, the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m coudéspectrograph, and/or the KPNO coudé feed, of interstellar Ca Iabsorption toward 30 Galactic stars. Comparisons of the column densitiesof Ca I, Ca II, K I, and other species-for individual componentsidentified in the line profiles and also when integrated over entirelines of sight-yield information on relative electron densities anddepletions (dependent on assumptions regarding the ionizationequilibrium). There is no obvious relationship between the ratio N(CaI)/N(Ca II) [equal to ne/(Γ/αr) forphotoionization equilibrium] and the fraction of hydrogen in molecularform f(H2) (often taken to be indicative of the local densitynH). For a smaller sample of sight lines for which thethermal pressure (nHT) and local density can be estimated viaanalysis of the C I fine-structure excitation, the average electrondensity inferred from C, Na, and K (assuming photoionizationequilibrium) seems to be independent of nH andnHT. While the electron density (ne) obtained fromthe ratio N(Ca I)/N(Ca II) is often significantly higher than the valuesderived from other elements, the patterns of relative nederived from different elements show both similarities and differencesfor different lines of sight-suggesting that additional processesbesides photoionization and radiative recombination commonly andsignificantly affect the ionization balance of heavy elements in diffuseinterstellar clouds. Such additional processes may also contribute tothe (apparently) larger than expected fractional ionizations(ne/nH) found for some lines of sight withindependent determinations of nH. In general, inclusion of``grain-assisted'' recombination does reduce the inferred ne,but it does not reconcile the ne estimated from differentelements; it may, however, suggest some dependence of ne onnH. The depletion of calcium may have a much weakerdependence on density than was suggested by earlier comparisons with CHand CN. Two appendices present similar high-resolution spectra of Fe Ifor a few stars and give a compilation of column density data for Ca I,Ca II, Fe I, and S I.

A Method for Simultaneous Determination of AV and R and Applications
A method for the simultaneous determination of the interstellarextinction (AV) and of the ratio of total to selectiveextinction (R), derived from the 1989 Cardelli, Clayton, & Mathisfitting of the interstellar extinction law, is presented and applied toa set of 1900 color excesses derived from observations of stars inUBVRIJHKL. The method is used to study the stability of AVand R within selected regions in Perseus, Scorpius, Monoceros, Orion,Sagittarius, Ophiuchus, Carina, and Serpens. Analysis shows that R isapproximately constant and peculiar to each sector, with mean valuesthat vary from 3.2 in Perseus to 5.6 in Ophiuchus. These results aresimilar to published values by Aiello et al., He et al., Vrba &Rydgren, O'Donnell, and Cardelli, Clayton, & Mathis.

The total-to-selective extinction ratio determined from near IR photometry of OB stars
The paper presents an extensive list of the total to selectiveextinction ratios R calculated from the infrared magnitudes of 597 O andB stars using the extrapolation method. The IR magnitudes of these starswere taken from the literature. The IR colour excesses are determinedwith the aid of "artificial standards" - Wegner (1994). The individualand mean values of total to selective extinction ratios R differ in mostcases from the average value R=3.10 +/-0.05 - Wegner (1993) in differentOB associations. The relation between total to selective extinctionratios R determined in this paper and those calculated using the "methodof variable extinction" and the Cardelli et al. (1989) formulae isdiscussed. The R values presented in this paper can be used to determineindividual absolute magnitudes of reddened OB stars with knowntrigonometric parallaxes.

Merged catalogue of reflection nebulae
Several catalogues of reflection nebulae are merged to create a uniformcatalogue of 913 objects. It contains revised coordinates,cross-identifications of nebulae and stars, as well as identificationswith IRAS point sources.The catalogue is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/399/141

