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Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclusters
The availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165}

Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Taurus-Auriga
We present high-resolution optical spectra obtained with the HIRESspectrograph on the W. M. Keck I Telescope of seven low-mass T Tauristars (LMTTs) and brown dwarfs in Taurus-Auriga. The observed Li I 6708Å absorption, low surface gravity signatures, and radialvelocities confirm that all are members of the Taurus star-formingregion; no new spectroscopic binaries are identified. Four of the seventargets observed appear to be T Tauri brown dwarfs. Of particularinterest is the previously classified ``continuum T Tauri star'' GM Tau,which has a spectral type of M6.5 and possibly a substellar mass. Thesespectra, in combination with previous high-resolution spectra of LMTTs,are used to understand the formation and early evolution of objects inTaurus-Auriga with masses near and below the stellar/substellarboundary. None of the LMTTs in Taurus are rapidly rotating (vsini<30km s-1), unlike low-mass objects in Orion. Many of the slowlyrotating, nonaccreting stars and brown dwarfs exhibit prominent Hαemission (equivalent widths of 3-36 Å), indicative of activechromospheres. We demonstrate empirically that the full width at 10% ofthe Hα emission profile peak is a more practical and possibly moreaccurate indicator of accretion than either the equivalent width ofHα or optical veiling: 10% widths >270 km s-1 areclassical T Tauri stars (i.e., accreting), independent of stellarspectral type. Although LMTTs can have accretion rates comparable tothat of more typical, higher mass T Tauri stars (e.g., K7-M0 spectraltypes), the average mass accretion rate appears to decrease withdecreasing mass. A functional form of M~M is consistent with theavailable data, but the dependence is difficult to establish because ofboth selection biases in observed samples and the decreasing frequencyof active accretion disks at low masses (M<0.2 Msolar).The diminished frequency of accretion disks for LMTTs, in conjunctionwith their lower, on average, mass accretion rates, implies that theyare formed with less massive disks than higher mass T Tauri stars. Theradial velocities, circumstellar properties, and known binaries do notsupport the suggestion that many of the lowest mass members of Taurushave been ejected from higher stellar density regions within the cloud.Instead, LMTTs appear to have formed and are evolving in the same way ashigher mass T Tauri stars, but with smaller disks and shorter disklifetimes.

Technetium and the third dredge up in AGB stars. I. Field stars
We searched for Tc in a sample of long period variables selected bystellar luminosity derived from Hipparcos parallaxes. Tc, as an unstables-process element, is a good indicator for the evolutionary status ofstars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). In this paper we study theoccurrence of Tc as a function of luminosity to provide constraints onthe minimum luminosity for the third dredge up as estimated from recentstellar evolution models.A large number of AGB stars above the estimated theoretical limit forthe third dredge up are found not to show Tc. We confirm previousfindings that only a small fraction of the semiregular variables show Tclines in their spectra. Contrary to earlier results by Little et al.(\cite{llmb87}) we find also a significant number of Miras without Tc.The presence and absence of Tc is discussed in relation to the massdistribution of AGB stars. We find that a large fraction of the stars ofour sample must have current masses of less than 1.5 Msun .Combining our findings with stellar evolution scenarios we conclude thatthe fraction of time a star is observed as a SRV or a Mira is dependenton its mass.Partly based on observations collected at the European SouthernObservatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO-Programme 65.L-0317(A)).

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrations
In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr).

Period-Luminosity-Colour distribution and classification of Galactic oxygen-rich LPVs. I. Luminosity calibrations
The absolute K magnitudes and kinematic parameters of about 350oxygen-rich Long-Period Variable stars are calibrated, by means of anup-to-date maximum-likelihood method, using Hipparcos parallaxes andproper motions together with radial velocities and, as additional data,periods and V-K colour indices. Four groups, differing by theirkinematics and mean magnitudes, are found. For each of them, we alsoobtain the distributions of magnitude, period and de-reddened colour ofthe base population, as well as de-biased period-luminosity-colourrelations and their two-dimensional projections. The SRa semiregulars donot seem to constitute a separate class of LPVs. The SRb appear tobelong to two populations of different ages. In a PL diagram, theyconstitute two evolutionary sequences towards the Mira stage. The Mirasof the disk appear to pulsate on a lower-order mode. The slopes of theirde-biased PL and PC relations are found to be very different from theones of the Oxygen Miras of the LMC. This suggests that a significantnumber of so-called Miras of the LMC are misclassified. This alsosuggests that the Miras of the LMC do not constitute a homogeneousgroup, but include a significant proportion of metal-deficient stars,suggesting a relatively smooth star formation history. As a consequence,one may not trivially transpose the LMC period-luminosity relation fromone galaxy to the other Based on data from the Hipparcos astrometrysatellite. Appendix B is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

