|A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars|
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i 100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.
|Catalog of Galactic β Cephei Stars|
We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic β Cepheistars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview ofobservational characteristics of all known β Cephei stars, coveringinformation until 2004 June. Ninety-three stars could be confirmed to beβ Cephei stars. We use data from more than 250 papers publishedover the last nearly 100 years, and we provide over 45 notes onindividual stars. For some stars we reanalyzed published data orconducted our own analyses. Sixty-one stars were rejected from the finalβ Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be β Cepheistars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmedβ Cephei stars is also presented.We analyze the β Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributionsof their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radialvelocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm thatthe majority of the β Cephei stars are multiperiodic pulsators. Weshow that, besides two exceptions, the β Cephei stars with highpulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. Those higher amplitude starshave angular rotational velocities in the same range as thehigh-amplitude δ Scuti stars (Prot>~3 days).We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93β Cephei stars are main-sequence objects. We discuss theobservational boundaries of β Cephei pulsation and the physicalparameters of the stars. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modesare near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show thatthe mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 Msolar. Wepoint out that the theoretical instability strip of the β Cepheistars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt toexplain this observation.
|Statistics of the Instability Strip of β Cephei Stars|
We present a study of the β Cephei instability strip based on asample of 49 stars of this type. After deriving their effectivetemperatures and luminosities from their observed (B-V), (U-B) colorsand parallaxes we find their positions in the HR diagram to be mostlyconfined to the main sequence, and their masses to lie between 7Mȯ and 30 Mȯ. Their distribution on theHR diagram matches well with our previous theoretical instability stripwhich has an upper bound in the luminosity and rather tight boundariesin the effective temperature.
|An extensive Delta a-photometric survey of southern B and A type bright stars|
Photoelectric photometry of 803 southern BS objects in the Deltaa-system as detection tool for magnetic chemically peculiar (=CP2) starshas been carried out and compared to published spectral types. Thestatistical yield of such objects detected by both techniques ispractically the same. We show that there are several factors whichcontaminate the search for these stars, but this contamination is onlyof the order of 10% in both techniques. We find a smooth transition fromnormal to peculiar stars. Our sample exhibits the largest fraction ofCP2 stars at their bluest colour interval, i.e. 10% of all stars in thecolour range -0.19 <= B-V < -0.10 or -0.10 <= b-y < -0.05.No peculiar stars based on the Delta a-criterion were found at bluercolours. Towards the red side the fraction of CP2 stars drops to about3% for positive values of B-V or b-y with red limits roughlycorresponding to normal stars of spectral type A5. The photometricbehaviour of other peculiar stars: Am, HgMn, delta Del, lambda Boo, Heabnormal stars, as well as Be/shell stars and supergiants shows someslight, but definite deviations from normal stars. Spectroscopic andvisual binaries are not distinguished from normal stars in their Delta abehaviour. The results of this work justify larger statistical work(e.g. in open clusters) employing more time-saving photometric methods(CCD). \newpage Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile. This research has made use of the Simbaddatabase, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Table 2 is only availablein electronic form via anonymous ftp 18.104.22.168 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Red and infrared colours of B stars and the reddening law in the Galaxy|
The red and infrared intrinsic colours of B stars are derived fromphotometric observations through the UBV(RI)_CJHK and Hβ filters of257 early-type stars. Those stars for which the UBV and Hβmeasurements match the published spectral class, and which show no othersigns of peculiarity, are used to determine the intrinsic photometriccolours of B stars in the red and infrared. From these intrinsic coloursthe interstellar reddening relationships for the red and infraredcolours are evaluated, and the results are compared with previousestimates of these quantities. The values of R, E(B-V) and the distanceare then determined for the individual stars. R is confirmed to be closeto 3.1 in most cases, but was found to be much larger in somedirections. The relationship between R and the location of a star in theGalaxy is investigated. Usually the abnormally reddened stars seemed tobe associated with known regions of star formation. The paper alsoidentifies seven likely variable stars and a number of stars withpossible dust shells.
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Observational status and excitation mechanisms of beta-Cephei variables.|
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|A photometric study of β Cephei stars. II. Determination of the degrees L of pulsation modes|
The wavelength dependence of photometric amplitudes is used as a meansof identifying the degrees l of pulsation modes of β Cephei starsstudied in an earlier paper. To this end, an expression for thephotometric amplitude of a non-rotating pulsating star is derived interms of the wavelength of the radiation received and the degree of thepulsation mode involved. The derivation differs from earlier derivationsin that the specific radiation intensity is considered instead of theoutward normal radiation flux. Furthermore, the effects of thenon-radial components of the Lagrangian displacement on the localsurface element of the star are taken into account. The angulardependence of the specific radiation intensity is determined by alimb-darkening function. The relative Lagrangian perturbation of thespecific radiation intensity is set equal to the relative Lagrangianperturbation of the outward normal radiation flux. The physicalparameters of the β Cephei stars are estimated by means ofcalibrations of photometric systems. From a comparison of thecalibrations of the Walraven, the Geneva, and the Stroemgren system forearly-type stars, it appears that the most reliable values are obtainedby means of the Walraven system. The influence of the uncertainties onthe physical parameters on the determination of the degrees l ofpulsation modes in β Cephei stars is examined. The expression forthe photometric amplitude of a pulsating star is used for thedetermination of the degree l of a pulsation mode by fitting curves ofthe wavelength dependences of theoretical photometric amplitudes forvarious degrees l to the wavelength dependence of observationallydetermined photometric amplitudes. In this way, values for the degrees lof most of the pulsation modes of the β Cephei stars considered arefound. It appears that not all β Cephei stars pulsate in at leastone radial mode and that multiperiodic β Cephei stars pulsate in avariety of combinations of pulsation modes.
|Beta Cephei stars from a photometric point of view|
This is an observational review, with an emphasis on photometric dataand their interpretation. Two lists are presented, one containing BetaCephei stars and the other Beta Cephei suspects. These lists then serveas a basis for discussing such topics as the location of Beta Cepheistars in the observational and theoretical H-R diagrams, theevolutionary state of these stars, the period-luminosity andperiod-luminosity-color relations, and observational identification ofpulsation modes. The paper also includes references to recent workconnected with the theoretical discovery that an opacity mechanism isresponsible for the excitation of Beta Cephei-star pulsations. Finally,observational programs for verifying the consequences of this discoveryare suggested.
|A photometric study of Beta Cephei stars. I - Frequency analyses|
A frequency analysis is presented for both new photometric data andolder radial-velocity measurements for 33 Beta Cephei stars. While thepresent results are largely in agreement with those of Cuypers (1985)and Engelbrecht (1986), marked differences are noted. A tabulation isgiven of the pulsation frequencies of the stars that are generallyaccepted to be Beta Cephei variables.
|Atlas of extinction curves derived from ultraviolet spectra of the TD-1 satellite|
The collection of 166 extinction curves derived from the publishedlow-resolution spectra acquired with the aid of the spectrometer onboard the TD-1 satellite is presented. The observed variety ofextinction laws is apparently due to the varied physical parameters ofinterstellar clouds; for example, the bright stars, included in thesample of TD-1 material, are very likely to be obscured by single clouds(interstellar or circumstellar). The system of standards constructedwith the aid of a special procedure allowing the possible effects ofspectral mismatch to be avoided and making possible the derivation ofextinction curves even in cases of very small E(B-V)S, was applied. Thecurves are presented in the form of plots, normalized to E(B-V) = 1.
|Broad-band photometry of selected southern ultraviolet-bright stars.|
|Empirical temperature calibrations for early-type stars|
Three temperature calibrations of suitable photometric quantities havebeen derived for O and B stars. A sample of 120 stars with reliableT(eff.) determinations has been used for establishing each calibration.The different calibrations have been critically discussed and compared.Temperature determinations for 1009 program stars have been obtainedwith an accuracy of the order of 10 percent.
|New radial pulsation constants for the Beta Cephei variables|
Recent new calibrations of luminosities, temperatures and bolometriccorrections for B stars in terms of the Beta index and the Stroemgrenparameter have necessitated the recalculation of the radial pulsationconstants, Q, for the Beta Cephei (or Beta Canis Majoris) variablestars. Corrections for the effect of binaries on the absolutemagnitudes, derived both from the luminosity calibration and from themean distance moduli of those variables in clusters, are calculated inan Appendix. The mean value of Q, although determined from absolutemagnitudes which are about 0.4 mag fainter than those from previouscalibrations of the Beta index, still suggests that the majority of thevariables are pulsating in the first overtone radial mode, as have mostinvestigations in recent years.
|A catalog of ultraviolet interstellar extinction excesses for 1415 stars|
Ultraviolet interstellar extinction excesses are presented for 1415stars with spectral types B7 and earlier. The excesses with respect to Vare derived from Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS) 5-channel UVphotometry at central wavelengths of approximately 1550, 1800, 2500, and3300 A. A measure of the excess extinction in the 2200-A extinction bumpis also given. The data are valuable for investigating the systematicsof peculiar interstellar extinction and for studying the character of UVinterstellar extinction in the general direction of stars for which theextinction-curve shape is unknown.
|The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematics|
Published uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter.
|The Beta CEP variables - Fundamental radial pulsators|
New uvby-beta photometry for 61 B stars from B0-B9 in the young clusterNGC 3293 has shown that the commonly used calibration of the beta indexin terms of absolute magnitude, M(V), gives M(V) values about 0.6 magtoo bright for the early B stars in the cluster. Nine of the early Bstars in NGC 3293 are Beta Cep variables with similar properties(periods, beta and c0 indices) to the majority of the BetaCep stars. Therefore, the M(V) scale for all the variables is deduced tobe in error by 0.6 mag, since their absolute magnitudes are commonlyderived from beta. The application of this correction suggests thatthese stars pulsate in the fundamental radial mode instead of the firstovertone as has been recently supposed.
|A survey of ultraviolet objects|
An all-sky survey of ultraviolet objects is presented together with astatistical analysis that leads to the conclusion that there is asignificantly higher population of hot subdwarfs lying below themain-sequence than hitherto thought. The distribution of all ultravioletobjects, main sequence ultraviolet objects, and MK unclassifiedultraviolet objects are shown in galactic coordinates, and the absolutemagnitudes and color-color diagrams for these groups are presented.Scale heights are derived, giving values similar to planetary nebulaefor the hottest groups.
|The interstellar 2200 A band - A catalogue of equivalent widths|
|66th Name-List of Variable Stars|
|Interstellar gas in the GUM Nebula|
A survey of the interstellar gas near the Gum Nebula by opticalobservation of 67 stars at Ca II, 42 stars at Na I, and 14 stars in theUV with the Copernicus satellite provided radial velocities and columndensities for all resolved absorption components. Velocity dispersionsfor gas in the Gum Nebula are not significantly larger than in thegeneral interstellar medium; the ionization structure is predominantlythat of an H II region with moderately high ionization. Denser, morehighly ionized clouds are concentrated toward the Gum Nebula; theseclouds do not show the anomalously high ionization observed in the Velaremnant clouds.
|Space velocities and ages of nearby early-type stars|
Photometric distances and space velocities have been calculated for 458B0-A0 stars with apparent magnitudes not exceeding 6.5. UsingStromgren's ubvy-beta photometry the effective temperature and theposition in bolometric magnitude over the zero-age main sequence of thestars were derived. These quantities were used to obtain age and massfor 423 of the stars by interpolation in the models of stellar evolutionfor the chemical composition (X Z) = (0.7, 0.03). A relation forderiving interstellar reddening for normal stars in the intermediategroup is given.
|Search for Beta Cephei stars south of declination -20 deg. I - Incidence of light variability among early B giants and subgiants: Summer objects|
|Structure and age of the local association /Pleiades group/|
Intermediate-band indices are used to derive luminosities for some 500early-type stars with well-determined proper motions and radialvelocities. Space motion vectors and galactic coordinates are computedfor the stars considered. It is found that the local association membersare mainly concentrated in the Sco-Cen region in the Southern Hemisphereand the Cas-Tau region in the north.
|New kinematical data for bright southern OB-stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1972A&AS....5..129L&db_key=AST
|Four-color and H-beta photometry for bright B-type stars in the southern hemisphere.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971AJ.....76..621C&db_key=AST
|MK Spectral Types for Bright Southern OB Stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1969ApJ...157..313H&db_key=AST
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1967MNRAS.137..337D&db_key=AST
|A Survey of Southern Be Stars|