New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

Chemical composition of B-type supergiants in the OB 8, OB 10, OB 48, OB 78 associations of M 31
Absolute and differential chemical abundances are presented for thelargest group of massive stars in M 31 studied to date. These resultswere derived from intermediate resolution spectra of seven B-typesupergiants, lying within four OB associations covering a galactocentricdistance of 5-12 kpc. The results are mainly based on an LTE analysis,and we additionally present a full non-LTE, unified model atmosphereanalysis of one star (OB 78-277) to demonstrate the reliability of thedifferential LTE technique. A comparison of the stellar oxygen abundancewith that of previous nebular results shows that there is an offset ofbetween ~ 0.15-0.4 dex between the two methods which is criticallydependent on the empirical calibration adopted for the R_23 parameterwith [O/H]. However within the typical errors of the stellar and nebularanalyses (and given the strength of dependence of the nebular results onthe calibration used) the oxygen abundances determined in each methodare fairly consistent. We determine the radial oxygen abundance gradientfrom these stars, and do not detect any systematic gradient across thisgalactocentric range. We find that the inner regions of M 31 are not, aspreviously thought, very ``metal rich''. Our abundances of C, N, O, Mg,Si, Al, S and Fe in the M 31 supergiants are very similar to those ofmassive stars in the solar neighbourhood.

The evolutionary status of Sher 25 - implications for blue supergiants and the progenitor of SN 1987A
The blue supergiant Sher 25 in the massive Galactic cluster NGC 3603 issurrounded by a striking emission line nebula. The nebula contains anequatorial ring and probable bi-polar outflows, and is similar inmorphology, mass and kinematics to the shell now visible around SN1987A. It has been suggested that both nebulae were ejected while Sher25 and the progenitor of SN 1987A were in previous red supergiantphases. In the case of Sher 25 this is based on the qualitativestrengths of nebular [N II] emission which is indicative of nitrogenenriched gas. This gas may have been dredged up to the stellar surfaceby convective mixing during a previous red supergiant phase. We presentoptical high-resolution spectra of Sher 25 and a model photosphere andunified stellar wind analysis which determines the atmosphericparameters, mass-loss rate and photospheric abundances for C, N, O, Mg,and Si. We compare these results, in particular CNO, to other GalacticB-type supergiants and find that Sher 25 does not appear extreme orabnormal in terms of its photospheric nitrogen abundance. The C/N andN/O ratios are compared to surface abundances predicted by stellarevolutionary calculations which assume the star has gone through a redsupergiant phase and convective dredge-up. In particular we find thatthe N/O abundance is incompatible with the star having a previous redsupergiant phase, and that the nebulae is likely to have been ejectedwhile the star was a blue supergiant. The results are compatible withsome degree of rotationally induced mixing having occurred while thestar was on or near the main-sequence. This is similar to what hasrecently been found for nebulae surrounding LBVs. In addition our windanalysis suggests the star currently has a relatively normal mass-lossrate in comparison with other Galactic B-type supergiants and sitscomfortably within the wind momentum-luminosity relationship. In lightof the evidence regarding massive evolved early-type stars in the Galaxywe suggest there is no object which shows any evidence of having had aprevious red supergiant phase and hence of undergoing blue loops in theHR diagram.

The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectra
We present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033

Far-ultraviolet extinction and diffuse interstellar bands
We relate the equivalent widths of the major diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) near 5797 and 5780Å with different colour excesses,normalized by E(B-V), which characterize the growth of interstellarextinction in different wavelength ranges. It is demonstrated that thetwo DIBs correlate best with different parts of the extinction curve,and the ratio of these diffuse bands is best correlated with thefar-ultraviolet (UV) rise. A number of peculiar lines of sight are alsofound, indicating that the carriers of some DIBs and the far-UVextinction can be separated in certain environments, e.g. towards thePer OB2 association.

The problem of C7- as source of diffuse interstellar bands revisited
We used spectra of several bright, reddened stars, most of them likelyto be obscured by individual interstellar clouds, to examine theproposition that C7- may carry several diffuseinterstellar bands (DIBs) (Tulej et al. 1998). To search for the broadfeatures of the C7- B <- X system we used lowresolution, very high S/N spectra, but even in heavily reddened objectsthe predicted bands remain undetectable. High resolution (R=80 000)spectra prove that the diffuse bands, found in close vicinity of narrowlines belonging to the A <- X system, show variable strength ratiosfrom object to object which proves that they are not of the same origin.The paper brings thus evidence that the C7-molecule does not cause any of the detected DIBs.

