|Discovery of magnetic fields in the βCephei star ξ1 CMa and in several slowly pulsating B stars*|
We present the results of a magnetic survey of a sample of eightβCephei stars and 26 slowly pulsating B (SPBs) stars with the FOcalReducer low dispersion Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. A weakmean longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss isdetected in the βCephei star ξ1CMa and in 13 SPBstars. The star ξ1CMa becomes the third magnetic staramong the βCephei stars. Before our study, the star ζCas wasthe only known magnetic SPB star. All magnetic SPB stars for which wegathered several magnetic field measurements show a field that varies intime. We do not find a relation between the evolution of the magneticfield with stellar age in our small sample. Our observations imply thatβCephei and SPB stars can no longer be considered as classes ofnon-magnetic pulsators, but the effect of the fields on the oscillationproperties remains to be studied.
|Evolution of magnetic fields in stars across the upper main sequence: I. Catalogue of magnetic field measurements with FORS 1 at the VLT|
To properly understand the physics of Ap and Bp stars it is particularlyimportant to identify the origin of their magnetic fields. For that, anaccurate knowledge of the evolutionary state of stars that have ameasured magnetic field is an important diagnostic. Previous resultsbased on a small and possibly biased sample suggest that thedistribution of magnetic stars with mass below 3 M_ȯ in the H-Rdiagram differs from that of normal stars in the same mass range (Hubriget al. 2000). In contrast, higher mass magnetic Bp stars may well occupythe whole main-sequence width (Hubrig, Schöller & North 2005b).In order to rediscuss the evolutionary state of upper main sequencemagnetic stars, we define a larger and bias-free sample of Ap and Bpstars with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes and reliably determinedlongitudinal magnetic fields. We used FORS 1 at the VLT in itsspectropolarimetric mode to measure the magnetic field in chemicallypeculiar stars where it was unknown or poorly known as yet. In thisfirst paper we present our results of the mean longitudinal magneticfield measurements in 136 stars. Our sample consists of 105 Ap and Bpstars, two PGa stars, 17 HgMn stars, three normal stars, and nine SPBstars. A magnetic field was for the first time detected in 57 Ap and Bpstars, in four HgMn stars, one PGa star, one normal B-type star and fourSPB stars.
|Evolution of interacting binaries with a B type primary at birth|
We revisited the analytical expression for the mass ratio distributionfor non-evolved binaries with a B type primary. Selection effectsgoverning the observations were taken into account in order to comparetheory with observations. Theory was optimized so as to fit best withthe observed q-distribution of SB1s and SB2s. The accuracy of thistheoretical mass ratio distribution function is severely hindered by theuncertainties on the observations. We present a library of evolutionarycomputations for binaries with a B type primary at birth. Some liberalcomputations including loss of mass and angular momentum during binaryevolution are added to an extensive grid of conservative calculations.Our computations are compared statistically to the observeddistributions of orbital periods and mass ratios of Algols. ConservativeRoche Lobe Over Flow (RLOF) reproduces the observed distribution oforbital periods but fails to explain the observed mass ratios in therange q in [0.4-1]. In order to obtain a better fit the binaries have tolose a significant amount of matter, without losing much angularmomentum.
|Revealing the nature of double-periodic blue variables in the Magellanic Clouds|
We present the first spectroscopic data for a sample of the recentlydiscovered blue double-periodic variables in the Magellanic Clouds. Theoptical spectrum of these objects is dominated by Balmer and heliumabsorption lines and a continuum with a blue or sometimes flat slope.Spectral classification yields B spectral types and luminosity classesmostly of type III. However, the Hβ absorption line is weaker thanexpected for the spectral classification in most objects. For twoobjects, OGLE 05060009-6855025 and OGLE 05195898-6917013 we obtainedtime-resolved spectroscopy, finding radial velocity variationsconsistent with binarity. Phasing the short-term photometric variabilityof these two systems with their spectroscopic ephemeris, we find thatthey can be interpreted as ellipsoidal variations of the brightercomponent in a close binary system. From the analysis of theirshort-term light curves and radial velocities, we estimate that thecooler component could be a B-type dwarf. Our findings support thehypothesis that double-periodic variables are close binary systemsconsisting of two B-type stars. The shorter periodicity in non-eclipsingsystems should be the ellipsoidal variation of the more evolvedcomponent. Regarding the long-term periodicity, we find their origin inor around the brighter star, as the oscillations virtually disappear atprimary eclipse. Their nature remains unknown, at the present time. Wealso report the discovery of three (two of them eclipsing) newdouble-periodic variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud. One of themshows a shortening of the long-term period by approximately 20 per centin a couple of cycles, which coincides with an increase of the maximumoscillation brightness.
