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 CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 J - K DENIS photometry of a VLTI-selected sample of bright southern starsWe present a photometric survey of bright southern stars carried outusing the DENIS instrument equipped with attenuating filters. Theobservations were carried out not using the survey mode of DENIS, butwith individual target pointings. This project was stimulated by theneed to obtain near-infrared photometry of stars to be used in earlycommissioning observations of the ESO Very Large TelescopeInterferometer, and in particular to establish a network of brightcalibrator sources.We stress that near-infrared photometry is peculiarly lacking for manybright stars. These stars are saturated in 2MASS as well as in regularDENIS observations. The only other observations available for brightinfrared stars are those of the Two Micron Sky Survey dating from overthirty years ago. These were restricted to declinations above≈-30°, and thus cover only about half of the sky accessible fromthe VLTI site.We note that the final 2MASS data release includes photometry of brightstars, obtained by means of point-spread function fitting. However, thismethod only achieves about 30% accuracy, which is not sufficient formost applications.In this work, we present photometry for over 600 stars, each with atleast one and up to eight measurements, in the J and K filters. Typicalaccuracy is at the level of 0\fm05 and 0\fm04 in the J and K_s bands,respectively.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/413/1037 Technetium and the third dredge up in AGB stars. I. Field starsWe searched for Tc in a sample of long period variables selected bystellar luminosity derived from Hipparcos parallaxes. Tc, as an unstables-process element, is a good indicator for the evolutionary status ofstars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). In this paper we study theoccurrence of Tc as a function of luminosity to provide constraints onthe minimum luminosity for the third dredge up as estimated from recentstellar evolution models.A large number of AGB stars above the estimated theoretical limit forthe third dredge up are found not to show Tc. We confirm previousfindings that only a small fraction of the semiregular variables show Tclines in their spectra. Contrary to earlier results by Little et al.(\cite{llmb87}) we find also a significant number of Miras without Tc.The presence and absence of Tc is discussed in relation to the massdistribution of AGB stars. We find that a large fraction of the stars ofour sample must have current masses of less than 1.5 Msun .Combining our findings with stellar evolution scenarios we conclude thatthe fraction of time a star is observed as a SRV or a Mira is dependenton its mass.Partly based on observations collected at the European SouthernObservatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO-Programme 65.L-0317(A)). Reprocessing the Hipparcos data of evolved stars. III. Revised Hipparcos period-luminosity relationship for galactic long-period variable starsWe analyze the K band luminosities of a sample of galactic long-periodvariables using parallaxes measured by the Hipparcos mission. Theparallaxes are in most cases re-computed from the Hipparcos IntermediateAstrometric Data using improved astrometric fits and chromaticitycorrections. The K band magnitudes are taken from the literature andfrom measurements by COBE, and are corrected for interstellar andcircumstellar extinction. The sample contains stars of several spectraltypes: M, S and C, and of several variability classes: Mira, semiregularSRa, and SRb. We find that the distribution of stars in theperiod-luminosity plane is independent of circumstellar chemistry, butthat the different variability types have different P-L distributions.Both the Mira variables and the SRb variables have reasonablywell-defined period-luminosity relationships, but with very differentslopes. The SRa variables are distributed between the two classes,suggesting that they are a mixture of Miras and SRb, rather than aseparate class of stars. New period-luminosity relationships are derivedbased on our revised Hipparcos parallaxes. The Miras show a similarperiod-luminosity relationship to that found for Large Magellanic CloudMiras by Feast et al. (\cite{Feast-1989:a}). The maximum absolute Kmagnitude of the sample is about -8.2 for both Miras and semi-regularstars, only slightly fainter than the expected AGB limit. We show thatthe stars with the longest periods (P>400 d) have high mass lossrates and are almost all Mira variables.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA \cite{Hipparcos}).Table \ref{Tab:data1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/993 Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systemsFor Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997 Do red giant stars pulsate in high overtones?About 30 photometrically variable red giant stars have periods less than10d, as determined by the compilers of the Hipparcos Catalogue fromHipparcos photometric measurements. These periods, when combined withestimates of the radii and masses of these stars, and with pulsationtheory, imply that these stars are pulsating in very high overtones. Wepresent several pieces of evidence which suggest that the periods may bespurious, as a result of the particular aliasing properties of theHipparcos photometry. We conclude that the evidence for high-overtonepulsation in red giant stars is equivocal. CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrationsIn this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr). Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Rapidly oscillating M giant stars?The Hipparcos mission discovered a few dozen M giant stars with periodsP shorter than 10d. Similar stars may be found in other large data basesof new variables (e.g., OGLE). The three possible sources of themagnitude variations - pulsation, starspots and ellipsoidal deformation- are discussed in general terms. The parallaxes and V-I colour indicesare used to calculate radii and temperatures for all M giant variableswith P<100d. Masses are estimated from the positions of the stars ina Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram, using evolutionary tracks. Usingthese data, it is shown that starspots can be ruled out as a variabilitymechanism in almost all cases, and ellipsoidal variations in about halfof the stars. Pulsation in very high-overtone modes appears to be theonly viable explanation for the stars with P<10d. Many of the starsmay be multiperiodic. IRAS data are used to deduce information aboutreddening and circumstellar dust. The apparently low level of mass-loss,as well as the kinematics and the spatial distribution of the stars,indicates that they are from a relatively young (i.e., thin disc) giantstar population. Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem HIPPARCOS BinariesThe ESA Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 12,000 doublestars and discovered 3406 new systems. In addition to these, 4706entries in the Hipparcos Catalogue correspond to double star solutionsthat did not provide the classical parameters of separation and positionangle (rho,theta) but were the so-called problem stars, flagged G,''O,'' V,'' or X'' (field H59 of the main catalog). An additionalsubset of 6981 entries were treated as single objects but classified byHipparcos as suspected nonsingle'' (flag S'' in field H61), thusyielding a total of 11,687 problem stars.'' Of the many ground-basedtechniques for the study of double stars, probably the one with thegreatest potential for exploration of these new and problem Hipparcosbinaries is speckle interferometry. Results are presented from aninspection of 848 new and problem Hipparcos binaries, using botharchival and new speckle observations obtained with the USNO and CHARAspeckle cameras. Period-Luminosity-Colour distribution and classification of Galactic oxygen-rich LPVs. I. Luminosity calibrationsThe absolute K magnitudes and kinematic parameters of about 350oxygen-rich Long-Period Variable stars are calibrated, by means of anup-to-date maximum-likelihood method, using Hipparcos parallaxes andproper motions together with radial velocities and, as additional data,periods and V-K colour indices. Four groups, differing by theirkinematics and mean magnitudes, are found. For each of them, we alsoobtain the distributions of magnitude, period and de-reddened colour ofthe base population, as well as de-biased period-luminosity-colourrelations and their two-dimensional projections. The SRa semiregulars donot seem to constitute a separate class of LPVs. The SRb appear tobelong to two populations of different ages. In a PL diagram, theyconstitute two evolutionary sequences towards the Mira stage. The Mirasof the disk appear to pulsate on a lower-order mode. The slopes of theirde-biased PL and PC relations are found to be very different from theones of the Oxygen Miras of the LMC. This suggests that a significantnumber of so-called Miras of the LMC are misclassified. This alsosuggests that the Miras of the LMC do not constitute a homogeneousgroup, but include a significant proportion of metal-deficient stars,suggesting a relatively smooth star formation history. As a consequence,one may not trivially transpose the LMC period-luminosity relation fromone galaxy to the other Based on data from the Hipparcos astrometrysatellite. Appendix B is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution SpectraIRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed. The pulsation, temperatures and metallicities of Mira and semiregular variables in different stellar systemsData on angular diameters and infrared photometry for late-type starsare assembled. It is shown that a consistent T_eff scale can beestablished, combining results for Mira and non-Mira M-type stars. Thelog T_eff versus (J-K) relation is much steeper than previously adopted,but is consistent with predictions from model stellar atmospheres.Comparison of the linear diameters of Miras measured in the red spectralregion with those measured in the infrared shows that modelssuccessfully predict the extension observed in the red, and the combineddata provide strong evidence that Miras are pulsating in their firstovertone. Data on Miras and semiregular (SR) variables in globularclusters are compared with predictions