Multicomponent radiatively driven stellar winds. II. Gayley-Owocki heating in multitemperature winds of OB stars
We show that the so-called Gayley-Owocki (Doppler) heating is importantfor the temperature structure of the wind of main sequence stars coolerthan the spectral type O6. The formula for Gayley-Owocki heating isderived directly from the Boltzmann equation as a direct consequence ofthe dependence of the driving force on the velocity gradient. SinceGayley-Owocki heating deposits heat directly on the absorbing ions, wealso investigated the possibility that individual components of theradiatively driven stellar wind have different temperatures. This effectis negligible in the wind of O stars, whereas a significant temperaturedifference takes place in the winds of main sequence B stars for starscooler than B2. Typical temperature differences between absorbing ionsand other flow components for such stars is of the order 103K. However, in the case when the passive component falls back onto thestar, the absorbing component reaches temperatures of order106 K, which allows for emission of X-rays. Moreover, wecompare our computed terminal velocities with the observed ones. Wefound quite good agreement between predicted and observed terminalvelocities. The systematic difference coming from the using of the socalled ``cooking formula'' has been removed.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Narrow Diffuse Interstellar Bands: A Survey with Precise Wavelengths
We present an atlas of 271 diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) between4460 and 8800 Å based on echelle spectra (R=45,000), of which morethan 100 are new DIBs discovered in this survey. The atlas is restrictedmostly to narrow features, and we describe the tests for an interstellarorigin. The rest wavelength of each DIB was determined in a high-qualitycomposite spectrum of the star HD 23180 using the interstellar Na I (D1and D2) lines to establish the radial velocity of the single interveningcloud. DIB wavelengths are quoted to 0.01 Å and are probablyaccurate to ~0.1 Å. Other, weak DIBs found in the spectra ofheavily reddened stars are included with a lower wavelength precision.

On the identification of the C60+ interstellar features
The identity of the carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) isone of the most fascinating puzzles of modern spectroscopy. Over thelast few years the number of known DIBs has grown substantially. In thispaper we discuss the two recently discovered near-infrared weakinterstellar features which have already been proposed as fingerprintsof the buckminsterfullerene [formmu2] We present and discussmeasurements of the two related DIBs within a larger sample of reddenedtargets, observed with different spectrometers, telescopes and siteconditions. We provide additional arguments in favour of theinterstellar origin of the two bands. We find evidence around the9577-Å DIB of far-wing structures, which may affect broad-bandmeasurements. We estimate corrections and errors for telluric andstellar blends, and show that the cores of the two DIBs are wellcorrelated with a ratio near unity within 20per cent. Finally, wediscuss their relation to the laboratory spectra of [formmu3] and thesearch for two expected weaker [formmu4] transitions.

The Search for Interstellar C60
The optical region of a number of reddened O-type stars has beenexamined on Keck I HIRES spectrograms (R=45,000) for evidence ofinterstellar C60. No absorption features were detected nearthe laboratory C60 wavelengths 3857 and 3980 Å. Aninterstellar feature is present at 6220.8 Å, but it isunacceptably far from the laboratory gas-phase wavelength of 6217.5Å. It is probably just another of the weak diffuse interstellarbands (DIBs), which are numerous in that spectral region. The mostastronomically promising C60 feature was measured in thelaboratory at 3284 Å in liquid or solid matrices. Its gas-phasewavelength can be inferred either from matrix shifts of C60features at longer wavelengths or from high-temperature gas-phasemeasurements. On that evidence, the interstellar feature could fallanywhere between about 3244 and 3306 Å. Its width is uncertain buthere is taken to be about 1 Å . No interstellar absorption fittingthese specifications and as strong as 16 mÅ has been detected inthe stars observed, including Cyg OB2/8A of E(B-V)=1.60. It follows thatin that particular line of sight and for the assumed FWHM of 1 Å ,N(C60)<4.5×1011 cm-2. However,some recent laboratory spectroscopy suggests that its width may be verymuch larger, in which case this limit would be invalid. At this upperlimit, the corresponding number of carbon atoms contained in neutralC60 indicates that that molecule would be only a minorcontributor to the total amount of C in that direction, and would beless than 1% of the amount that may be tied up in the DIBs. StrongerC60 bands are known in the laboratory at approximately 2110and 2566 Å, but the upper limit on 3284 Å suggests that theywill not be easy to detect without high resolution, high signal-to-noiseratio (S/N) satellite spectroscopy and better laboratory gas-phasewavelengths. An estimate of the column density ofC+60, under the assumption that the 9577, 9632Å bands are indeed due to C+60 and that thelaboratory f-value is correct, indicates that theC+60/C60 abundance in that line ofsight is greater than 100.