|A Photometric and Spectroscopic Study of 3 Vulpeculae: An Observer's Nightmare|
We describe photometry of 3 Vulpeculae obtained with the Four CollegeAutomated Photoelectric Telescope and spectroscopy obtained with the1.22 m telescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory. We haveanalyzed differential uvby photometric observations obtained over 7 yr.Three main frequencies (f1=0.9719, f2=0.7923, andf3=0.8553 cycles day-1) were found, as well as asum frequency (f1+f2=1.76420 cyclesday-1). A study of the photographic region usinghigh-dispersion spectrograms obtained with a Reticon detector at thecoudé spectrograph confirms the variable nature of 3 Vul as a 53Persei star and indicates that the star's abundances are normal formain-sequence band B stars. The new spectra were combined with thosepreviously published to confirm an orbital period very close to 1 yr.Finally, comparison with models yielded both a mass (4.16Msolar) and an age (25 Myr), and a mass range for thecompanion (0.6-1.1 Msolar). With an orbital period of almost1 yr and a pulsation period of almost 1 day, this star is indeed anobserver's nightmare.
|The Carina Spiral Feature: Strömgren-Hβ photometry approach. I. The photometric data-base|
A data-base collating all uvbybeta photometry available at present forO-B9 stars brighter than 10th visual magnitude in the field of theCarina Spiral Feature is presented. The completeness and homogeneity ofthe data-base are discussed.Based on CDS data.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/410/523
|Photometric modelling of slowly pulsating B stars|
The photometric characteristics of slowly pulsating B stars areinvestigated using a numerical approach. Stability calculations areperformed for a set of stellar models representative of the mid-B type,using a non-radial non-adiabatic pulsation code. The results from thesecalculations are used to synthesize photometry, in several commonsystems, for unstable modes of harmonic degrees l=1...4. Focusing on theGeneva system for illustrative purposes, a variety of techniques areemployed to analyse and visualize the synthetic data, including the useof multicolour-amplitudes and amplitude-phase diagnostic diagrams. Oneoutstanding aspect of the analysis is the discovery, for the l=2...4modes, of `inter-term cancellation' (ITC) - the process of destructiveinterference between the flux variations originating from surfacetemperature perturbations and those arising from radius perturbations.The ITC can be severe enough that a mode may be excited to a significantamplitude, and yet exhibit levels of photometric variability that fallbelow typical observational detection thresholds. Furthermore, it canaffect not only the light variations in a given photometric passband,but also the variations of the bolometric flux. However, thecancellation is dependent on wavelength, and will not occur to the samedegree in more than one passband. Therefore, simultaneous observation ina multitude of passbands represents the best approach to ensuring thatno modes are overlooked during searches for variability in B-type stars.A consequence of ITC is that ratios between the variability amplitude,in differing passbands, become very sensitive towards mode-to-modechanges in the pulsation. This increased sensitivity will tend tocomplicate any attempts at identifying the harmonic degrees of the modesresponsible for observed variability. However, the cancellation alsointroduces significant phase differences between the light variations ineach passband, especially for the l=3 and l=4 modes. On the grounds thatcorrespondingly large phase differences are not seen in observationaldata, it is argued that the variability seen in slowly pulsating B starscan tentatively be attributed to l=1 and l=2 modes.
|A study of bright southern slowly pulsating B stars. II. The intrinsic frequencies|
We present the results of detailed frequency analyses of a sample ofthirteen confirmed slowly pulsating B stars. Our analysis is based on acombination of elaborate photometric and spectroscopic data-sets. Theoriginal sample consists of a mixture of five confirmed slowly pulsatingB stars and twelve candidate slowly pulsating B stars discovered thanksto the photometric measurements of the HIPPARCOS satellite. HD 55522 andHD 131120 turn out to be chemically peculiar stars. HD 169978 and HD69144 are two ellipsoidal variables for which no intrinsic variabilityis found. At least nine of the thirteen studied slowly pulsating B starsare multi-periodic. For HD 74195, HD 85953, HD 123515 and HD 215573, theobserved frequency spacings suggest that we are dealing with frequencymultiplets. For the apparent mono-periodic binary HD 24587, it is notclear if the observed variations are induced by stellar pulsation and/orby rotation modulation. We highlight the statistical character of theobserved pulsational properties of our sample. Based on observationscollected with the CAT Telescope of the European Southern Observatoryand with the Swiss Photometric Telescope of the Geneva Observatory, bothsituated at La Silla in Chile Full Tables 2-4, 6-15 are only availablein electronic form at the CDS via anounymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/965
|Multiperiodicities from the Hipparcos epoch photometry and possible pulsation in early A-type stars|
