Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

η Aur (Haedus II)



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Computed Hβ indices from ATLAS9 model atmospheres
Aims.Grids of Hβ indices based on updated (new-ODF) ATLAS9 modelatmospheres were computed for solar and scaled solar metallicities[+0.5], [+0.2], [0.0], [ -0.5] , [ -1.0] , [ -1.5] , [ -2.0] , [ -2.5]and for α enhanced compositions [+0.5a], [0.0a], [ -0.5a] , [-1.0a] , [ -1.5a] , [ -2.0a] , [ -2.5a] , and [ -4.0a] . Methods:.Indices for T_eff > 5000 K were computed with the same methods asdescribed by Lester et al. (1986, LGK86) except for a differentnormalization of the computed natural system to the standard system.LGK86 used special ODFs to compute the fluxes. For T_eff ≤ 5000 K wecomputed the fluxes using the synthetic spectrum method. In order toassess the accuracy of the computed indices comparisons were made withthe indices computed by Smalley & Dworetsky (1995, A&A, 293,446, MD95) and with the empirical relations T_eff-Hβ given byAlonso et al. (1996, A&A, 313, 873) for several metallicities.Furthermore, for cool stars, temperatures inferred from the computedindices were compared with those of the fundamental stars listed byMD95. The same kind of comparison was made between gravities for B-typestars. Results: .The temperatures from the computed indices are ingood agreement, within the error limits, with the literature values for4750 K ≤ T_eff ≤ 8000 K, while the gravities agree for T_eff> 9000 K. The computed Hβ indices for the Sun and for Procyonare very close to the observed values. The comparison between theobserved and computed Hβ indices as function of the observedHβ has shown a very small trend which almost completely disappearswhen only stars hotter than 10 000 K are considered. The trend due tothe cool stars is probably related with the low accuracy of thefundamental T_eff which are affected by large errors for most of thestars.

Some implications of the introduction of scattered starlight in the spectrum of reddened stars
This paper presents new investigations on coherent scattering in theforward direction (orders of magnitude; conservation of energy;dependence of scattered light on geometry and wavelength), and on howscattered light contamination in the spectrum of reddened stars ispossibly related to as yet unexplained observations (the diminution ofthe 2200 Å bump when the obscuring material is close to the star,the difference between Hipparcos and photometric distances). This paperthen goes on to discuss the fit of the extinction curve, a possible roleof extinction by the gas in the far-UV, and the reasons of theinadequacy of the Fitzpatrick and Massa [ApJSS, 72 (1990) 163] fit.

Determining the Physical Properties of the B Stars. II. Calibration of Synthetic Photometry
We present a new calibration of optical (UBV, Strömgren uvbyβ,and Geneva) and near-IR (Johnson RIJHK and Two Micron All Sky Survey)photometry for B and early A stars derived from Kurucz ATLAS9 modelatmospheres. Our sample of stars consists of 45 normal nearby B andearly A stars that have high-quality, low-resolution IUE spectra andaccurate Hipparcos parallaxes. The calibration is unique because itrelies only on the UV spectral energy distributions, the absolute fluxcalibration of the V filter, and the Hipparcos distances to determinethe appropriate model atmospheres for the program stars. These modelsare then used to calibrate the synthetic photometry. We compare ourresults with previous well-accepted results and provide a thoroughdiscussion of the random errors and systematic effects affecting thecalibration. In particular, we demonstrate the influence of vsini onsurface gravities derived from fitting model atmospheres. Finally, wediscuss some of our intended applications of this new calibration.

B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.

Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - III. An analysis of helium lines in spectra of 102 stars
Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of He I lines in spectraof 102 B stars is implemented in order to derive the helium abundanceHe/H, the microturbulent parameter Vt and the projectedrotation velocity v sini. A simultaneous determination of He/H andVt for the stars is effected by analysing equivalent widthsof the 4471- and 4922-Å lines primarily as indicators of He/H andthe 4713-, 5016-, 5876- and 6678-Å lines primarily as indicatorsof Vt. The rotation velocities v sini are found from profilesof the same lines. It is shown that, when Vt > 7 kms-1, the Vt(He I) values determined from He Ilines are systematically overestimated as compared with theVt(OII, NII) values derived from OII and NII lines. Thisdiscrepancy is especially appreciable for hot evolved B giants withVt(He I) = 16-23 km s-1 and may indicate a failureof classical model atmospheres to represent the strong He I lines forthese stars.Two programme stars, HR 1512 and 7651, are found to be helium-weakstars. The remaining 100 stars are divided into three groups accordingto their masses M. The microturbulent parameter Vt(He I) islow for all stars of group A (M= 4.1-6.9 Msolar) and for allstars with the relative ages t/tMS < 0.8 of group B (M=7.0-11.2 Msolar). Their Vt(He I) values are withinthe 0 to 5 km s-1 range, as a rule; the mean value isVt= 1.7 km s-1. Only evolved giants of group B,which are close to the termination of the main-sequence (MS)evolutionary phase (t/tMS > 0.8), show Vt(He I)up to 11 km s-1. The helium abundance He/H is correlated withthe relative age t/tMS in both groups; the averaged He/Henhancement during the MS phase is 26 per cent. For group C, containingthe most massive stars (M= 12.4-18.8 Msolar), theVt(He I) values display a correlation with t/tMS,varying from 4 to 23 km s-1. The He/H determination for hotevolved B giants of the group with Vt(He I) > 15 kms-1 depends on a choice between the Vt(He I) andVt(OII, NII) scales. The mean He/H enrichment by 67 per centduring the MS phase is found, if the abundances He/H are based on theVt(OII, NII) scale; however, two evolved giants withespecially high v sini, HR 7446 and 7993, show the He/H enhancement byabout a factor of 2.5. When using the same Vt scale, we founda trend of He/H with projected rotational velocities v sini a largedispersion for v sini > 150 km s-1 can result fromdifferences in masses M.A comparison with the stellar model computations with rotationallyinduced mixing shows that the observed helium enrichment during the MSphase can be explained by rotation with initial velocities 250-400 kms-1. The He/H distribution on M and v sini based on theVt(OII, NII) scale seems to be in better agreement with thetheory than one based on the Vt(He I) scale. The mean valueHe/H = 0.10 derived for stars in the zero age main sequence (ZAMS)vicinity can be adopted as the typical initial helium abundance forearly B stars in the solar neighbourhood.

The Circumstellar Envelope of ζ Tauri through Optical Interferometry
We present optical interferometric observations of the Be star ζTauri obtained using the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI).The multichannel capability of the NPOI allows a high-quality internalcalibration of the squared visibilities corresponding to the Hαemission from the circumstellar environment. The observations suggest astrong departure from circular symmetry and thus are described by anelliptical Gaussian model. We use a nonlinear least-squares fit to thedata to obtain the likeliest parameters, and the correspondinguncertainties are determined using a Monte Carlo simulation. We obtain3.14+/-0.21 mas for the angular size of the major axis, -62.3d+/-4.4dfor the position angle, and 0.310+/-0.072 for the axial ratio. Bycomparing our results with those already in the literature, we concludethat the model parameters describing the general characteristics of thecircumstellar envelope of ζ Tau appear to be stable on timescalesof years. We also compare our results with the known parametersdescribing the binary nature of ζ Tau, and we conclude that theenvelope surrounds only the primary component and is well within itsRoche lobe.

Interstellar Silicon Abundance
We present 34 measurements of silicon gas phase column densities in theinterstellar medium. We have used spectra containing the SiII 1808 Angline which were obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph(GHRS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Extinction curveparameters are determined for analyzed lines of sight and relationbetween Si/H ratio and extinction parameters is discussed. We find theabundance of gas phase silicon in diffuse clouds to be lower than thesolar value by a factor of four.

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Metallicities of the SPB stars from the IUE ultraviolet spectra
We derived the stellar parameters (angular diameters, effectivetemperatures, metallicities) and interstellar reddenings for 20 SPB and34 reference stars observed during the IUE satellite mission. Theparameters were derived by means of an algorithmic procedure of fittingtheoretical flux distributions to the low-resolution IUE spectra andoptical spectrophotometric observations. Since the metallicity [m/H] hasa special importance for pulsating B type stars, we focused ourattention on that parameter. We found that the mean value of themetallicity of the considered SPB and reference stars amounts to [m/H] ~-0.20. The results only slightly depend on the reduction procedure usedfor the IUE images (NEWSIPS and INES). The metal abundances obtained inthis paper are in accordance with the average value of -0.2 dex forstars in the solar neighborhood recently reported by otherinvestigators.Tables 3-7 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/404/689

The incompatibilities between the standard theory of interstellar extinction and observations
In this paper I review a series of observations which do not agree withthe standard interpretation of the extinction curve. The consequence isthat light we receive from a reddened star must be contaminated bystarlight scattered at very small angular distances from the star. Thetrue extinction curve is a straight line from the near infrared to thefar-UV. If so, all interstellar grains models must be questioned.Another conclusion concerns the average properties of interstellargrains which seem much more uniform than previously thought.