Gas-Phase Electronic Spectra of Carbon-Chain Radicals Compared with Diffuse Interstellar Band Observations
This paper compares laboratory gas-phase spectra of neutral and cationiclinear carbon-chain radicals with astronomical diffuse interstellar band(DIB) spectra. The origin bands of the strong electronic transitions ofthe studied species, C2nH (n=3-6),HC2nH+ (n=2-4), NC2n-2N+(n=3, 4), do not coincide with detectable DIBs, except forHC2n-1N+ (n=3), which possibly matches a weakfeature. It is concluded that the column densities of these speciesthrough the observed diffuse clouds are below 2x1012cm-2. The profile change and the shift of the maxima of theabsorption bands with temperature are illustrated. The relation toradio-astronomical detection of carbon chains in diffuse media is alsodiscussed.

B Stars as a Diagnostic of Star Formation at Low and High Redshift
We have extended the evolutionary synthesis models by Leitherer et al.by including a new library of B stars generated from the IUEhigh-dispersion spectra archive. We present the library and show how thestellar spectral properties vary according to luminosity classes andspectral types. We have generated synthetic UV spectra for prototypicalyoung stellar populations varying the IMF and the star formation law.Clear signs of age effects are seen in all models. The contribution of Bstars in the UV line spectrum is clearly detected, in particular forgreater ages when O stars have evolved. With the addition of the newlibrary we are able to investigate the fraction of stellar andinterstellar contributions and the variation in the spectral shapes ofintense lines. We have used our models to date the spectrum of the localsuper-star cluster NGC 1705-1. Photospheric lines of C III λ1247,Si III λ1417, and S V λ1502 were used as diagnostics todate the burst of NGC 1705-1 at 10 Myr. Interstellar lines are clearlyseen in the NGC 1705-1 spectrum. Broadening and blueshifts of severalresonance lines are stronger in the galaxy spectrum than in our modelsand are confirmed to be intrinsic of the galaxy. Si II λ1261 andAl II λ1671 were found to be pure interstellar lines with anaverage blueshift of 78 km s-1 owing to a directed outflow ofthe interstellar medium. We have selected the star-forming galaxy1512-cB58 as a first application of the new models to high-z galaxies.This galaxy is at z=2.723, it is gravitationally lensed, and its highsignal-to-noise ratio Keck spectrum shows features typical of localstarburst galaxies, such as NGC 1705-1. Models with continuous starformation were found to be more adequate for 1512-cB58 since there arespectral features typical of a composite stellar population of O and Bstars. A model with Z=0.4 Zsolar and an IMF with α=2.8reproduces the stellar features of the 1512-cB58 spectrum.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands: A Survey
We discuss the proposal relating the origin of some of the diffuseinterstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) present in interstellar clouds. Laboratory spectraof several PAHs, isolated at low temperature in inert gas matrices, arecompared with the spectra of five reddened early-type stars selectedfrom an extensive set of astronomical spectra. From this comparison, itis concluded that PAH ions are good candidates to explain some of theDIBs. Unambiguous assignments are difficult, however, because of theshift in wavelengths and the band broadening induced in the laboratoryspectra by the solid matrix. This situation is illustrated by acomparison with the gas-phase spectra made available recently for twoPAH ions. Definitive band assignments and, ultimately, the test of theproposal that PAH ions carry some of the DIBs must await theavailability of a larger set of gas-phase measurements in thelaboratory. The present assessment offers a guideline for futurelaboratory experiments by allowing the preselection of promising PAHmolecules to be studied in jet expansions.