from stellar evolution andpulsation theory. These data also support a steep log T_eff versus (J-K)relation at low temperatures. The Miras and SR variables in 47 Tucconform to theoretical expectation if they are undergoing an averagemass loss of ~3x10^-7 M_ yr^-1. SR variables in both metal-rich andmetal-poor globular clusters are probably pulsating, like the Miras intheir first overtone. The general agreement between observations andtheory now found suggests that infrared colour-period relations can beused to investigate overall metallicity differences between Miras indifferent stellar systems, at least at the shorter periods wherecircumstellar extinction is probably negligible. A comparison of Mirasin Galactic globular clusters of known metallicity with those in the LMCand in the SgrI window of the Galactic Bulge indicates that Miras ofperiods 100 to 300d in the LMC have a mean metallicity log z~-0.6,whilst those in SgrI have log z~-0.2, close to that of K giants in theNGC 6522 Bulge window. No evidence has yet been found for a dependenceof the Mira period-luminosity relation on metallicity, and it is pointedout that theory does not at present give a definitive prediction of suchan effect. Some stars of special interest are discussed in an appendix. Transformations from Theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams to Color-Magnitude Diagrams: Effective Temperatures, B-V Colors, and Bolometric CorrectionsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...469..355F&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Semiregular variables of types SRa and SRb. New JHKL'M-photometry for 200 stars.This paper presents new JHKL'M observations of 200 Semiregular variables(SRVs) of types SRa and SRb. The sample was defined in Kerschbaum &Hron (1992a, Paper I) by means of a certain limit in bolometricalmagnitude. From the sample of 350 objects, 260 now have near infrared(NIR) photometry - for 60 of these stars data from the literature areused. In total 290 datasets are available because of some multipleobservations. We briefly compare the photometry obtained at differentobservatories. Small but significant differences are found. A firstanalysis of the photometry supports one of the main findings of Paper I.The, in many aspects inhomogeneous, O-rich semiregular variables oftypes SRa and SRb can be successfully split in two subgroups called theblue' and red'/Mira' SRVs. A separation of the red' SRVs fromintrinsic Miras additionally requires variability information. Asymptotic giant branch stars near the sunAvailable red and near-infrared photometry and apparent motions of M, S,and C asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Bright Star Catalogueare tabulated and discussed. It is shown that the red and near infraredindices normally used for late-type stars are interchangeable except forcarbon stars. The M-type giants are variable with visual amplitudegreater than 0.05 mag. The reddening-free parameter m2 from Genevaphotometry is essentially a temperature parameter for M giants, whilethe reddening-free parameter d is a sensitive detector of blue stellarcompanions. The space density of AGB stars near the sun decreases by afactor of 35 in a temperature range 3800 to 3400 K. Two of the S starsnear the sun were found to have nearly equal space motions and may becomembers of the Arcturus group. Semiregular variables of types SRa and SRb - Basic properties in the visual and the IRAS-rangeThe pulsational properties, T(eff)s, mass loss rates, luminosities,scale heights, and volume densities in the Galactic plane are presentedfor samples of optical semiregular variables of types SRa and SRbcorrelated with the IRAS point source catalog. These properties arecompared to the corresponding characteristics of optical Mira variables.It is found that the SRa's are not a distinct class of variables but amixture of 'intrinsic' Miras and SRb's. The O-rich SRb's form a quitehomogeneous group in terms of periods, amplitudes, and temperatures.They consist of a 'blue' group with no indication of circumstellarshells, with P less than 150 d and T(eff) greater than 3200 K, and a'red' group with temperatures and mass loss rates comparable to Mirasbut periods about a factor of two smaller. The C-rich SRVs generallyhave smaller periods and are more abundant than C-rich Miras. Theevolutionary status of the SRVs is discussed. Carbon abundances and isotope ratios in 70 bright M giantsApproximate carbon abundances and C-12/C-13 isotope ratios are obtainedfor 70 M giant stars from intermediate-resolution spectrophotometry ofthe CO bands near 2.3 microns. A low mean carbon abundance (C/H = -0.64+ or - 0.29) is obtained, suggesting that standard mixing isinsufficient to explain atmospheric abundances in M giants. HR 8795appears to be exceptionally carbon deficient, and is worthy of furtherstudy as a possible weak G-band star descendant. Statistical characteristics of the ten-micron silicate emission in M-type starsThe statistical characteristics of 10 micron silicate emission wereexamined for 1427 M-type stars in the catalog of the Two-Micron SkySurvey using the low-resolution spectra obtained by IRAS. Correlationswere examined of 10 micron silicate emission with the spectralclassification in the visual wavelength region, with near-infrared colorI - K, with a variability type, and with the period of variation. It wasfound that supergiants show silicate emission more frequently than dogiants. Silicate emission was found in stars of all three variabilitytypes: irregular, semiregular, and Mira variables. The proportion ofstars with silicate emission was found to be larger for Mira variables.Most of the Mira variables with periods of variation longer than about450 d were found to show silicate emission. Lunar occultations of IRAS point sources, 1991-2000Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1989ApJS...69..651C&db_key=AST A multifrequency study of circumstellar envelopes of cool giants and supergiantsA multifrequency study of all parts of circumstellar envelopes of coolgiants and supergiants is presented. In order to investigate theinfluence of stellar parameters on spectral features of these envelopes,a sample of 77 cool giants and supergiants that occupies a horizontalstrip in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram was observed. Spectroscopic andphotometric observations at optical, infrared and radio wavelengths ledto the following results: (1) for giants there exists a strongcorrelation between H-alpha emission and SiO masers, which led to thesuggestion that SiO masers are triggered by shock-waves and can bepumped by collisions, (2) the SiO expansion velocity was found to besystematically lower by 2 km/s compared to the CO expansion velocity,and (3) a relation between the asymmetry of the light curve and theintensity of the dust emission at 9.7 microns has been confirmed for awide range of periods. Rather than luminosity alone, pulsationalproperties of the variable play a dominant role for the structure ofcircumstellar envelopes of cool giants and supergiants. A Catalog of Stellar Angular Diameters Measured by Lunar OccultationAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1987AJ.....94..751W&db_key=AST IRAS catalogues and atlases - Atlas of low-resolution spectraPlots of all 5425 spectra in the IRAS catalogue of low-resolutionspectra are presented. The catalogue contains the average spectra ofmost IRAS poiont sources with 12 micron flux densities above 10 Jy. Chromospheric activity and TiO bands in M giantsLow-resolution IUE spectra of 23 cool giant stars ranging from K3through M6 have been used to examine chromospheric activity in late-typegiants. Previous studies have suggested a decrease in the fractionalflux, normalized to bolometric flux, of the Mg II resonance lines (anindicator of chromospheric activity) with effective temperature. Usingmore accurately determined effective temperatures, this decrease isconfirmed and found to be more rapid than previously suggested. A strongcorrelation is found between relative TiO band strengths, as measured bythe Wing TiO index, and the level of chromospheric activity, as measuredby Mg II fluxes. Cool giants which have weak TiO bands relative to themean TiO strengths for stars of similar color also have Mg II lines thatare weaker than the mean. Changes in composition and in chromosphericactivity as a consequence of aging are suggested as a possible origin ofthis interesting relation. Chromospheric activity in M giantsLow resolution IUE spectra were obtained for fifteen cool giant starsranging in spectral type from K4.8 thru M5.9. These spectra were used toexamine chromospheric activity and to evaluate the extent to whichnonradiative heating affects the upper levels of cool giantphotospheres. The stars were chosen because of their well determinedwide band colors, TiO band strengths (from wing photometry), angulardiameters (determined from lunar occultations), apparent bolometricfluxes as seen from Earth, and effective preliminary analysis of theseobservations is presented. A redetermination of the Barnes-Evans relation for surface flux in the V bandPublished BVRI photometry for stars with angular diameters establishedby lunar occultation or speckle and amplitude interferometry or fromtheir variability are compiled in tables and used to reevaluate thevisual-flux/color relation proposed by Barnes and Evans (1976). Theresults are presented in graphs and tables for red and blue stars, andthe relation derived is used to correct the UVBRI temperaturecalibration of Johnson (1966). Reasonable agreement is found with thetemperature and bolometric-correction scales of Code (1976) for the redstars, but not for the blue stars. Spectrophotometry with a self-scanned silicon photodiode array. I - Instrumentation and reductionsA conventional spectrometer equipped with a Reticon photodiode array asa detector was used to demonstrate the applicability of such arrays toaccurate stellar spectrophotometry. Spectra were obtained at 42-Aresolution from 4650 to 10,000 A. High SNRs were obtainable to 10 mag,with typical integration times of a few minutes. Tests on Alpha Lyraedemonstrate the resultant flux distributions to be reduced to theabsolute flux scale to within + or - 0.025 mag (standard deviation of asingle observation) in zero point and internally precise to + or - 0.003mag.
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