The relation between far-UV and visible extinctions
For directions of sufficient reddening (/E(B-V)>~0.25), there is asimple relation between the slope of the extinction curve in the far-UVand /E(B-V). Regardless of direction, the far-UV extinction curve isproportional to 1/λn e-2E(B-V)/λ(/λ in μm, /n=4), in accordance with the idea that reddenedstars spectra are contaminated by scattered light (Zagury, 2001b). Thisrelation is not compatible with the standard theory of extinction whichstates that far-UV and visible extinctions are due to different classesof particle. In that model the two (far-UV and visible) extinctions varythus independently according to the proportion of each type of particle.In preceding papers I have shown that the standard theory cannot explainUV observations of nebulae, and is contradicted by the UV spectra ofstars with very low reddening: for how long shall the standard theory beconsidered as the interpretation of the extinction curve?

Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - II. Basic parameters of 107 stars
Effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities logg andinterstellar extinctions AV are found for 107 B stars.Distances d of the stars, which are based on the derivedTeff, logg and AV values, show good agreement withthose obtained from the Hipparcos parallaxes. Comparing theTeff and logg values with evolutionary computations, we infermasses, radii, luminosities, ages and relative ages of the stars.Empirical relations between the Teff and logg parameters, onthe one hand, and the photometric indices Q, [c1] and β,on the other hand, are constructed; these relations give a fast methodfor the Teff and logg estimation of early and medium B stars.Inclusion of the infrared J, H and K colours into the Teff,logg and AV determination shows that (i) the Teffand logg parameters are altered only slightly; (ii) the AVvalue is rather sensitive to these colours, so an accuracy better than0.05mag in the JHK data is necessary for precise AVevaluation.

New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.

Metallicity Determinations from Ultraviolet-Visual Spectrophotometry. I. The Test Sample
New visual spectrophotometric observations of non-supergiant solarneighborhood stars are combined with IUE Newly Extracted Spectra (INES)energy distributions in order to derive their overall metallicities,[M/H]. This fundamental parameter, together with effective temperatureand apparent angular diameter, is obtained by applying the flux-fittingmethod while surface gravity is derived from the comparison withevolutionary tracks in the theoretical H-R diagram. Trigonometricparallaxes for the stars of the sample are taken from the HipparcosCatalogue. The quality of the flux calibration is discussed by analyzinga test sample via comparison with external photometry. The validity ofthe method in providing accurate metallicities is tested on a selectedsample of G-type stars with well-determined atmospheric parameters fromrecent high-resolution spectral analysis. The extension of the overallprocedure to the determination of the chemical composition of all theINES non-supergiant G-type stars with accurate parallaxes is planned inorder to investigate their atmospheric temperature structure. Based onobservations collected at the INAOE ``G. Haro'' Observatory, Cananea(Mexico).

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

3.4 Micron Feature on the Shoulder of Ice-Band Absorptions in Three Luminous Young Stellar Objects: IRAS 18511+0146, IRAS 21413+5442, and IRAS 04579+4703
An absorption feature at 3.4 μm has been detected in thelong-wavelength wing of the 3.1 μm H2O ice feature inthree young stellar objects: IRAS 18511+0146, IRAS 21413+5442, and IRAS04579+4703. The profile of the 3.4 μm absorption in IRAS 18511+0146has distinct subfeatures at 3.38, 3.41, and 3.48 μm and is notsimilar to those found in molecular clouds but is similar to those inthe diffuse interstellar medium, such as the lines of sight toward theGalactic center and Cyg OB2 12. Spectropolarimetry of the 3.4 μmfeature in IRAS 18511+0146 shows no excess polarization accompanying thefeature, which is consistent with the observation toward the Galacticcenter source IRS 7 by Adamson et al.The 3.4 μm absorption in IRAS18511+0146 probably occurs in the diffuse interstellar mediumintervening in the line of sight to the molecular cloud where theH2O ice absorption occurs. Furthermore, the 3.4 μmabsorption carrier seems to reside in a population of nonpolarizinggrains in the diffuse interstellar medium, physically separate fromother polarizing grains.