A selection criterion based on the relative strength of the largestpeaks in the amplitude spectra, and an information criterion are used incombination to search for multiperiodicities in Hipparcos epochphotometry. The method is applied to all stars which have beenclassified as variable in the Hipparcos catalogue: periodic, unsolvedand microvariables. Results are assessed critically: although there aremany problems arising from aliasing, there are also a number ofinteresting frequency combinations which deserve further investigation.One such result is the possible occurrence of multiple periods of theorder of a day in a few early A-type stars. The Hipparcos catalogue alsocontains a number of these stars with single periodicities: such starswith no obvious variability classifications are listed, and informationabout their properties (e.g., radial velocity variations) discussed.These stars may constitute a new class of pulsators.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|A study of bright southern slowly pulsating B stars. I. Determination of the orbital parameters and of the main frequency of the spectroscopic binaries|
In 1996, we started a long-term spectroscopic and photometric study of17 southern Slowly Pulsating B-stars. In this paper, we report ourfinding that at least 8 of them turn out to be spectroscopic binaries.We present the results of the determination of the orbits from thespectroscopic data. There is a great variety in the derived orbits.HD123515 and HD140873 were known as single-lined spectroscopic binaries,but both turn out to be double-lined. All the others binaries aresingle-lined. For HD140873 and HD177863, we find orbits with a largeeccentricity of respectively e=0.731 +/- 0.006 and e=0.603 +/- 0.007.HD69144, HD92287 and HD169978 are three circular binaries with a veryshort orbital period (a few days). Since their photometric measurementsare dominated by a (close to) sinusoidal variation with twice theorbital frequency, these stars are ellipsoidal variables. Their orbitalperiods are of the same order of magnitude as the periods of pulsation.After removing the orbit, we find the same first frequency in theresidual radial velocities as in the gathered photometric measurementsfor 6 stars. For HD69144 and HD169978 we did not yet succeed in derivingan intrinsic period, although HD69144 has prominent line profilevariations. HD169978 was misclassified as an SPB. Based on observationscollected with the CAT Telescope of the European Southern Observatoryand with the Swiss Photometric Telescope of the Geneva Observatory, bothsituated at La Silla in Chile
|The 74th Special Name-list of Variable Stars|
We present the Name-list introducing GCVS names for 3153 variable starsdiscovered by the Hipparcos mission.
|Selection of a sample of bright southern Slowly Pulsating B Stars for long-term photometric and spectroscopic monitoring|
The photometric experiment on Hipparcos has led to the discovery of,among other types of variables, a large amount of new Slowly Pulsating BStars. We have selected twelve bright southern stars of this sample,together with five previously known Slowly Pulsating B Stars, forspectroscopic and photometric monitoring. These seventeen stars havespectral types ranging from B 2 up to B 9 and thus fully cover theinstability strip. We here present the results of a preliminary analysisof our data and show that our sample is an extremely important one toperform seismology of intermediate-massive stars. In particular, we findthat all but one of the selected stars exhibit clear line-profilevariability. The broader-lined Slowly Pulsating B Stars tend to havemore complex line-profile variations. One of the previously known SlowlyPulsating B stars was known to be a binary. Besides this star, anothersix of the selected Slowly Pulsating B stars turn out to be multiplesystems. Five of these seven binaries have large rotational velocitiesand complicated line-profile variations with moving subfeatures. It isnot yet clear whether or not the binarity results in a particularspectrum of excited modes. Based on observations collected with the CATTelescope of the European Southern Observatory and with the SwissPhotometric Telescope of the Geneva Observatory, both situated at LaSilla in Chile
|Stromgren and Hβ photometry of OB stars in the region of the Carina Spiral Feature|
Stromgren and Hβ photometry of 130 stars in the Carina section ofthe Milky Way is presented. The color excesses and the distances of allstars are obtained. A good agreement is found between the CM and HRdiagrams and the spatial distribution of these stars. Tables 1, 2, 4 and5 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to22.214.171.124 or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Study of an unbiased sample of B stars observed with Hipparcos: the discovery of a large amount of new slowly pulsating B stars|
We present a classification of 267 new variable B-type stars discoveredby Hipparcos. We have used two different classification schemes and theyboth result in only a few new beta Cephei stars, a huge number of newslowly pulsating B stars, quite some supergiants with alpha Cyg-typevariations and variable CP stars, and further some new periodic Be starsand eclipsing binaries. Our results clearly point out the biased naturetowards short-period variables of earlier, ground-based surveys ofvariable stars. The position of the new beta Cephei stars and slowlypulsating B stars in the HR diagram is determined by means of Genevaphotometry and is confronted with the most recent calculations of theinstability strips for both groups of variables. We find that the newbeta Cephei stars are situated in the blue part of the instability stripand that the new slowly pulsating B stars almost fully cover thetheoretical instability domain determined for such stars. Thesupergiants with alpha Cyg-type variations are situated between theinstability strips of the beta Cephei and the slowly pulsating B starson the one hand and previously known supergiants that exhibitmicrovariations on the other hand. This suggests some connection betweenthe variability caused by the kappa mechanism acting in a zone ofpartially ionised metals and the unknown cause of the variations insupergiants.
