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|Discovery of magnetic fields in the βCephei star ξ1 CMa and in several slowly pulsating B stars*|
We present the results of a magnetic survey of a sample of eightβCephei stars and 26 slowly pulsating B (SPBs) stars with the FOcalReducer low dispersion Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. A weakmean longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss isdetected in the βCephei star ξ1CMa and in 13 SPBstars. The star ξ1CMa becomes the third magnetic staramong the βCephei stars. Before our study, the star ζCas wasthe only known magnetic SPB star. All magnetic SPB stars for which wegathered several magnetic field measurements show a field that varies intime. We do not find a relation between the evolution of the magneticfield with stellar age in our small sample. Our observations imply thatβCephei and SPB stars can no longer be considered as classes ofnon-magnetic pulsators, but the effect of the fields on the oscillationproperties remains to be studied.
|A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars|
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i 100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.
|B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?|
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Activity in the SPB star 53 Piscium|
New spectroscopic observations of the star 53 Psc are presented. Acorrelation technique has been used to derive the radial velocity curveswith a high accuracy. Four frequencies have been detected in the radialvelocity variations using four frequency analysis algorithms. Threefrequencies (1.81, 1.22 and 1.57 cd-1) are typical SPB starfrequencies, the last one being close to our detection threshold. Theyare associated to low amplitude velocities, of the order of 1-2 kms-1. So we classify 53 Psc in the SPBs class in agreementwith its position in the HR diagram. Line equivalent width and centraldepth variations are also observed. Two phenomena appear: first, asmooth variation, present in all lines with a time scale of 10 days,could be related to the stellar rotation and a magnetic field. Second,on two consecutive nights, a sudden and important increase (20%) ofequivalent widths and central depths of Hdelta and He I lines could bedue to an outburst similar to the ones present in some Be stars. Thevariation in the equivalent widths is mainly due to the increase of thecentral depth of the quoted lines. This suggests the existence of NLTEeffects due to a hot low density plasma in the upper layers of theatmosphere of 53 Psc. An additional frequency is pointed out around 0.11cd-1. The best interpretation is an SPB frequency shifted byrotation. Based on observations obtained at the Observatoire deHaute-Provence.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutions|
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included).
|The HB Narrowband Comet Filters: Standard Stars and Calibrations|
We present results concerning the development and calibration of a newset of narrowband comet filters, designated the HB filter set, which wasdesigned and manufactured to replace aging IHW filters. Information isalso presented about the design and manufacturing of the filters,including the reasoning that was used for deciding the final wavelengthsand bandpasses. The new filters are designed to measure five differentgas species (OH, NH, CN, C2, C3), two ions(CO+, H2O+), and four continuum points.An improved understanding of extended wings from emission bands in cometspectra, gained since the development of the IHW filters, wasincorporated into the new design, so that contamination from undesiredspecies is significantly reduced compared to previous filters. Inaddition, advances in manufacturing techniques lead to squarertransmission profiles, higher peak transmission and UV filters withlonger lifetimes. We performed the necessary calibrations so that dataobtained with the filters can be converted to absolute fluxes, allowingfor, among other things, accurate subtraction of the continuum from thegas species. Flux standards and solar analogs were selected andobserved, and the data were used to establish a magnitude system for theHB filters. The star measurements were also used to evaluate which solaranalogs were best representatives of the Sun and to explore how the fluxstandards differed in the UV with respect to their spectral type. Newprocedures were developed to account for the non-linear extinction inthe OH filter, so that proper extrapolations to zero airmass can beperformed, and a new formalism, which can account for mutualcontaminations in two (or more) filters, was developed for reducingcomet observations. The relevant equations and reduction coefficientsare given, along with detailed instructions on how to apply them. Wealso performed a series of tests involving factors that can affecteither the filter transmission profiles or the distribution of theemission lines in the gas species to determine how these effectspropagate through to the calibration coefficients. The results indicatethat there are only two factors that are a concern at a level of morethan a few percent: f-ratios smaller than f/4, and a few individualfilters whose transmission profiles are significantly different from thefilters used in the calibrations.
|Intrinsically-Variable B Stars in Eclipsing Binary Systems|
We have investigated the use of Hipparcos epoch photometry for studyingpossible intrinsic variability in B0-B3 stars in eclipsing binarysystems with well-determined masses.
|A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 Stars|
Ultraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories.
|Continuous declination system set up by observations of photoelectric astrolabe Mark I In Irkutsk. The first results of international cooperation between CSAO and VS NIIFTRI|
The Photoelectric Astrolabe Mark I (PHA I) has been revised with a newcombined prism which could work as an almucantar with zenith distance of45(deg) , to measure continuous declinations at the latitude of Irkutsk,Russia (phi = 52fdg2 ). The PHA I has been working at the astronomicalbase of VS NIIFTRI in Irkutsk since Nov. 1995 based on an internationalcooperation agreement of near 4 years for star catalogue and EOPmeasurements. The first observing program was ended in June 1997, givingcorrections in both right ascension and declination to 200 stars with noblind zone in declination determination, which most astrolabe cataloguesin the world usually would have. Appendix is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.
|A Minisurvey of Interstellar Titanium from the Southern Hemisphere|
We describe the results of a minisurvey of interstellar Ti II and Ca IIabsorption toward 42 early-type stars observed from the southernhemisphere at a spectral resolution of 4.5 km s-1. Results are alsopresented for the Na I ultraviolet line (3302 Angstroms) detected towardnine of these targets. We examine the dependence of the integratedcolumn densities of N(Ti II), N(Ca II), and N(Na I) on distance,reddening, neutral hydrogen column density, and their Galactic elementalabundance. Our findings support the proposition that Ti II and Ca IIabsorption originates in the same regions of the pervasive, warm, andneutral intercloud gas of the interstellar medium. We have observed acorrelation of decreasing Ti and Ca abundance with increasingline-of-sight gas density. The Ti II/Ca II abundance ratio has beenfound to be essentially constant under all the interstellar densityconditions we have sampled. Thus, we conclude that the generalabsorption properties of titanium (and calcium) are similar throughoutthe entire disk of our Galaxy.
|The Distribution of Dust Clouds in the Interstellar Medium|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...457..764D&db_key=AST
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|A star at the frontier between p- and g-modes: ιHerculis.|
Six nights have been devoted to an intensive spectroscopic study (410spectra in the Hδ domain) of the star ιHer. Our data samplingis not suitable to undertake a period determination, but none of theprevious published periods seem to be valid to represent the variationswe observe. This is certainly due to a multiperiodic phenomenon. Thanksto the short exposure time, we strongly suspect a short time scalevariability in addition to the longer periods. Therefore, two timescales would be involved, one being of the order of a day, the otherbeing of the order of an hour, this latter having a 2K-amplitude around0.8km/s, slightly varying. The short time scale is clearly detected atleast in 5 nights, and concerns all the studied lines. Thenight-to-night variations (frequency, amplitude) measured are certainlydue to the beat-modulation with the longer periods. From the pulsationtheory, the long and short time scales can respectively be attributed tohigh-order g- and p-modes. Indeed, ιHer lies in the HR diagram atthe frontier where p- and g-modes are excited due to the metal opacitybump mechanism.
|Photoelectric photometry of periodic comet Faye.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1994RMxAA..28....3G&db_key=AST
|An IUE survey of interstellar H I LY alpha absorption. 1: Column densities|
We measure Galactic interstellar neutral hydrogen column densities byanalyzing archival interstellar Ly alpha absorption line data toward 554B2 and hotter stars observed at high resolution with the IUE satellite.This study more than doubles the number of lines of sight with measuresof N(H I) based on Ly alpha. We have included the scattered lightbackground correction algorithm of Bianchi and Bohlin in our datareduction. We use the correlation between the Balmer discontinuity(c1) index and the stellar Ly alpha absorption in order toassess the effects of stellar Ly alpha contamination. Approximately 40%of the B stars with measured (c1) index, exhibit seriousstellar Ly alpha contamination. One table contains the derived values ofthe interstellar N(H I) for 393 stars with at most small amounts ofstellar contamination. Another lists the observed values of total N(H I)for 161 stars with suspected stellar Ly alpha contamination and/oruncertain stellar parameters.
|Improved Mean Positions and Proper Motions for the 995 FK4 Sup Stars not Included in the FK5 Extension|
|The distribution of interstellar dust in the solar neighborhood|
We surveyed the IRAS data base at the positions of the 1808 O6-B9.5stars in The Bright Star Catalog for extended objects with excessemission at 60 microns, indicating the presence of interstellar dust atthe location of the star. Within 400 pc the filling factor of theinterstellar medium, for dust clouds with a density greater than 0.5/cucm is 14.6 + or - 2.4%. Above a density of 1.0/cu cm, the densitydistribution function appears to follow a power law index - 1.25. Whenthe dust clouds are mapped onto the galactic plane, the sun appears tobe located in a low-density region of the interstellar medium of widthabout 60 pc extending at least 500 pc in the direction of longitudes 80deg - 260 deg, a feature we call the 'local trough'.
|A high-resolution optical and radio study of Milky Way halo gas|
Optical interstellar absorption lines of Ti II and Ca II and the 21 cmemission line of H I were observed at high-resolution (6 and 1 km/s,respectively) and high detection sensitivity along 25 lines of sight inthe Galactic halo. The sample includes 16 distant halo stars matchedwith one or more nearly aligned foreground stars as well as local starsalong five extragalactic sight lines. The data show substantialinterstellar material, at both low and intermediate velocities, between250 and 1000 pc beyond the Galactic plane. As much as one-third of thetotal gas observed in Ca II absorption may be beyond 1 kpc, and thegaseous Ti II may lie in an even thicker layer. The directly determinedgaseous Ti abundance above the Galactic plane exceeds that in the disk,on the average, by a factor of 4 to 6 and, for individual cloudcomponents, is further enhanced at higher LSR velocity. Thirty threediscrete high-latitude clouds are detected in Ca II absorption, and 17discrete clouds, including three high-velocity clouds, are identified inH I emission. The kinematics of the high-latitude gas observed in Ti IIand Ca II absorption is characterized by significant peculiar velocitieswith respect to a model corotating halo.
|Ultraviolet and radio observations of Milky Way halo gas|
Interstellar-absorption-line and 21-cm emission-line data for sightlines to 56 stars are combined in order to study the kinematics andspatial distribution of the gas that is at great distances from theGalactic plane. Measurements of the interstellar velocities and H Icolumn densities from the 21-cm emission and Ly-alpha absorption areincluded. The problem of contamination of the interstellar Ly-alphaabsorption line by stellar Ly-alpha absorption is analyzed, and thisinformation is used to reevaluate the vertical distribution of H I. Anew method for determining lower limits on the vertical distribution ofgas by including information on the velocity structure in the gas ispresented. The data for individual sight lines are discussed.
|The frequency and formation mechanism of B2-B5 main-sequence binaries|
Twenty coude spectra were obtained for each of the 74 B2-B5 IV or Vstars, and the results of their radial velocities were combined withthose of a previous study of 42 similar stars, to examine the frequencyand the formation mechanism of these binaries. New improved orbitalelements are listed for nine known double-lined and 26 single-linedspectroscopic binaries. It is found that, systems with periods of 0.01yr to 100,000 yrs, have secondary frequencies that fit the Salpeter(1955) luminosity function (but not the van Rhijn function), indicatingthat these systems were formed primarily by capture. For systems withperiods shorter than 0.01 yr, the separations of components are only afew stellar radii, suggesting that these systems have undergone masstransfer; their secondary masses have no direct information concerningthe formation mechanism.
|53 PISCIUM - Peculiar amplitude modulation or transient variability?|
Photoelectric observations of the small-amplitude variable, carried outin 1973, 1979, 1987, and 1988, are presented. Attention is given toatmospheric extinction corrections, which are by no means negligible inmost series of observations of the star. No evidence is found for the0.096-day light variation of 53 Psc reported by other workers. Instead,it is shown that 34 Psc, one of the comparison stars used for 53 Psc bymost observers, is slightly variable with a similar period. This,however, does not explain the large amplitude observed recently by Wolf(1987). The latter result is also difficult to understand in terms of abeat phenomenon. A peculiar amplitude modulation or transientvariability may better account for all observations of the star.
|Third preliminary catalogue of stars observed with the photoelectric astrolabe of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory.|
|The kinematics of Milky Way halo gas. I - Observations of low-ionization species|
Ultraviolet interstellar line day observed with the IUE toward 70 halostars and four extragalactic sight lines are analyzed in a study of thelarge-scale kinematic properties of the Milky Way halo gas. The motionsof the low-ionization gas is focused on. Large systematic velocities arefound, and a pronounced asymmetry in the absorption characteristics ofhalo gas toward the Galactic poles is indicated. In the north,substantial amounts of material are falling toward the disk atvelocities up to about 120 km/s in the most extreme case. Toward thesouth, low-ionization material shows no extreme or systematic motions.
|The Variability of 53 Psc|
|53 Psc revisited|
|Galactic interstellar abundance surveys with IUE. II - The equivalent widths and column densities|
This paper continues a survey of interstellar densities, abundances, andcloud structure in the Galaxy, using the International UltravioletExplorer (IUE) satellite. Equivalent widths of 18 ultraviolet resonancetransitions are presented and column densities for Si II, Mn II, Fe II,S II, and Zn II toward 261 early-type stars are derived. Theseequivalent widths and column densities agree within the stated errors ofearlier Copernicus, BUSS, or IUE surveys of Mn II, Fe II, S II, and ZnII for 45 stars in common. The column densities are derived fromsingle-component curves of growth with a common b-value based on that ofFe II and Si II.
|IUE-IRAS studies of the infrared cirrus|
The 60 and 100 micron cirrus emission around 256 lines of sight in theIRAS all-sky survey was measured, and the flux averages were used tostudy the distribution, variations, and correlations of the IRASinfrared cirrus fluxes with various interstellar parameters. It wasfound that the 60 and 100 micron fluxes correlate with the depletion ofSi and show a trend with the depletion of Fe for 51 lines of sighttoward the Galactic halo. No correlation was found with the abundancesof Si, Mn, Fe, S, or Zn or with abundance ratios for the full sample of256 stars. An abundance ratio of about 3 x 10 to the 7th by numberrelative to H was derived from 60 and 100 micron flux ratios and the Hcolumn along the line of sight; this ratio appears to decrease by afactor of 10 into the halo.
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