Magnetic survey of bright northern main sequence stars
The first results of a systematic search for magnetic fields in thebrightest upper main sequence (MS) stars are presented. The main goal isto survey the stars with about the same detection limit and to improveexisting statistics of their magnetism. The target list contains 57upper MS stars and represents well B0.5-F9 stars. High-resolution Zeemanspectra were obtained for 30 stars of the list. The accuracy of themagnetic field measurements ranges from 20 to 300 G depending mainly onspectral class. In the majority of studied stars we did not detectmagnetic fields. In some stars we suspect the presence of a weakmagnetic field. These are the best candidates for more extensivestudies. A particular case is the star chi Dra where we probablydetected the global magnetic field. The longitudinal field strength isB_l= -54+/-12 G. Further observations of this star are needed to confirmthe detection and to ascertain if the magnetic field is variable withthe period of rotation. Based on observations collected at the 1 mtelescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Nizhnij Arkhyz,Russia).

On the effective temperatures and surface gravities of superficially normal main sequence band B and A stars
Effective temperatures and surface gravities for 48 main sequence band Band A stars were found by matching optical region spectrophotometry andHγ profiles with the predictions of ATLAS9 solar composition modelatmospheres. When these values were compared with those found usingStrömgren uvbybeta photometry based on ATLAS6 model atmospheres, wefound a difference (photometry-spectrophotometry) of 25+/- 118 K for 29stars with 8000 K le Teff <= 10 050 K compared to 76 +/-105 K for 14 stars with 10 050 K <= Teff <= 17 000 K.The surface gravity scales are in agreement. These stars aresufficiently hot that their effective temperatures and surface gravitydeterminations are unaffected by discrepancies due to the choice ofMixing-Length or Canuto-Mazzitelli convection theories.

Far-ultraviolet extinction and diffuse interstellar bands
We relate the equivalent widths of the major diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) near 5797 and 5780Å with different colour excesses,normalized by E(B-V), which characterize the growth of interstellarextinction in different wavelength ranges. It is demonstrated that thetwo DIBs correlate best with different parts of the extinction curve,and the ratio of these diffuse bands is best correlated with thefar-ultraviolet (UV) rise. A number of peculiar lines of sight are alsofound, indicating that the carriers of some DIBs and the far-UVextinction can be separated in certain environments, e.g. towards thePer OB2 association.

Microstructure of the Local Interstellar Cloud and the Identification of the Hyades Cloud
We analyze high-resolution UV spectra of the Mg II h and k lines for 18members of the Hyades to study inhomogeneity along these proximate linesof sight. The observations were taken by the Space Telescope ImagingSpectrograph (STIS) instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope(HST). Three distinct velocity components are observed. All 18 lines ofsight show absorption by the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC); 10 starsshow absorption by an additional cloud, which we name the Hyades Cloud;and one star exhibits a third absorption component. The LIC absorptionis observed at a lower radial velocity than predicted by the LICvelocity vector derived by Lallement & Bertin in 1992 and Lallementet al. in 1995[vpredicted(LIC)-vobserved(LIC)=2.9+/-0.7 kms-1], which may indicate a compression or deceleration at theleading edge of the LIC. We propose an extension of the Hyades Cloudboundary based on previous HST observations of other stars in thegeneral vicinity of the Hyades, as well as ground-based Ca IIobservations. We present our fits of the interstellar parameters foreach absorption component. The availability of 18 similar lines of sightprovides an excellent opportunity to study the inhomogeneity of thewarm, partially ionized local interstellar medium (LISM). We find thatthese structures are roughly homogeneous. The measured Mg II columndensities do not vary by more than a factor of 2 for angular separationsof <~8°, which at the outer edge of the LIC correspond tophysical separations of <~0.6 pc.

The Local Interstellar Medium in the Direction of the Galactic Anticentre
High resolution observations of interstellar Na I absorptions in thespectra of early-type stars in the second Galactic quadrant have beenused to derive the spatial distribution of the nearby interstellar gasin the Galactic anticentre hemisphere. The data show the presence,within the region explored and within the nearest 150 pc, of eightdiffuse interstellar clouds with LSR velocities in the range 15-55 kms^-1. Molecular gas previously identified close to the Sun by Trapero etal. (1995) and Trapero et al. (1996) is embedded in one of the clouds.The motion of these clouds does not reflect any motion of the gas awayfrom the Scorpio-Centaurus association, showing that the kinematicsobserved in the neighbourhood of the Sun by Lallement and Bertin (1992)is restricted, in the second Galactic quadrant, to the nearest ~ 50 pc.