Photovisual Magnitude Differences for 169 Double Stars
Photovisual magnitude differences determined from multi-exposurephotographic plates for 169 double stars are presented. The separationsrange from 1.5'' to 113\arcsec, and the photovisual magnitudedifferences vary from 0.03 to 6.14 magnitudes. The internal mean errorof a single magnitude difference estimate is +/-0.064 magnitude.

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

Semiregular variables of types SRa and SRb. Variability classification in the GCVS.
We studied the shape and the quality of light curves of oxygen-richSemiregular Variables and the occurrence of multiple and variableperiods among this group of variables to investigate whether there isany correlation between the subgroups of SRVs described by Kerschbaum& Hron (???) and these parameters. For this purpose we used the dataand the light curve references given in the General Catalogue ofVariable Stars (4th edition, GCVS4). To judge the quality of the lightcurves we introduced a new quality classification based on the number ofobserved cycles and the mean number of observations per cycle. We alsocompared our system with a system based on the subjective impression ofthe light curve similar to the one used in the GCVS4. It was found thatfor more than 40% of the objects investigated, the data given in theGCVS4 seem to be based on badly known and insufficient light curves. Nocorrelation between the shape of the light curves and the classificationof Kerschbaum & Hron could be found. More objects with multiple orvariable periods were found among the objects with very long periodsthan among the objects with short periods.

Photometric surveys of suspected small-amplitude red variables. 3: an AAVSO photometric photometry survey
We have carried out a survey of the photometric (V) variability of 61'known' or suspected small-amplitude red variables, mostly M giants.Approximately two-thirds appear to be variable; several suspectedvariable comparison stars have also been identified. The incidence andaverage amplitude of variability increase rapidly from spectral type M0III to M6 III.

Semiregular variables of types SRa and SRb. New JHKL'M-photometry for 200 stars.
This paper presents new JHKL'M observations of 200 Semiregular variables(SRVs) of types SRa and SRb. The sample was defined in Kerschbaum &Hron (1992a, Paper I) by means of a certain limit in bolometricalmagnitude. From the sample of 350 objects, 260 now have near infrared(NIR) photometry - for 60 of these stars data from the literature areused. In total 290 datasets are available because of some multipleobservations. We briefly compare the photometry obtained at differentobservatories. Small but significant differences are found. A firstanalysis of the photometry supports one of the main findings of Paper I.The, in many aspects inhomogeneous, O-rich semiregular variables oftypes SRa and SRb can be successfully split in two subgroups called the`blue' and `red'/`Mira' SRVs. A separation of the `red' SRVs fromintrinsic Miras additionally requires variability information.

Infrared properties and evolution of MSC stars
IRAS photometric data are used to investigate low-resolution spectra,near-IR photometric data, visible spectral features, and main abundanceratios of MSC stars and the physicochemical processes taking place intheir interior. Their possible evolutionary states are discussed, and itis argued that both the sequence M - S - C and the direct sequence M - Care possible.

Asymptotic giant branch stars near the sun
Available red and near-infrared photometry and apparent motions of M, S,and C asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Bright Star Catalogueare tabulated and discussed. It is shown that the red and near infraredindices normally used for late-type stars are interchangeable except forcarbon stars. The M-type giants are variable with visual amplitudegreater than 0.05 mag. The reddening-free parameter m2 from Genevaphotometry is essentially a temperature parameter for M giants, whilethe reddening-free parameter d is a sensitive detector of blue stellarcompanions. The space density of AGB stars near the sun decreases by afactor of 35 in a temperature range 3800 to 3400 K. Two of the S starsnear the sun were found to have nearly equal space motions and may becomembers of the Arcturus group.

Semiregular variables of types SRa and SRb - Basic properties in the visual and the IRAS-range
The pulsational properties, T(eff)s, mass loss rates, luminosities,scale heights, and volume densities in the Galactic plane are presentedfor samples of optical semiregular variables of types SRa and SRbcorrelated with the IRAS point source catalog. These properties arecompared to the corresponding characteristics of optical Mira variables.It is found that the SRa's are not a distinct class of variables but amixture of 'intrinsic' Miras and SRb's. The O-rich SRb's form a quitehomogeneous group in terms of periods, amplitudes, and temperatures.They consist of a 'blue' group with no indication of circumstellarshells, with P less than 150 d and T(eff) greater than 3200 K, and a'red' group with temperatures and mass loss rates comparable to Mirasbut periods about a factor of two smaller. The C-rich SRVs generallyhave smaller periods and are more abundant than C-rich Miras. Theevolutionary status of the SRVs is discussed.

An infrared study of M-type giants
Photometric results of a number of M giants are used to discuss thedistribution of M giants on a two-color diagram and approximate methodsof determining effective temperature and total emission. Theirdistribution in the far-infrared two-color diagram is also discussed interms of the IRAS data.

Statistical characteristics of the ten-micron silicate emission in M-type stars
The statistical characteristics of 10 micron silicate emission wereexamined for 1427 M-type stars in the catalog of the Two-Micron SkySurvey using the low-resolution spectra obtained by IRAS. Correlationswere examined of 10 micron silicate emission with the spectralclassification in the visual wavelength region, with near-infrared colorI - K, with a variability type, and with the period of variation. It wasfound that supergiants show silicate emission more frequently than dogiants. Silicate emission was found in stars of all three variabilitytypes: irregular, semiregular, and Mira variables. The proportion ofstars with silicate emission was found to be larger for Mira variables.Most of the Mira variables with periods of variation longer than about450 d were found to show silicate emission.

Third list of corrections to the identifications of IRAS sources in Astron. & Astrophys Suppl. 65, 607 and Astron. J. 98, 931
Not Available

A list of MK standard stars
Not Available

The Perkins catalog of revised MK types for the cooler stars
A catalog is presented listing the spectral types of the G, K, M, and Sstars that have been classified at the Perkins Observatory in therevised MK system. Extensive comparisons have been made to ensureconsistency between the MK spectral types of stars in the Northern andSouthern Hemispheres. Different classification spectrograms have beengradually improved in spite of some inherent limitations. In thecatalog, the full subclasses used are the following: G0, G5, G8, K0, K1,K2, K3, K4, K5, M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M7, and M8. Theirregularities are the price paid for keeping the general scheme of theoriginal Henry Draper classification.

ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. IV - Measurements during 1986-1988 from the Kitt Peak 4 M telescope
One thousand five hundred and fifty measurements of 1006 binary starsystems observed mostly during 1986 through mid-1988 by means of speckleinterferometry with the KPNO 4-m telescope are presented. Twenty-onesystems are directly resolved for the first time, including newcomponents to the cool supergiant Alpha Her A and the Pleiades shellstar Pleione. A continuing survey of The Bright Star Catalogue yieldedeight new binaries from 293 bright stars observed. Corrections tospeckle measures from the GSU/CHARA ICCD speckle camera previouslypublished are presented and discussed.

1988 Revised MK Spectral Standards for Stars GO and Later
Not Available

Pseudocepheids. III - The low-mass stars
Light and color curves in four-color, H-beta, and (RI) photometricsystems are presented for 20 low-mass pseudocepheids. Members of theWolf 630 group and the cluster M67 are used to establish the positionsof both variable and nonvariable giants with near solar abundance in theluminosity-temperature plane for old disk population stars, whilemembers of Omega Cen and of Kapteyn's Star Group are used for the lowmetal abundance halo giants. The low-mass pseudocepheids discussed aredivided into two main categories, based on the amplitude of lightvariation. The smaller amplitude stars, characterized by R CrB and RYSgr in the old disk population, show the R CrB syndrome of occasionaldeep light minima, as does UW Cen. The small amplitude variables in thehalo population, BL Tel and LN Hya, do not show the R CrB syndrome andtheir periods are longer than those of old disk stars. Large amplitudevariables, with periods ranging from 10 to 150 days, are all haloobjects with stability of period and form of light curve an obviousfunction of the period. Cen and BL Tel are members of Kapteyn's StarGroup, and the spectroscopic orbital elements of the latter indicate amass near 0.5 solar mass for the pseudocepheid and 1 solar mass for thelate-type giant companion. Far-infrared observations are important inexploring the correlations between the presence and character ofcircumstellar dust shells and other post-AGB star parameters.

IRAS catalogues and atlases - Atlas of low-resolution spectra
Plots of all 5425 spectra in the IRAS catalogue of low-resolutionspectra are presented. The catalogue contains the average spectra ofmost IRAS poiont sources with 12 micron flux densities above 10 Jy.

Spectral types of companions to variable visual double stars
Spectral types for 45 companions to 42 variable visual double stars arepresented and examined. The spectra obtained in February 1983 with theimage-intensified White spectrograph attached to the No. 1 0.9-mtelescope of the Kitt Peak Observatory and in July 1983 with the sameinstrument used with the 2.1-m telescope, are visually classifiedagainst those of standard stars for luminosity and spectral type. It isshown that the majority of the fainter companions are of late spectraltypes.

Carbon monoxide band intensities in M giants
The strength of CO (2.3 micron) bands was measured using the photometercomponent of the Kitt Peak 1.3-m telescope in an attempt to identifyextremely carbon-poor M giants. Magnitudes for about 200 bright M starswere obtained through a J filter, and narrow filters were centered on2.17 and 2.40 microns, respectively. No M giants were found with COindices indicative of extremely low carbon abundances. The correlationof CO index to effective temperature did not extend to the extremelylate and variable M giants. The dependence of CO index upon carbonabundance, 12-C/13-C ratio, surface gravity, effective temperature, andmicroturbulent velocity indices were also investigated. It is found thatthe predicted and observed CO indices are in good agreement for starswith spectroscopically determined carbon abundance.

The Wolf 630 moving group of stars
An analysis is made of the probability of collective membership of thestars assigned by Eggen to the Wolf 630 moving group. This probabilityis estimated from the scatter of points in the color-absolute magnitudediagram when compared to the intrinsic scatter observed for M67.Particular attention is paid to the random errors for all the observedand deduced stellar parameters. Results show that either theobservational errors must be about 2.4 times larger than given in theproper motion and radial velocity source catalogues, or the intrinsicscatter in the color-magnitude diagram for the Wolf 630 group must bemuch larger than for M67, or many of the stars considered cannot bemembers.

The circumstellar envelopes of M giants
The average circumstellar envelopes of 61 red giants of spectral typesM0 through M7 are studied, and information is deduced concerning thevelocity structure in the envelopes as well as the mass-loss mechanism.Positions of red and blue edges of the circumstellar Ca II K4 profileare used to derive information on shell turbulent velocities andvelocity gradients within the envelopes. The results obtained indicatethat: (1) acceleration to a terminal velocity occurs extremely rapidlyor the mass-loss mechanism acts upon Ca III, which recombines only afterthe terminal velocity has been reached; (2) the turbulence must be lessthan 2 km/s in the shells of the M0 giants and should increase to avalue of at least 4 km/s for the M6 giants; (3) the observed broadeningof the K4 profile toward later spectral types must be due at least inpart to the increase in turbulence toward the later types; (4) shellexpansion begins well within the stellar chromospheres; and (5) themass-loss mechanism might involve supersonic winds rather than radiationpressure on grains.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Leo Minor
Right ascension:10h42m11.30s
Apparent magnitude:6.02
Distance:227.79 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-3.1
Proper motion Dec:-18.9
B-T magnitude:8.104
V-T magnitude:6.225

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 92620
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 2512-1145-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1200-06569758
BSC 1991HR 4184
HIPHIP 52366

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