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Long-term photometry of Be stars. II. Periodic variations on time scales of days to months.|
Stroemgren differential uvby photometry of 4 Be stars is analysed. Thedata were taken during the time interval 1983-1994 in the framework ofthe Long-Term Photometry of Variables project at La Silla. We detectedin these four stars periodic photometric variations with periods between4 and 93 days. The two cases with the longest periods (FT CMa withP=87.9d and FY CMa with P=92.7d) did not have any previously knownperiodic variability. In three of the four cases the periodicoscillation was coherent and always present during the 10 years ofmonitoring.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Ubvy-Beta Photometry of 100 Stars in the Region of Eta-Carinae|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1994MNRAS.269..857S&db_key=AST
|Distribution of hot stars and interstellar dust in Carina.|
|Longterm Photometry of Variables at ESO - Part Two - the Second Data Catalogue 1986-1990|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993A&AS..102...79S&db_key=AST
|Bright blue stars in VELA observed with the 'Glazar' space telescope|
Seventy-one stars brighter than about 9 m have been detected at 1640 Ain the Vela region with the space telescope Glazar. It is shown thatmost of the detected stars belong to a B-type stellar association at adistance of 460 pc and to two OB stellar associations at distances of1100 pc and 1700 pc. The existence of B-type stellar association at adistance of 110 pc is suspected. A new O-type star cluster, which is apossible nucleus of the OB stellar association at 1700 pc, has beendetected. The distribution of the absorbing matter in the observed areais studied. We presume that the stars HD 75 063 and 76 534 are probablyembedded in a circumstellar dust shell. All observed stars, includingthose with unknown spectra, are early type stars.
|Observations of a region of the Carina OB 1 association using the "Glazar" space telescope.|
|Long-term photometry of variables at ESO. I - The first data catalogue (1982-1986)|
This paper presents the catalog of photometric data in the Stromgrensystem obtained during the first four years (October 1982 - September1986) of the Long-Term Photometry of Variables (LTPV) program at ESO.The data are available in computer-readable form.
|Walraven photometry of nearby southern OB associations|
Homogeneous Walraven (VBLUW) photometry is presented for 5260 stars inthe regions of five nearby southern OB associations: Scorpio Centaurus(Sco OB2), Orion OB1, Canis Major OB1, Monoceros OB1, and Scutum OB2.Derived V and (B - V) in the Johnson system are included.
|Empirical temperature calibrations for early-type stars|
Three temperature calibrations of suitable photometric quantities havebeen derived for O and B stars. A sample of 120 stars with reliableT(eff.) determinations has been used for establishing each calibration.The different calibrations have been critically discussed and compared.Temperature determinations for 1009 program stars have been obtainedwith an accuracy of the order of 10 percent.
|A photometric survey of the bright southern Be stars|
Repeated UBV photometric measurements were made of the 86 bright Bestars south of declination -20 deg, and a network of comparison starswas set up. From a statistical study of the differential photometry itwas found that short- or intermediate-term variability seems to beoccurring in about half of the Be stars, and to be more evident in thestars of earlier spectral type. It was also possible to identify 11individual short- or intermediate-term variables. Four of these (all ofearly B spectral type) appear to exhibit significant variability on atime-scale of a day or less. More intensive observations of one of thesestars, 28 Omega CMA, indicate short-term variations consistent with thepublished spectroscopic period of 1.37 day.
|Instrumental effects and the Stroemgren photometric system|
The extent to which the use of different photometers can affect resultson stellar color indices was investigated by simultaneously observing asample of widely different stars with several uvby photometric systemsavailable at the ESO, La Silla, Chile. In one instance, the ESO 50-cmtelescope and the four-channel photometer at the Danish 50-cm telescopewere used simultaneously. The reductions were performed separately oneach data set, using a linear color transformation procedure. Theresults agree with theoretical investigations which showed thatsubstantial errors can arise from the nonconformity of passbands. It isemphasized that it is necessary to use separate color transformationsfor various stellar types and classes and for different interstellarreddenings.
|A catalog of ultraviolet interstellar extinction excesses for 1415 stars|
Ultraviolet interstellar extinction excesses are presented for 1415stars with spectral types B7 and earlier. The excesses with respect to Vare derived from Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS) 5-channel UVphotometry at central wavelengths of approximately 1550, 1800, 2500, and3300 A. A measure of the excess extinction in the 2200-A extinction bumpis also given. The data are valuable for investigating the systematicsof peculiar interstellar extinction and for studying the character of UVinterstellar extinction in the general direction of stars for which theextinction-curve shape is unknown.
|The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematics|
Published uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter.