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 λ Bootis stars with composite spectraWe examine the large sample of λ Boo candidates collected inTable 1 of Gerbaldi et al. (\cite{Gerbaldi2003}) to see how many of themshow composite spectra. Of the 132 λ Boo candidates we identify22 which definitely show composite spectra and 15 more for which thereare good reasons to suspect a composite spectrum. The percentage ofλ Boo candidates with composite spectra is therefore >17% andpossibly considerably higher. For such stars the λ Booclassification should be reconsidered taking into account the fact thattheir spectra are composite. We argue that some of the underabundancesreported in the literature may simply be the result of the failure toconsider the composite nature of the spectra. This leads to thelegitimate suspicion that some, if not all, the λ Boo candidatesare not chemically peculiar at all. A thorough analysis of even a singleone of the λ Boo candidates with composite spectra, in which thecomposite nature of the spectrum is duly considered, which woulddemonstrate that the chemical peculiarities persist, would clear thedoubt we presently have that the stars with composite spectra may not beλ Boo stars at all.Based on observations collected at ESO (Echelec spectrograph) and at TBL(Telescope Bernard Lyot) of the Pic du Midi Observatory (France). The heterogeneous class of lambda Bootis starsWe demonstrate that it is arduous to define the lambda Boo stars as aclass of objects exhibiting uniform abundance peculiarities which wouldbe generated by a mechanism altering the structure of their atmosphericlayers. We collected the stars classified as lambda Boo up to now anddiscuss their properties, in particular the important percentage ofconfirmed binaries producing composite spectra (including our adaptiveoptics observations) and of misclassified objects. The unexplained RVvariables (and thus suspected binaries), the known SB for which we lackinformation on the companion, the stars with an UV flux inconsistentwith their classification, and the fast rotating stars for which noaccurate abundance analysis can be performed, are also reviewed.Partly based on observations collected at the CFH Telescope (Hawaii) andat TBL of the Pic du Midi Observatory (France).Table \ref{tab5} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org 3D mapping of the dense interstellar gas around the Local BubbleWe present intermediate results from a long-term program of mapping theneutral absorption characteristics of the local interstellar medium,motivated by the availability of accurate and consistent parallaxes fromthe Hipparcos satellite. Equivalent widths of the interstellar NaID-line doublet at 5890 Å are presented for the lines-of-sighttowards some 311 new target stars lying within ~ 350 pc of the Sun.Using these data, together with NaI absorption measurements towards afurther ~ 240 nearby targets published in the literature (for many ofthem, in the directions of molecular clouds), and the ~ 450lines-of-sight already presented by (Sfeir et al. \cite{sfeir99}), weshow 3D absorption maps of the local distribution of neutral gas towards1005 sight-lines with Hipparcos distances as viewed from a variety ofdifferent galactic projections.The data are synthesized by means of two complementary methods, (i) bymapping of iso-equivalent width contours, and (ii) by densitydistribution calculation from the inversion of column-densities, amethod devised by Vergely et al. (\cite{vergely01}). Our present dataconfirms the view that the local cavity is deficient in cold and neutralinterstellar gas. The closest dense and cold gas wall'', in the firstquadrant, is at ~ 55-60 pc. There are a few isolated clouds at closerdistance, if the detected absorption is not produced by circumstellarmaterial.The maps reveal narrow or wide interstellar tunnels'' which connectthe Local Bubble to surrounding cavities, as predicted by the model ofCox & Smith (1974). In particular, one of these tunnels, defined bystars at 300 to 600 pc from the Sun showing negligible sodiumabsorption, connects the well known CMa void (Gry et al. \cite{gry85}),which is part of the Local Bubble, with the supershell GSH 238+00+09(Heiles \cite{heiles98}). High latitude lines-of-sight with the smallestabsorption are found in two chimneys'', whose directions areperpendicular to the Gould belt plane. The maps show that the LocalBubble is squeezed'' by surrounding shells in a complicated patternand suggest that its pressure is smaller than in those expandingregions.We discuss the locations of several HI and molecular clouds. Usingcomparisons between NaI and HI or CO velocities, in some cases we areable to improve the constraints on their distances. According to thevelocity criteria, MBM 33-37, MBM 16-18, UT 3-7, and MBM 54-55 arecloser than ~ 100 pc, and MBM 40 is closer than 80 pc. Dense HI cloudsare seen at less than 90 pc and 85 pc in the directions of the MBM 12and MBM 41-43 clouds respectively, but the molecular clouds themselvesmay be far beyond. The above closest molecular clouds are located at theneutral boundary of the Bubble. Only one translucent cloud, G192-67, isclearly embedded within the LB and well isolated.These maps of the distribution of local neutral interstellar NaI gas arealso briefly compared with the distribution of both interstellar dustand neutral HI gas within 300 pc.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp:cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/447 The status of Galactic field λ Bootis stars in the post-Hipparcos eraThe λ Bootis stars are Population I, late B- to early F-typestars, with moderate to extreme (up to a factor 100) surfaceunderabundances of most Fe-peak elements and solar abundances of lighterelements (C, N, O and S). To put constraints on the various existingtheories that try to explain these peculiar stars, we investigate theobservational properties of λ Bootis stars compared with areference sample of normal stars. Using various photometric systems andHipparcos data, we analyse the validity of standard photometriccalibrations, elemental abundances, and Galactic space motions. Therecrystallizes a clear picture of a homogeneous group of Population Iobjects found at all stages of their main-sequence evolution, with apeak at about 1 Gyr. No correlation of astrophysical parameters such asthe projected rotational velocities or elemental abundances with age isfound, suggesting that the a priori unknown mechanism, which createsλ Bootis stars, works continuously for late B- to early F-typestars in all stages of main-sequence evolution. Surprisingly, the sodiumabundances seem to indicate an interaction between the stars and theirlocal environment. The elemental abundance pattern of twenty lambda Bootis candidate starsDetailed elemental abundances were derived for twenty bona fide lambdaBootis as well as two MK standard stars. Other than LTE abundances forten elements (including C and O), NLTE values for Na were determined.The group of lambda Bootis stars consists of non-magnetic, Population I,late B to early F-type dwarfs with a typical abundance pattern (Fe-peakelements being underabundant whereas C, N, O and S being almost solarabundant). Since classification resolution spectroscopy in the opticaldomain is not capable of determining the abundance of the lightelements, a detailed abundance analysis is the ultimate test for themembership of an object to this group. Another important point is thedetection of apparent spectroscopic binary systems in which two solarabundance objects mimic one metal-weak star, as proposed as a workinghypothesis by Faraggiana & Bonifacio (\cite{farag99}). From twentyprogram stars we are able to confirm or establish the membership fornine objects (HD 23258, HD 36726, HD 40588, HD 74911, HD 84123, HD91130, HD 106223, HD 111604 and HD 290799). Five stars (HD 90821, HD98772, HD 103483, HD 108765 and HD 261904) can be definitely ruled outas being members of the lambda Bootis group whereas no unambiguousdecision can be drawn for another six stars (HD 66684, HD 105058, HD120500, HD 141851, HD 201184 and HD 294253). One very important resultis the apparent overabundances found for Na which cannot be explained byaccretion or mass-loss alone. Based on observations from theOsservatorio Astronomico di Padova-Asiago, McDonald Observatory, KittPeak National Observatory and Observatório do Pico dosDias-LNA/CNPq/MCT. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 On the Period-Luminosity-Colour-Metallicity relation and the pulsational characteristics of lambda Bootis type starsGenerally, chemical peculiarity found for stars on the upper mainsequence excludes delta Scuti type pulsation (e.g. Ap and Am stars), butfor the group of lambda Bootis stars it is just the opposite. This makesthem very interesting for asteroseismological investigations. The groupof lambda Bootis type stars comprises late B- to early F-type,Population I objects which are basically metal weak, in particular theFe group elements, but with the clear exception of C, N, O and S. Thepresent work is a continuation of the studies by Paunzen et al.(\cite{Pau97}, \cite{Pau98}), who presented first results on thepulsational characteristics of the lambda Bootis stars. Since then, wehave observed 22 additional objects; we found eight new pulsators andconfirmed another one. Furthermore, new spectroscopic data (Paunzen\cite{Pau01}) allowed us to sort out misidentified candidates and to addtrue members to the group. From 67 members of this group, only two arenot photometrically investigated yet which makes our analysis highlyrepresentative. We have compared our results on the pulsationalbehaviour of the lambda Bootis stars with those of a sample of deltaScuti type objects. We find that at least 70% of all lambda Bootis typestars inside the classical instability strip pulsate, and they do sowith high overtone modes (Q < 0.020 d). Only a few stars, if any,pulsate in the fundamental mode. Our photometric results are inexcellent agreement with the spectroscopic work on high-degree nonradialpulsations by Bohlender et al. (\cite{Boh99}). Compared to the deltaScuti stars, the cool and hot borders of the instability strip of thelambda Bootis stars are shifted by about 25 mmag, towards smaller(b-y)_0. Using published abundances and the metallicity sensitiveindices of the Geneva 7-colour and Strömgren uvbybeta systems, wehave derived [Z] values which describe the surface abundance of theheavier elements for the group members. We find that thePeriod-Luminosity-Colour relation for the group of lambda Bootis starsis within the errors identical with that of the normal delta Scutistars. No clear evidence for a statistically significant metallicityterm was detected. Based on observations from the Austrian AutomaticPhotoelectric Telescope (Fairborn Observatory), SAAO and Siding SpringObservatory. A spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootis stars. III. Final resultsIn the third paper of a series dedicated to the spectroscopic survey fornew lambda Bootis stars, we present all new and confirmed members of thegroup as well as a detailed analysis of the observed sample. The natureof this small group of chemically peculiar stars of the upper mainsequence still challenges our understanding of processes like diffusion,mass-loss and accretion. The typical abundances pattern (nearly solarvalues for C, N, O and S whereas the Fe-peak elements are moderate tostrong underabundant) can still not be explained by any proposed theory.Hence, the significant increase of new members gives the opportunity toinvestigate the group properties in more detail. We report the discoveryof 26 new members of the group and the confirmation of 18 candidatesfrom the literature. This almost triples the number of known lambdaBootis stars. The existence of one member in the young open cluster NGC2264 and four members in the Orion OB1 association proves that thelambda Bootis phenomenon already works at very early stages of stellarevolution. Recent results from the Hipparcos mission have shown that thewell established lambda Bootis stars of the Galactic field comprise thewhole area from the Zero Age Main Sequence to the Terminal Age MainSequence (~ 109 yr for an A-type star). There is a continuoustransition between very young and rather evolved evolutionary stages. Wefind that the overall percentage of lambda Bootis type among all normaltype stars in the spectral range from B8 to F4 is 2% in the Galacticfield as well as in open clusters. Furthermore, 44 metal-weak objectsare listed which might be connected with the lambda Bootis phenomenon.Our biased sample (chosen by photometric boxes) is not distinguishedfrom all A-type stars in the corresponding spectral region by therotational velocity distribution. Only for the luminosity classes IV andIII (especially for the cooler program stars) the determined mean v sini values are very high compared to those of the literature. Based onobservations from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, OsservatorioAstronomico di Padova-Asiago, Observatório do Pico dosDias-LNA/CNPq/MCT, Chews Ridge Observatory (MIRA) and University ofToronto Southern Observatory (Las Campanas). Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 On the Variability of A3-F0 Luminosity Class III-V StarsI investigate the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of A3-F0 stars ofluminosity classes III-V to learn about their variability and identify afew stars for which further study is desirable. The pulsation and evolution of lambda Bootis stars.Not Available Excitation and visibility of high-degree modes in starsObservational evidence for excitation of non-radial modes in stars isconfronted with the results of linear stability surveys for stellarmodels. We consider various types of pulsators on the upper mainsequence as well as stars in the Cepheid strip. Our stability surveycovers the whole range of spherical harmonic degrees, l, whereinstability is found. There is fair agreement between the theoreticalinstability strip and the location of ζ Oph stars, but the observedand calculated periods do not agree in some stars. We suggest thateither pulsation is not responsible for the ζ Oph phenomenon orelse there are serious errors in mode identification in these cases. Wedo not find instability at long periods for early B-type stars,supporting the idea that pulsation is not responsible for the periodicvariations in Be stars. The agreement between the observed andcalculated periods of high-degree modes in δ Sct stars is not verysatisfactory. This is attributed to problems in mode identification. Wediscuss unstable modes of high degree in Cepheid models as a possiblemechanism for the low-amplitude radial velocities seen in some starswithin the instability strip. We find, however, that the observedperiods are at least a factor of 2 longer than the calculated periods.Finally, we discuss the possibility of observing modes of high degreephotometrically. We suggest that a large number of high-degree modes maybecome detectable by future space-borne photometric missions. Theconfusion arising from these modes may greatly reduce the value of suchobservations for asteroseismology. However, they will be very importantin studying the mechanism of mode selection. A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 StarsUltraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories. The incidence of nonradial pulsation in the lambda Bootis starsWe have conducted a high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopicsurvey of the members of the peculiar lambda Boo stars accessible fromthe Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to investigate the incidence ofhigh-degree nonradial pulsation (NRP) in these metal-deficient stars. Of16 objects observed more than once, 9 show conclusive evidence of suchNRP, which confirms that pulsational instability is a common phenomenonin the lambda Boo class. The widespread presence of NRP in the lambdaBoo stars indirectly supports the accretion/diffusion scenario for theformation of these objects, but unfortunately does not rule out otherpossible causes for the phenomena. However, extensive time-seriesphotometry and spectroscopy of several particularly interestingpulsating members of the class noted here should provideasteroseismologists with the eigenfrequency data needed to resolve thecurrent debate concerning the evolutionary status, and hence, the originof these peculiar stars. From our survey, we also identify a set of fourstars, including lambda Boo itself, with similar fundamental parametersbut remarkably different pulsation characteristic. These stars may offervital clues as to the physical excitation of lambda Boo pulsations.Figs.\,2--5, 7--10 are only available in the electronic version. How many lambda Bootis stars are binaries?In the attempt to shed new light on the lambda Boo phenomenon weanalyzed the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic characteristicsof stars out of a list of recently selected lambda Boo candidates. Weshow that the class is still ill-defined and discuss the possibilitythat some, if not most stars presently classified as lambda Boo, are infact binary pairs and that peculiar abundances may not correspond toactual values if the average values of the atmospheric parameters{Teff} and log g are assumed and the effect of veiling is nottaken into account. Partly based on data from the ESA Hipparcosastrometry satellite. 1996 multisite photometric and spectral campaign on the lambda Boo star 29 CYGNo abstract submitted The incidence of nonradial pulsation in the lambda Bootis starsWe have completed a high-resolution, high-signal-to-noise, spectroscopicsurvey of the northern members of the peculiar lambda Boo stars in orderto investigate the frequency of the incidence of nonradial pulsation(NRP) in these metal-deficient stars. Of 18 objects observed, 9 showconclusive evidence of NRP, which suggests that pulsation instability isa common phenomenon in the lambda Boo class. New lambda Bootis stars with a shellWe publish here the second part of our spectroscopic survey at highdispersion of some known and suspected lambda Bootis stars with a viewto detecting circumstellar shell features. Eight stars of our sampleexhibit such features. These stars are fast rotators, a result which isin line with Hohlweger and Rentzsch-Holm's study (1995). The analysis ofthe photometric data has allowed us to confirm the exclusion of a fewstars misclassified from the lambda Bootis group. Pulsation of the lambda Bootis stars HD 111786 and HD 142994The detection of possible nonradial pulsation modes among some lambdaBootis stars offers the prospect of using asteroseismology to determinetheir masses and ages, thereby testing competing theories for the originof their chemical peculiarities. As a step toward this goal, weconducted multi-site photometric campaigns spanning two weeks each fortwo lambda Bootis stars already known to show oscillations with periodsfrom 0.75 to 4 hr: HD 111786} \def\2{HD 142994 and \2. Comparison of theobserved eigenfrequency spectrum with model eigenmode spectra canconstrain the age of the star. Since two of the main proposed mechanismsfor the lambda Bootis phenomenon (mass loss coupled with diffusion, andaccretion) predict widely different stellar ages, such an analysis coulddistinguish between these options. Frequency analysis of campaign datayielded four frequencies for each program star. The best matches of ourobserved eigenfrequencies to Main Sequence stellar models (which includethe effects of rotation on the stellar structure and the pulsationmodes) suggest that both stars are too far from the Zero-Age MainSequence, to be consistent with the widely favoured accretion scenario.However, we caution that the results are preliminary and suggest futureobserving strategies to confirm/deny this finding. Based on observationsobtained at CTIO, SAAO and with the Hipparcos satellite High-resolution spectroscopy of Vega-like stars - I. Effective temperatures, gravities and photospheric abundancesVega-like stars are young main-sequence stars exhibiting an excessemission of infrared radiation. Modelling this excess depends not onlyon the parameters assigned to the grains, but on those assigned to thestars themselves. In an effort to update and improve the informationavailable on this class of star, we have analysed 13 stars classed asVega-like, having an infrared excess attributable to dust emission,along with two spectral standards which have also been found to showexcess emission from dust. In this, the first of two papers, we derivestellar properties (spectral type, effective temperature and log g) andphotospheric abundances. The spectral types derived revealed that one ofthe sample was a luminosity class III giant, ruling it out of theVega-like class, and two others underwent a significantreclassification. The remainder had their type confirmed. All but twoprogramme stars have been found to be emission-line stars - theiremission-line properties are discussed in Paper II. Attention hasrecently been drawn to the possible link between Vega-like stars and thephotospheric metal-depleted class of A-type stars, the lambda Bootisstars. These latter stars are hypothesized to have obtained theirunderabundances by the accretion of depleted circumstellar gas on to thephotosphere of the star. Since Vega-like stars are expected to havediscs of dust, it might be expected that accretion may cause this samephenomenon. We have analysed four A-type stars in our sample and twoA-type standards, deriving photospheric abundances for up to 10elements. No pattern of underabundance similar to lambda Bootis starswas found, although a depletion of silicon was found in two stars (up to0.86 dex below solar) and of magnesium in one star (0.56 dex lower). Thedepletion could be attributable to the accretion of those elements on tograins in the circumstellar environment of these stars. The discovery of nonradial pulsation in the lambda Bootis star HD 111604.Not Available The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51. The discovery of nonradial pulsation in the λ Bootis star HD 111604.Evidence for high order nonradial pulsation (NRP) has been discovered inthe λ Boo star HD 111604. Analysis of a limited number of spectraof the NaID lines indicate that the mode of oscillation, |m|, isapproximately 20 and NRP features circumnavigate the star every 0.71days. Current models suggest that these objects should be near the ZAMS,and the detection of nonradial pulsation in at least one member of theclass presents the exciting possibility of performing a directmeasurement of its evolutionary state to test this hypothesis. The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Accretion from Circumstellar Discs and the Lambda-Bootis PhenomenonAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1994MNRAS.269..209K&db_key=AST Catalogue of Lambda Bootis CandidatesNot Available Third preliminary catalogue of stars observed with the photoelectric astrolabe of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory.Not Available An Einstein Observatory X-ray survey of main-sequence stars with shallow convection zonesThe results of an X-ray survey of bright late A and early F stars on themain B-V sequence between 0.1 and 0.5 are presented. All the stars wereobserved with the Einstein Observatory for a period of at least 500seconds. The survey results show significantly larger X-ray luminositiesfor the sample binaries than for the single stars. It is suggested thatthe difference is due to the presence of multiple X-ray sources inbinaries. It is shown that the X-ray luminosities for single starsincrease rapidly with increasing color, and that the relation Lx/Lbol isequal to about 10 to the -7th does not hold for A stars. No correlationwas found between X-ray luminosity and projected equatorial rotationvelocity. It is argued on the basis of the observations that X-rayemission in the sample stars originated from coronae. The availableobservational evidence supporting this view is discussed. Further Studies of A-Stars and F-Stars in the Region of the North Galactic Pole - Part Four - a Catalogue of Uvbyr Photometry and Derived QuantitiesNot Available
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