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 A 2dF survey of the Small Magellanic CloudWe present a catalogue of new spectral types for hot, luminous stars inthe Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The catalogue contains 4161 objects,giving an order-of-magnitude increase in the number of SMC stars withpublished spectroscopic classifications. The targets are primarily B-and A-type stars (2862 and 853 objects respectively), with oneWolf-Rayet, 139 O-type and 306 FG stars, sampling the main sequence to~mid-B. The selection and classification criteria are described, andobjects of particular interest are discussed, including UV-selectedtargets from the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) experiment, Be andB[e] stars, anomalous A supergiants' and composite-spectrum systems. Weexamine the incidence of Balmer-line emission, and the relationshipbetween Hγ equivalent width and absolute magnitude for BA stars. The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. Characteristics and classification of A-type supergiants in the Small Magellanic CloudWe address the relationship between spectral type and physicalproperties for A-type supergiants in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC).First, we construct a self-consistent classification scheme for Asupergiants, employing the calcium K to Hɛ line ratio as atemperature-sequence discriminant. Following the precepts of the MKprocess', the same morphological criteria are applied to Galactic andSMC spectra, with the understanding that there may not be acorrespondence in physical properties between spectral counterparts indifferent environments. Then we discuss the temperature scale,concluding that A supergiants in the SMC are systematically cooler thantheir Galactic counterparts at the same spectral type, by up to ~10 percent. Considering the relative line strengths of Hγ and the CH Gband, we extend our study to F- and early G-type supergiants, for whichsimilar effects are found. We note the implications for analyses ofluminous extragalactic supergiants, for the flux-weightedgravity-luminosity relationship and for population synthesis studies inunresolved stellar systems. Toward an adequate method to isolate spectroscopic families of diffuse interstellar bandsWe divide some of the observed diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) intofamilies that appear to have the spectral structure of single species.Three different methods are applied to separate such families, exploringthe best approach for future investigations of this type. Starting witha statistical treatment of the data, we found that statistical methodsby themselves give insufficient results. Two other methods of dataanalysis (averaging equivalent widths' and investigating the figureswith arranged spectrograms') were found to be more useful as tools forfinding the spectroscopic families of DIBs. On the basis of thesemethods, we suggest some candidates as relatives' of 5780- and5797-Å bands. The association of IRAS sources and 12CO emission in the outer GalaxyWe have revisited the question of the association of CO emission withIRAS sources in the outer Galaxy using data from the FCRAO Outer GalaxySurvey (OGS). The availability of a large-scale high-resolution COsurvey allows us to approach the question of IRAS-CO associations from anew direction - namely we examined all of the IRAS sources within theOGS region for associated molecular material. By investigating theassociation of molecular material with random lines of sight in the OGSregion we were able to construct a quantitative means to judge thelikelihood that any given IRAS-CO association is valid and todisentangle multiple emission components along the line of sight. Thepaper presents a list of all of the IRAS-CO associations in the OGSregion. We show that, within the OGS region, there is a significantincrease ( ~ 22%) in the number of probable star forming regions overprevious targeted CO surveys towards IRAS sources. As a demonstration ofthe utility of the IRAS-CO association table we present the results ofthree brief studies on candidate zone-of-avoidance galaxies with IRAScounterparts, far outer Galaxy CO clouds, and very bright CO clouds withno associated IRAS sources. We find that ~ 25% of such candidate ZOAGsare Galactic objects. We have discovered two new far outer Galaxystar-forming regions, and have discovered six bright molecular cloudsthat we believe are ideal targets for the investigation of the earlieststages of sequential star formation around HII regions. Finally, thispaper provides readers with the necessary data to compare othercatalogued data sets with the OGS data.Tables 1, 2 and A1 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/399/1083 Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 A possible sets of diffuse bands originating at the same carrierThis paper discusses measurements of eight selected diffuse interstellarbands (DIBs): lambda lambda 5793, 5809, 5819, 5828, 6196, 6397, 6614 and6660 performed in high resolution, high S/N spectra of 41 reddenedstars. Central depths, considered less error-prone than equivalentwidths, are measured and mutual correlations between the selected DIBsare analyzed. Tight correlations between the DIBs: 5809, 6196, 6614 and6660 may suggest their common origin despite their widths differing by afactor of up to 2. The performed simulations prove that this fact doesnot preclude a common, molecular carrier of such features. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 CCD spectra of MK standards and a preliminary extension of the MK classification to the yellow-red region.Not Available Understanding A-type supergiants. I. Ultraviolet and visible spectral atlasThis paper is the first of a series whose aim is to perform a systematicstudy of A-type supergiant atmospheres and winds. Here we present aspectral atlas of 41 A-supergiants observed by us in high and mediumresolution in the visible and ultraviolet. The atlas consists ofprofiles of the Hα , Hβ , Hγ , Hdelta , Hepsilon , CaII (H and K), Na I (D1 and D2), Mg II4481, Mg II [uv1] and FeII [uv1, uv2, uv3, uv62, uv63, uv161] lines for 41 stars with spectraltypes ranging from B9 to A9 and luminosity classes Ia, Iab and Ib, andprovides the basic data for a thoughtful study of these stars. Theoverall characteristics of the sample as well as the data reductionprocedures are described. We also present some examples of spectralvariability. Figures 1-3 are only available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com} of A-type supergiants\fnmsep\thanks{Based onobservations made with the INT and JKT telescopes operated on the islandof La Palma by the RGO in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de LosMuchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, with the 2.2~mtelescope at Calar Alto Observatory, Spain, with the Bernard Lyot 2~mtelescope at Pic Du Midi Observatory, France and observations collectedat the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. Catalogue of H-alpha emission stars in the Northern Milky WayThe Catalogue of Stars in the Northern Milky Way Having H-alpha inEmission" appears in Abhandlungen aus der Hamburger Sternwarte, Band XIin the year 1997. It contains 4174 stars, range {32degr <= l() II< 214degr , -10degr < b() II < +10degr } having the Hαline in emission. HBH stars and stars of further 99 lists taken from theliterature till the end of 1994 were included in the catalogue. We givethe cross-identification of stars from all lists used. The catalogue isalso available in the Centre de Données, Strasbourg ftp130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr and at the HamburgObservatory via internet. On correlations between diffuse interstellar bandsOne way to better apprehend the problem of diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) is to search for correlations between the bands in a large sampleof spectra towards various lines of sight: a strict correlation mayimply that a common carrier is at the origin of the bands, whereas anon-correlation means that different species are involved. We proposethis observational test for 10 DIBs collected in up to 62 Galactic linesof sight. Strong DIBs do not strictly correlate, and sometimes thecorrelation is very poor. Only one example of a strict correlation hasbeen found in our sample between the DIBs at 6614 and 6196 Ä, thatcould signify a single carrier for those two bands. The general absenceof strict correlations is discussed in the context of molecular carriersfor the DIBs. The wind momentum-luminosity relationship of galactic A- and B-supergiantsThe Balmer lines of four A Ia-supergiants (spectral type A0 to A3) andfourteen B Ia and Ib-supergiants (spectral type B0 to B3) in the solarneighbourhood are analyzed by means of NLTE unified model atmospheres todetermine the properties of their stellar winds, in particular theirwind momenta. As in previous work for O-stars (Puls et al. \cite{pul96})a tight relationship between stellar wind momentum and luminosity(WLR'') is found. However, the WLR varies as function of spectraltype. Wind momenta are strongest for O-supergiants, then decrease fromearly B (B0 and B1) to mid B (B1.5 to B3) spectral types and becomestronger again for A-supergiants. The slope of the WLR appears to besteeper for A- and mid B-supergiants than for O-supergiants. Thespectral type dependence is interpreted as an effect of ionizationchanging the effective number and the line strength distributionfunction of spectral lines absorbing photon momentum around the stellarflux maximum. This interpretation needs to be confirmed by theoreticalcalculations for radiation driven winds. The Pistol-Star'' in theGalactic Centre, an extreme mid B-hypergiant recently identified as oneof the most luminous stars (Figer et al. \cite{fig99}) is found tocoincide with the extrapolation of the mid B-supergiant WLR towardshigher luminosities. However, the wind momentum of the Luminous BlueVariable P Cygni, a mid B-supergiant with extremely strong mass-loss, is1.2 dex higher than the WLR of the `normal'' supergiants. Thissignificant difference is explained in terms of the well-known stellarwind bi-stability of supergiants very close to the Eddinton-limit inthis particular range of effective temperatures. A-supergiants in M31observed with HIRES at the Keck telescope have wind momenta compatiblewith their galactic counterparts. The potential of the WLR as a new,independent extragalactic distance indicator is discussed. It isconcluded that with ten to twenty objects, photometry with HST andmedium resolution spectroscopy with 8m-telescopes from the grounddistance moduli can be obtained with an accuracy of about 0fm1 out tothe Virgo and Fornax clusters of galaxies. Understanding A-type supergiants. II. Atmospheric parameters and rotational velocities of Galactic A-type supergiantsWe present the second paper of a series whose aim is to perform a globalstudy of Galactic A-supergiants. Very little work has been carried outto determine the stellar parameters of these stars. This is illustratedwith a brief review of some previous works. In this paper we analyze thedetermination of absolute magnitudes, spectral types and atmosphericparameters using the most recent Kurucz LTE blanketed model atmospheresand we discuss the applicability of the calibrations, such as theSchmidt-Kaler's (\cite{Sch-K}) calibration. Rotation is also animportant parameter in A-supergiants but their rotational velocities arepoorly known. We have calculated projected rotational velocities fromthe Fourier analysis of the observed Mg II (4481 Ä) line. Based onobservations made with the INT and JKT telescopes operated on the islandof La Palma by the RGO in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de LosMuchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, with the 2.2mtelescope at Calar Alto Observatory, Spain, with the Bernard Lyot 2mtelescope at Pic Du Midi Observatory, France and observations collectedat the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile UBV beta Database for Case-Hamburg Northern and Southern Luminous StarsA database of photoelectric UBV beta photometry for stars listed in theCase-Hamburg northern and southern Milky Way luminous stars surveys hasbeen compiled from the original research literature. Consisting of over16,000 observations of some 7300 stars from over 500 sources, thisdatabase constitutes the most complete compilation of such photometryavailable for intrinsically luminous stars around the Galactic plane.Over 5000 stars listed in the Case-Hamburg surveys still lackfundamental photometric data. On the Variability of Early A-Type SupergiantsAn examination of the Hipparcos photometry of 26 bright early A-typesupergiants shows that they are all variable. Catalogue of stars in the northern Milky Way having H-alpha in emissionNot Available Radiation driven wind models for A, F and G supergiants.We investigate the effects of radiation pressure on the atmospheres ofA, F and G-supergiants by calculating hydrodynamical model atmospheresfor stars with 5500<=T_eff_<=9500K. In the subsonic part of thewind, the radiation pressure by continuum and lines from Kurucz (1992,ATLAS 6 program) is taken into account. In the supersonic part of thewind, the radiation pressure is expressed in terms of the forcemultiplier formalism (Castor et al. 1975ApJ...195..157C) with thecorrection for the finite disk taken into account. The temperaturestructure is from the T(τ) relation of blanketed model atmospheres.The predicted mass loss rates of the A-supergiants agrees excellentlywith the observed values. However the predicted terminal velocities areabout a factor 3 higher than observed. We discuss several possiblecauses for this discrepancy. The most likely one is a change in theforce multiplier parameter α of the line radiation force fromabout 0.5 in the lower parts of the wind to a much smaller value ofabout 0.1 throughout most of the wind. This might be the result of achange in the ionization of the wind with distance, or a decoupling ofthe line driven ions in the wind from the ambient gas. The predictedmass loss rate of the G-type supergiant 22Vul, which is the onlyG-supergiant with a reliable mass loss rate, is a factor 10^5^ smallerthan observed. This is probably due to the fact that G-supergiants havechromospheres, which were not taken into account in our model. Ourmodels for F-supergiants could not be compared with observations becausethere are no reliable empirical mass loss rates or terminal windvelocities for normal F-supergiants. The F-supergiants ρCas andHR8752 have highly variable mass loss rates which obviously cannot beexplained by our models. We conclude that mass loss from A-typesupergiants is most likely due to a line driven wind but that the massloss from G-supergiants is not. It is interesting to find the spectraltype between F0 and G3 where the radiation driven wind models break downand to compare that with the type where the chromospheres becomenoticeable. The high opacity in the hydrogen ionization zone produces anet outward force in those layers. This gives rise to a pressureinversion in the subsonic part of the atmosphere, but does not lead tohigh mass loss rates. A Spectral Atlas of Hot, Luminous Stars at 2 MicronsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJS..107..281H&db_key=AST The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST Terminal Velocities and the Bistability of Stellar WindsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...455..269L&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. An atlas of ultraviolet P Cygni profilesWe have selected spectra of 232 stars from the International UltravioletExplorer (IUE) archives for inclusion in an atlas intended for varioususes but tailored especially for the study of stellar winds. The atlascovers the range in spectral types from O3 to F8. The full atlas coversthe reduced and normalized high resolution spectra from the IUE long-and short-wavelength spectrographs. Here we discuss the selection of thestars and the data reduction, and we present in velocity units theprofiles of lines formed in the stellar winds. The selected lines covera wide range of ionizations, allowing a comparison of the profiles fromdifferent ions in the wind of each star and a comparison of thedifferent wind lines as a function spectral type and luminosity. We alsopresent the basic data on the program stars to facilitate study of thedependence of wind features on stellar parameters such as luminosity,temperature, escape velocity, and v sin i. We provide an overview of thecharacteristic behavior of the wind lines in the H-R diagram. Thecomplete spectra are available in digital form through the NASAAstrophysics Data System (ADS). We offer a description of the electronicdatabase that is available through the ADS and guidelines for obtainingaccess to that database. Calibrations of Mv, (Fe/H), and log G for yellow supergiant stars from O I 7774 and uvby-beta dataNew calibrations of the absolute magnitude Mv from O I 7774data are derived from narrow-band photometry and low dispersionspectroscopy for AO-G2 low and high luminosity stars. The nonlineardependence of Mv from the equivalent width W(OI) and therelevance of the stellar temperature in the calibration are confirmed inagreement with previous calibrations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopy. Also functional formulas to estimate (Fe/H) and log g fromuvby-beta data for FO-G3 supergiants are offered. These calibrationspredict iron abundances and gravities for yellow supergiants withuncertainties not much higher than good spectroscopic determinations. Groups of stars with common motion in the Galaxy. Groups of O and B starsNot Available Galactic OB associations in the northern Milky Way Galaxy. I - Longitudes 55 deg to 150 degThe literature on all OB associations was reviewed, and their IRAS pointsource content was studied, between galactic longitude 55 and 150 deg.Only one third of the 24 associations listed by Ruprecht et al. (1981)have been the subject of individual studies designed to identify thebrightest stars. Distances to all of these were recomputed using themethod of cluster fitting of the B main sequence stars, which makes itpoossible to reexamine the absolute magnitude calibration of the Ostars, as well as for the red supergiant candidate stars. Also examinedwas the composite HR diagram for these associations. Associations withthe best defined main sequences, which also tend to contain very youngclusters, referred to here as OB clusters, have extremely few evolved Band A or red supergiants. Associations with poorly defined mainsequences and few OB clusters have many more evolved stars. They alsoshow an effect in the upper HR diagram referred to as a ledge byFitzpatrick and Garmany (1990) in similar data for the Large MagellanicCloud. It is suggested that the differences in the associations are notjust observational selection effects but represent real differences inage and formation history. Luminosities of yellow supergiants from near-infrared spectra - Calibration through Magellanic Cloud starsThe possibility of using medium resolution spectrograms in the nearinfrared region to determine luminosities of A-G supergiants has beenexplored. A sample of 49 of these stars has been observed in the twoMagellanic Clouds, and using the intensities of the O I 7774 triplet andan index (CP), which is a combination of the Ca II triplet and Paschenlines intensities, a preliminary luminosity calibration, based on LMCstars, has been obtained. Such a calibration predicts reliableluminosities for Galactic supergiants, and offers the advantage of beingcompletely reddening independent. The reddening free CP index combinedwith BVRI color indices has also been used to estimate the interstellarreddenings of Magellanic Cloud stars. CA II H and K measurements made at Mount Wilson Observatory, 1966-1983Summaries are presented of the photoelectric measurements of stellar CaII H and K line intensity made at Mount Wilson Observatory during theyears 1966-1983. These results are derived from 65,263 individualobservations of 1296 stars. For each star, for each observing season,the maximum, minimum, mean, and variation of the instrumental H and Kindex 'S' are given, as well as a measurement of the accuracy ofobservation. A total of 3110 seasonal summaries are reported. Factorswhich affect the ability to detect stellar activity variations andaccurately measure their amplitudes, such as the accuracy of the H and Kmeasurements and scattered light contamination, are discussed. Relationsare given which facilitate intercomparison of 'S' values with residualintensities derived from ordinary spectrophotometry, and for convertingmeasurements to absolute fluxes. The diffuse interstellar bands. VIII - New features between 6000 and 8650 ATwenty-two new diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) have been discovered onhigh signal-to-noise Reticon scans of reddened O- and B-type stars inthe 5840-8650 A region, with special attention being given to HD 183143(B7 Ia). Most of the new DIBs occur in regions masked by atmospheric O2and H2O. Attempts to find DIBs at positions expected for a transition inthe (hypothetical) spectrum of interstellar H(-), and at wavelengths oflines in the laboratory spectrum of Cr(3+):MgO, were inconclusive. Asystematic search was made in the wavenumbers of the 105 DIBs now knownfor vibrational sequences of the type 0 to v-prime; none of those foundare very convincing. The large number of DIBs now known, far more thanwould be expected in the spectrum of a single species at interstellartemperatures, must mean that a substantial number of different carriersare responsible for the DIB spectrum.
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