Empirical calibration of the lambda 4000 Å break
Empirical fitting functions, describing the behaviour of the lambda 4000Ä break, D4000, in terms of effective temperature,metallicity and surface gravity, are presented. For this purpose, thebreak has been measured in 392 stars from the Lick/IDS Library. We havefollowed a very detailed error treatment in the reduction and fittingprocedures, allowing for a reliable estimation of the breakuncertainties. This calibration can be easily incorporated into stellarpopulation models to provide accurate predictions of the break amplitudefor, relatively old, composite systems. Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Catalogue of H-alpha emission stars in the Northern Milky Way
The ``Catalogue of Stars in the Northern Milky Way Having H-alpha inEmission" appears in Abhandlungen aus der Hamburger Sternwarte, Band XIin the year 1997. It contains 4174 stars, range {32degr <= l() II< 214degr , -10degr < b() II < +10degr } having the Hαline in emission. HBH stars and stars of further 99 lists taken from theliterature till the end of 1994 were included in the catalogue. We givethe cross-identification of stars from all lists used. The catalogue isalso available in the Centre de Données, Strasbourg ftp130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr and at the HamburgObservatory via internet.

Interstellar C_2 absorption lines towards CH+ forming regions
Interstellar C_2 absorption line observations towards the southern OBassociations NGC 2439, Vela OB1, and Cen OB1 are used to infergaskinetic temperatures Tkin and densities nctowards lines of sight with previously determined large CH andCH+ column densities. Towards NGC 2439, the material ischaracterised by temperatures of Tkin = 75-85 K and densitiesexceeding nc > 1000 C_2m, and a fractional C_2 abundanceof about x(C_2) = 1.5 10-8. Temperatures and densitiesinferred towards two stars in Vela OB1 are Tkin = 65-85 K andnc >= 600 C_2m. C_2 fractional abundances in the cloudcomplex obscuring Vela OB1 are about half the value found in NGC 2439.For the lines of sight towards Cen OB1, values of Tkin =70-95 K and fractional abundances of x(C_2) ~ 5 10-9 arefound, and towards HD 114213, Tkin = 25 K and nc =400+/-100 C_2m. The observations demonstrate that C_2 resides in coolgas at temperature of Tkin < 100 K. The C_2 columndensities are correlated with those of CH, which is expected fromtheoretical models. This suggests that CH is efficiently formed in thecool material as well, together with C_2. This finding does not supportexpectations from recent MHD and vortex models of CH+formation, which stipulate that neutrals such as CH are abundantlyproduced in hot regions of many 100 K temperature.

Galactic B-supergiants: A non-LTE model atmosphere analysis to estimate atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions
A non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of moderate resolution (R ~ 5 000)spectra of 46 Galactic B-type supergiants is presented. Standardtechniques are adopted, viz. plane-parallel geometry and radiative andhydrostatic equilibrium. Spectroscopic atmospheric parameters (T_eff,log g & v_turb) and chemical abundances (He, C, N, O, Mg & Si)are estimated, both as a test of the validity of such an approach and inan attempt to provide consistent results for supergiants covering asignificant range of spectral types. The values of the estimatedatmospheric parameters and their dependence on the physics adopted inthe model atmospheres calculations are discussed. The absolute metalabundances are compared to those of main sequence B-type stars and, ingeneral, their chemical compositions appear to be similar. Theabundances for He, C, N & O are considered in some detail and arediscussed in the context of possible evolutionary histories for thisstellar sample. Specifically, it is found that the supergiant sample canbe subdivided into a number of evolutionarily distinct groups. The lowermass objects are predominantly chemically near-normal i.e. theirphotospheres show little or no evidence for chemical processing, whereasthe higher mass supergiants have CNO ratios which are indicative of CNand possibly NO-cycle burning. An attempt is made to quantify thedifference in nitrogen and carbon abundances between the high and lowmass targets but this is hampered by theoretical uncertainties. Thepossibilities that the most highly processed supergiants may have eitherlarger rotational velocities or have undergone mass transfer within abinary system are discussed.

Suprathermal rotation of PAHs in the ISM II. Observational evidence for the rotational broadening of lambda 5797 DIB in reflection nebulae - implication for the carrier size
In a previous paper, we described a model which can explain thelambda5797 diffuse interstellar band (DIB) profile as seen in absorptionin the diffuse interstellar medium and in emission in the Red Rectangle(RR), as a rotational envelope of electronic transitions where themolecular carrier is a free PAH of size ~ 40 atoms. One of the strongestpredictions is the behaviour of the rotational temperature of PAH in thecase of regions rich in UV such as Reflection Nebulae: it must besuprathermal with respect to the gas temperature but clamped to ~ 100 Kfor any PAH size. The width of the DIB, in such regions, can then bebroader than in the classical ISM (T_rot ~ 30 K) if the values of themolecular transition are favorable. In order to test this prediction, wehave obtained high resolution spectra of 27 reddened early type stars,mostly in reflection nebulae, in order to compare their lambda 5797 DIBwidth to those of stars in classical diffuse interstellar medium. Thesespectra were made for several DIBs such as lambda 5797, lambda6379 andlambda6613 , with a spectral resolving power of about 60 000. Theanalysis of the results agrees with our predic tion since the width ofthe lambda 5797 DIB is broader in a majority of areas with strong UVradiation. Moreover, the broadening is not observed on DIBs lambda6379and lambda6613 , indicating that the molecular parameters of theelectronic transitions at the origin of the different DIBs are prettyvariable from one DIB to another and confirming that the measuredbroadening on lambda 5797 is not due to an instrumental bias. Thestatistical measurement of the lambda 5797 width in this medium permitsthe derivation of new constraints on the size of the carrier of thisDIB, a molecule that should have 30 to 45 carbon atoms if, as wepropose, it is indeed a PAH. Based on observations made at Observatoirede Haute Provence (CNRS), France.

On the relation between diffuse interstellar bands and simple molecular species
We present observations of the major diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs)at 5780 and 5797 Ä as well as literature data and our ownobservations of the violet lines of CH and CH(+) , in the lines of sighttoward some 70 stars representing various degrees of the interstellarreddening. The correlations are shown and discussed in the context ofindicators such as far-UV extinction parameters and neutral molecularabundances. The results show that the DIBs in question (lambda lambda5797 and 5780) both probably form in diffuse cloud interiors, in arelated regime where CH and H_2 form. The ratio of the two DIBscorrelates with CH abundance, confirming that the lambda 5797 carrier isfavoured in enhanced molecular gas regions over the lambda 5780 carrier.The ratio of the two DIBs correlates poorly with CH(+) abundance. Ourcompilation of observational data also suggests that the DIB ratio maybe equally useful as a cloud type indicator as is R_V, the ratio oftotal to selective extinction, and much more readily observed. Based onobservations obtained at the Russian Special Astrophysical Observatory(SAO), Terskol Observatory (TER), Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT),European Southern Observatory (ESO), Observatoire de Haute-Provence(OHP)

UBV beta Database for Case-Hamburg Northern and Southern Luminous Stars
A database of photoelectric UBV beta photometry for stars listed in theCase-Hamburg northern and southern Milky Way luminous stars surveys hasbeen compiled from the original research literature. Consisting of over16,000 observations of some 7300 stars from over 500 sources, thisdatabase constitutes the most complete compilation of such photometryavailable for intrinsically luminous stars around the Galactic plane.Over 5000 stars listed in the Case-Hamburg surveys still lackfundamental photometric data.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:20h04m36.10s
Apparent magnitude:5.64
Distance:4166.667 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-2.7
Proper motion Dec:-11.1
B-T magnitude:6.201
V-T magnitude:5.701

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 190603
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 2674-5840-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1200-14369413
BSC 1991HR 7678
HIPHIP 98863

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