The INES system. IV. The IUE absolute flux scale
This paper deals with the definition of the input fluxes used for thecalibration of the IUE Final Archive. The method adopted consists in thedetermination of the shape of the detector's sensitivity curves usingIUE low resolution observations with model fluxes of the DA white dwarfG191-B2B. A scale factor was then determined so that the IUEobservations of some bright OAO-2 standards match the originalmeasurements from Meade (\cite{meade}) in the spectral region 2100-2300Å. The ultraviolet fluxes of six standard stars used as input forthe Final Archive photometric calibration together with the model fluxesof G191-B2B normalized to the OAO-2 scale are given. A comparison withthe independent FOS calibration shows that the IUE flux scale for theUltraviolet is 7.2% lower. We consider this mainly to be caused by thedifferent normalization procedures. It is shown that the present fluxcalibration applies to spectra processed with the INES low resolutionextraction software.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

Interpretation of the UV spectrum of some stars with little reddening
The UV spectrum of a few reddened stars will be decomposed into twoterms. One is the direct starlight, F_*,lambda^0 e^ - tau_lambda, whichis the product of the flux of the star corrected for interstellarextinction, F_*,lambda^0, and of the extinction e^ - tau_lambda. Thesecond is starlight scattered by interstellar dust into the beam of theobservation. This excess of scattered starlight affects the FUV part ofthe spectrum (lambda < 2200 A). The combination of both terms givesthe shape of the UV spectrum of a reddened star, with its characteristicdepression at 2200 A.

On the identification of the C60+ interstellar features
The identity of the carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) isone of the most fascinating puzzles of modern spectroscopy. Over thelast few years the number of known DIBs has grown substantially. In thispaper we discuss the two recently discovered near-infrared weakinterstellar features which have already been proposed as fingerprintsof the buckminsterfullerene [formmu2] We present and discussmeasurements of the two related DIBs within a larger sample of reddenedtargets, observed with different spectrometers, telescopes and siteconditions. We provide additional arguments in favour of theinterstellar origin of the two bands. We find evidence around the9577-Å DIB of far-wing structures, which may affect broad-bandmeasurements. We estimate corrections and errors for telluric andstellar blends, and show that the cores of the two DIBs are wellcorrelated with a ratio near unity within 20per cent. Finally, wediscuss their relation to the laboratory spectra of [formmu3] and thesearch for two expected weaker [formmu4] transitions.

Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - I. Spectral observations of 123 stars; measurements of hydrogen and helium lines; infrared photometry
High-resolution spectral observations of 123 B0-B5 stars in the mainsequence evolutionary phase were obtained at two observatories, namelythe McDonald Observatory (McDO) and the Crimean AstrophysicalObservatory (CrAO). Accurate equivalent widths W of two Balmer lines,Hβ and Hγ, and ten Hei lines were obtained for all the stars,as well as of the Heiiλ4686 line for the hottest ones. A carefulanalysis of the measured equivalent widths was performed. It is shownthat there is a very good agreement between the W values derived fromthe McDO and CrAO spectra for 14 common stars. A comparison withpublished data leads to the conclusion that the W values measuredearlier by some authors for strong Hei lines are very likely to beunderestimated. Infrared photometric observations in the J, H, and Kbands were performed for 70 programme stars. All these data will be usedin other papers: in particular for the Teff and loggdetermination and for the He, C, N and O abundance analyses.

The Three-dimensional Structure of the Warm Local Interstellar Medium. II. The Colorado Model of the Local Interstellar Cloud
In this second paper in a series on the structure of the localinterstellar medium (LISM), we construct a three-dimensional model ofthe local interstellar cloud (LIC) based on Hubble Space Telescope(HST), Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and ground-based Ca IIspectra. Starting with hydrogen column densities derived from deuteriumcolumn densities measured with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrographinstrument on HST for 16 lines of sight to nearby stars, we derive amodel consisting of the sum of nine spherical harmonics that best fitthe data. We then rederive the model by including the lines of sight tothree hot white dwarfs observed by EUVE and 13 lines of sight with Ca IIcolumn densities at the projected LIC velocity. The LIC model is clearlynot a long thin filamentary structure like optical images of someinterstellar clouds (e.g., reflection nebulae in the Pleiades), butneither is it spherical in shape. As seen from the north Galactic pole,the LIC is egg-shaped with an axis of symmetry that points in thedirection l~315deg. Since the direction of the center of theScorpius-Centaurus association is l=320deg, the shape of theLIC could be determined by the flow of hot gas from Sco-Cen. The modelshows that the Sun is located just inside the LIC in the direction ofthe Galactic center and toward the north Galactic pole. The absence ofMg II absorption at the LIC velocity toward α Cen indicates thatthe distance to the edge of the LIC in this direction is <=0.05 pcand the Sun should cross the boundary between the LIC and the Galactic(G) cloud in less than 3000 yr. We estimate that the volume of the LICis about 93 pc3 and its mass is about 0.32 Msolar.The physical parameters and hydrogen column density of the LIC areroughly consistent with theoretical models of the warm interstellarmedium that assume pressure and ionization equilibrium. However, theempirical hydrogen ionization of the LIC is much higher and the gastemperature lower than the theoretical models predict. Therefore, theionization is likely due to shock activity from a nearby supernova thathas not yet reached equilibrium. The higher ionization increases the gascooling, which can explain why the gas is 2400 K cooler than theionization equilibrium models predict. Computed and observedtemperatures are in agreement for a model with the observed LIC electrondensity. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., underNASA contract NAS 5-26555.

B Stars as a Diagnostic of Star Formation at Low and High Redshift
We have extended the evolutionary synthesis models by Leitherer et al.by including a new library of B stars generated from the IUEhigh-dispersion spectra archive. We present the library and show how thestellar spectral properties vary according to luminosity classes andspectral types. We have generated synthetic UV spectra for prototypicalyoung stellar populations varying the IMF and the star formation law.Clear signs of age effects are seen in all models. The contribution of Bstars in the UV line spectrum is clearly detected, in particular forgreater ages when O stars have evolved. With the addition of the newlibrary we are able to investigate the fraction of stellar andinterstellar contributions and the variation in the spectral shapes ofintense lines. We have used our models to date the spectrum of the localsuper-star cluster NGC 1705-1. Photospheric lines of C III λ1247,Si III λ1417, and S V λ1502 were used as diagnostics todate the burst of NGC 1705-1 at 10 Myr. Interstellar lines are clearlyseen in the NGC 1705-1 spectrum. Broadening and blueshifts of severalresonance lines are stronger in the galaxy spectrum than in our modelsand are confirmed to be intrinsic of the galaxy. Si II λ1261 andAl II λ1671 were found to be pure interstellar lines with anaverage blueshift of 78 km s-1 owing to a directed outflow ofthe interstellar medium. We have selected the star-forming galaxy1512-cB58 as a first application of the new models to high-z galaxies.This galaxy is at z=2.723, it is gravitationally lensed, and its highsignal-to-noise ratio Keck spectrum shows features typical of localstarburst galaxies, such as NGC 1705-1. Models with continuous starformation were found to be more adequate for 1512-cB58 since there arespectral features typical of a composite stellar population of O and Bstars. A model with Z=0.4 Zsolar and an IMF with α=2.8reproduces the stellar features of the 1512-cB58 spectrum.

Interstellar Carbon Abundance
We present 10 new measurements of carbon gas phase column density in theinterstellar medium. We have used spectra made with the Goddard HighResolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope containing theCII 1334.5 Ang and CII* 1335.7 Ang lines. The continuum reconstructionmethod has been used to obtain the carbon column density from theLorentzian damped lines. Extinction curve parameters are determined inselected directions and relation between C/H ratio and extinctionparameters is discussed. A correlation has been found between C/H andthe strength of the 2175 Ang bump. Unlike previous results, we noticethat C/H changes with fractional abundance of molecular hydrogen,f(H_2). The average value of C/H=3.55*10^{-4} for lines of sight withf(H_2)<1*10^{-3} is the same as solar photospheric abundance fromGrevese and Noels (1993) and may represent the real cosmic carbonabundance.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h06m30.90s
Apparent magnitude:3.17
Distance:67.249 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:0
B-T magnitude:2.957
V-T magnitude:3.123

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesHaedus II
Eta Aurigae, Hoedus II, Mahasim   (Edit)
Bayerη Aur
Flamsteed10 Aur
HD 1989HD 32630
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 2899-2237-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1275-04304444
BSC 1991HR 1641
HIPHIP 23767

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR