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 The Nearest Young Moving GroupsThe latest results in the research of forming planetary systems have ledseveral authors to compile a sample of candidates for searching forplanets in the vicinity of the Sun. Young stellar associations areindeed excellent laboratories for this study, but some of them are notclose enough to allow the detection of planets through adaptive opticstechniques. However, the existence of very close young moving groups cansolve this problem. Here we have compiled the members of the nearestyoung moving groups, as well as a list of new candidates from ourcatalog of late-type stars that are possible members of young stellarkinematic groups, studying their membership through spectroscopic andphotometric criteria. An Infrared Coronagraphic Survey for Substellar CompanionsWe have used the F160W filter (1.4-1.8 μm) and the coronagraph on theNear-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on theHubble Space Telescope to survey 45 single stars with a median age of0.15 Gyr, an average distance of 30 pc, and an average H magnitude of 7mag. For the median age we were capable of detecting a 30MJcompanion at separations between 15 and 200 AU. A 5MJ objectcould have been detected at 30 AU around 36% of our primaries. Forseveral of our targets that were less than 30 Myr old, the lower masslimit was as low as 1MJ, well into the high mass planetregion. Results of the entire survey include the proper-motionverification of five low-mass stellar companions, two brown dwarfs(HR7329B and TWA5B), and one possible brown dwarf binary (Gl 577B/C). Evolution of Cold Circumstellar Dust around Solar-type StarsWe present submillimeter (Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 350 μm)and millimeter (Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope [SEST] 1.2 mm, OwensValley Radio Observatory [OVRO] 3 mm) photometry for 127 solar-typestars from the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems SpitzerLegacy program that have masses between ~0.5 and 2.0 Msolarand ages from ~3 Myr to 3 Gyr. Continuum emission was detected towardfour stars with a signal-to-noise ratio>=3: the classical T Tauristars RX J1842.9-3532, RX J1852.3-3700, and PDS 66 with SEST, and thedebris-disk system HD 107146 with OVRO. RX J1842.9-3532 and RXJ1852.3-3700 are located in projection near the R CrA molecular cloud,with estimated ages of ~10 Myr (Neuhäuser et al.), whereas PDS 66is a probable member of the ~20 Myr old Lower Centaurus-Crux subgroup ofthe Scorpius-Centaurus OB association (Mamajek et al.). The continuumemission toward these three sources is unresolved at the 24" SESTresolution and likely originates from circumstellar accretion disks,each with estimated dust masses of ~5×10-5Msolar. Analysis of the visibility data toward HD 107146(age~80-200 Myr) indicates that the 3 mm continuum emission is centeredon the star within the astrometric uncertainties and resolved with aGaussian-fit FWHM size of (6.5"+/-1.4")×(4.2"+/-1.3"), or185AU×120 AU. The results from our continuum survey are combinedwith published observations to quantify the evolution of dust mass withtime by comparing the mass distributions for samples with differentstellar ages. The frequency distribution of circumstellar dust massesaround solar-type stars in the Taurus molecular cloud (age~2 Myr) isdistinguished from that around 3-10 Myr and 10-30 Myr old stars at asignificance level of ~1.5 and ~3 σ, respectively. These resultssuggest a decrease in the mass of dust contained in small dust grainsand/or changes in the grain properties by stellar ages of 10-30 Myr,consistent with previous conclusions. Further observations are needed todetermine if the evolution in the amount of cold dust occurs on evenshorter timescales. Ten Micron Observations of Nearby Young StarsWe present new 10 μm photometry of 21 nearby young stars obtained atthe Palomar 5 m and at the Keck I 10 m telescopes as part of a programto search for dust in the habitable zone of young stars. Thirteen of thestars are in the F-K spectral type range (solar analogs''), four haveB or A spectral types, and four have spectral type M. We confirmexisting IRAS 12 μm and ground-based 10 μm photometry for 10 ofthe stars and present new insight into this spectral regime for therest. Excess emission at 10 μm is not found in any of the young solaranalogs, except for a possible 2.4 σ detection in the G5 V star HD88638. The G2 V star HD 107146, which does not display a 10 μmexcess, is identified as a new Vega-like candidate, based on our 10μm photospheric detection, combined with previously unidentified 60and 100 μm IRAS excesses. Among the early-type stars, a 10 μmexcess is detected only in HD 109573A (HR 4796A), confirming priorobservations; among the M dwarfs, excesses are confirmed in AA Tau, CD-40°8434, and Hen 3-600A. A previously suggested N-band excess inthe M3 dwarf CD -33°7795 is shown to be consistent with photosphericemission. We calculate infrared to stellar bolometric luminosity ratiosfor all stars exhibiting mid-infrared excesses and infer the total massof orbiting dust in the cases of optically thin disks. For a derivedmedian photometric precision of +/-0.11 mag, we place an upper limit ofMdust~2×10-5 M⊕ on the dustmass (assuming a dust temperature of 300 K) around solar analogs notseen in excess at 10 μm. Our calculations for the nearby K1 V star HD17925 show that it may have the least massive debris disk known outsideour solar system (Mdust>~7×10-6M⊕). Our limited data confirm the expected tendency ofdecreasing fractional dust excessfd=LIR/L* with increasing stellar age.However, we argue that estimates of fd suffer from adegeneracy between the temperature and the amount of circumstellar dustMdust, and we propose a relation of Mdust as afunction of age instead. The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of 14 000 F and G dwarfsWe present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989 Dependence of coronal X-ray emission on spot-induced brightness variations in cool main sequence starsThe maximum amplitude (Amax) of spot-induced brightnessvariations from long-term V-band photometry and the ratioLX/Lbol between X-ray and bolometric luminositiesare suitable indicators of the level of magnetic activity in thephotosphere and in the corona of late-type stars, respectively. By usingthese activity indicators we investigate the dependence of coronal X-rayemission on the level of photospheric starspot activity in a homogeneoussample of low mass main sequence field and cluster stars of differentages (IC 2602, IC 4665,IC 2391, alpha Persei,Pleiades and Hyades). First, theactivity-rotation connection at the photospheric level is re-analysed,as well as its dependence on spectral type and age. The upper envelopeof Amax increases monotonically with decreasing rotationalperiod (P) and Rossby number (R0) showing a break around 1.1d that separates two rotation regimes where the starspot activity showsdifferent behaviours. The Amax-P andAmax-R0 relations are fitted with linear,exponential and power laws to look for the function which bestrepresents the trend of the data. The highest values of Amaxare found among K-type stars and at the ages of alphaPersei and Pleiades. We also analyse theactivity-rotation connection at the coronal level as well as itsdependence on spectral type. The level of X-ray emission increases withincreasing rotation rate up to a saturation level. The rotational periodat which saturation occurs is colour-dependent and increases withadvancing spectral type. Also the LX/Lbol-P andLX/Lbol-R0 relations are fitted withlinear, exponential and power laws to look for the best fittingfunction. Among the fastest rotating stars (P<=0.3 d) there isevidence of super-saturation. Also the highest values ofLXLbol are found among K-type stars. Finally, thephotospheric-coronal activity connection is investigated by using forthe first time the largest ever sample of light curve amplitudes asindicators of the magnetic filling factor. The activity parametersLX/Lbol and Amax are found to becorrelated with each other, thus confirming the dependence of coronalactivity on photospheric magnetic fields. More precisely, theLX/Lbol-Amax distribution shows thepresence of an upper envelope, which is constant at theLX/Lbol =~ -3.0 saturation level, and of a lowerenvelope. The best fit to the lower envelope is given by a power lawwith steepness decreasing from F-G to M spectral types. However, it isconsidered a tentative result, since the fit reduced chi-squares arelarge. Such spectral-type dependence may be related to a colourdependence of Amax on the total starspot filling factor, aswell as to the coronal emission being possibly more sensitive tostarspot activity variations in F- and G-type than in M-type stars. TheLX/Lbol-Amax mean values for eachcluster in our sample decrease monotonically with increasing age,showing that the levels of photospheric and coronal activity evolve intime according to a single power law till the Sun's age.Tables of the photometric and X-ray data sets are only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/410/671 Late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups - I. Single starsThis is the first paper of a series aimed at studying the properties oflate-type members of young stellar kinematic groups. We concentrate ourstudy on classical young moving groups such as the Local Association(Pleiades moving group, 20-150Myr), IC 2391 supercluster (35Myr), UrsaMajor group (Sirius supercluster, 300Myr), and Hyades supercluster(600Myr), as well as on recently identified groups such as the Castormoving group (200Myr). In this paper we compile a preliminary list ofsingle late-type possible members of some of these young stellarkinematic groups. Stars are selected from previously established membersof stellar kinematic groups based on photometric and kinematicproperties as well as from candidates based on other criteria such astheir level of chromospheric activity, rotation rate and lithiumabundance. Precise measurements of proper motions and parallaxes takenfrom the Hipparcos Catalogue, as well as from the Tycho-2 Catalogue, andpublished radial velocity measurements are used to calculate theGalactic space motions (U, V, W) and to apply Eggen's kinematic criteriain order to determine the membership of the selected stars to thedifferent groups. Additional criteria using age-dating methods forlate-type stars will be applied in forthcoming papers of this series. Afurther study of the list of stars compiled here could lead to a betterunderstanding of the chromospheric activity and their age evolution, aswell as of the star formation history in the solar neighbourhood. Inaddition, these stars are also potential search targets for directimaging detection of substellar companions. The rotation-activity connection'': Its extension to photospheric activity diagnosticsIn this paper we present the results of a different approach in thestudy of the so-called rotation-activity connection, which is a wellestablished correlation between rotation and magnetic activity atchromospheric and outer atmospheric levels. The present study concernsthe photospheric level and was carried out by using V-band photometriclight curve amplitudes as indicators of starspot coverage and ofmagnetic activity. A high degree of correlation between the envelope ofmaximum V-band light curve amplitudes and the rotation period is foundfor the active star members of young open clusters (IC 2602, IC 2391,Alpha Persei, Pleiades and Hyades), as well as for active field stars.This correlation shows a different behaviour in two different rotationperiod ranges. Moreover, some evidence of a possible activitysaturation'' is found among the most rapidly rotating stars of thesample. Additional correlations between photospheric and other magneticactivity indicators in the chromosphere, transition region and coronaare also investigated. The results presented here can be considered asan extension of the well established rotation-activity connection validfrom the corona, transition region and chromosphere, down to thephotosphere. Rotational Velocities of Late-Type StarsA calibration based on the results of Gray has been used to determineprojected rotational velocities for 133 bright stars with spectral typesof F, G, or K, most of which appear in {\it The Bright Star Catalogue}.The vast majority have {\it v} sin {\it i} $\leq$ 10 km s$^{-1}$ and,thus, are slow rotators. With the new calibration, projected rotationalvelocities have been determined for a sample of 111 late-type stars,most of which are chromospherically active. Some of the stars have hadtheir rotational velocities measured for the first time. (SECTION:Stars) The kinematics of lithium-rich, active late-type stars: evidence for a low-mass Local AssociationAn EUV-selected sample of late-type stars has been observed for lithiumabundances and radial velocity radiations. It is found that essentiallyall of the single stars have lithium abundances comparable to or greaterthan late-type stars in the Pleiades. These observations have confirmedthe hypothesis that a high proportion of the most coronally active,late-type stars are Li-rich, because they are young, have not yet spundown, and consequently exhibit enhanced dynamo activity. From these dataand other activity-selected samples in the literature, a Li-rich sampleof single stars has been chosen, which, by comparison with open clusterLi abundances and rotation rates, is substantially younger than 300 Myr.The kinematics of this sample has been investigated, and from the radialvelocities a one-dimensional dispersion of only 5.7 km s^-1 is found,about a centroid space motion extremely similar to that of a group ofyoung open clusters and nearby B stars, known as the Local Association.Consideration of the space motions confirms that, if this low-mass LocalAssociation can be represented by a three-dimensional velocitydispersion of about 10 km s^-1, then the majority of the Li-rich starsare members. The origin of the Local Association is still obscure, but anumber of suggestions are put forward, including ejection of stars fromnearby open clusters, the disruption of pre-existing clusters, or thedissolution of the unbound remnants from one or more star formationregions. The Einstein Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey Second Epoch: Results for the StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..701F&db_key=AST An Automated Search for Variability in Chromospherically Active StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.2926H&db_key=AST Lithium, X-ray activity and rotation in an X-ray selected sample of solar-type starsWe present an analysis of the connection between X-ray activity level,photospheric abundance of lithium and surface rotation in late typeactive main sequence stars (G and K), using the ratio between opticaland X-ray luminosity fx/fv as an uniform activity indicator. We performthis analysis for a sample of X-ray selected sources from Einstein-basedsurveys compared to stars from the Pleiades open cluster and to a sampleof active binary stars. We show that these parameters show differentdegrees of statistical correlation in the three samples. In particular,the Pleiades sample shows a significant correlation between all threequantities, while in the X-ray selected sample lithium and rotation aresignificantly correlated with each other but neither is correlated withthe activity level. No correlation is evident for the three quantitiesstudied in the active binary sample. We show how the behavior of theX-ray selected sample can be used to discriminate among differenthypothesis about the nature of the so-called `yellow star excess'observed in X-ray flux-limited surveys, showing that this is composed bya population of young, near Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) stars withcharacteristics similar to the Pleiades. Stroemgren photometry of F- and G-type stars brighter than V = 9.6. I. UVBY photometryWithin the framework of a large photometric observing program, designedto investigate the Galaxy's structure and evolution, Hβ photometryis being made for about 9000 stars. As a by-product, supplementary uvbyphotometry has been made. The results are presented in a cataloguecontaining 6924 uvby observations of 6190 stars, all south ofδ=+38deg. The overall internal rms errors of one observation(transformed to the standard system) of a program star in the interval6.5 The Einstein Observatory Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey. II - The optical identificationsThe optical identifications are presented of the Einstein ExtendedMedium-Sensitivity Survey (EMSS), including the methodology used tooptically identify the EMSS sources and the uncertainties involved withthat process. The optical properties of the classes of X-ray, optical,and radio data for each of the identified and, as yet, unidentifiedsources of the survey are described. A new class of X-ray emitters,cooling flow galaxies, is proposed. The criteria used to determinewhether the proposed optical counterpart to the X-ray source is aplausible identification are described. Plausibility is based on theoptical classification of the counterpart, e.g., AGN, cluster, G star,and the X-ray-to-optical flux ratios previously observed for theseclasses of X-ray emitters. Two independent schemes of opticalclassification of the counterparts are used to check the plausibility ofthese identifications; one is based on moderate-resolution opticalspectroscopy, and the other, on inferred X-ray luminosity and theoverall energy distribution. The Einstein Observatory Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey. I - X-ray data and analysisThis paper presents the results of the analysis of the X-ray data andthe optical identification for the Einstein Observatory ExtendedMedium-Sensitivity Survey (EMSS). The survey consists of 835serendipitous sources detected at or above 4 times the rms level in 1435imaging proportional counter fields with centers located away from theGalactic plane. Their limiting sensitivities are about (5-300) x 10 tothe -14th ergs/sq cm sec in the 0.3-3.5-keV energy band. A total area of778 square deg of the high-Galactic-latitude sky has been covered. Thedata have been analyzed using the REV1 processing system, which takesinto account the nonuniformities of the detector. The resulting EMSScatalog of X-ray sources is a flux-limited and homogeneous sample ofastronomical objects that can be used for statistical studies. The relation between X-ray emission and rotation in late-type stars from the perspective of X-ray selectionAn X-ray-selected sample of 128 late-type (F-M) stars analyzed. Thesestars were identified as optical counterparts to serendipitous X-raydetections made by the Einstein Observatory Extended Medium SensitivitySurvey. Once identified as X-ray sources, the sample was followed up byan extensive program of optical observations, including high-resolutionand low-resolution spectroscopy and photometry. Spectral types,luminosity classes, distances, X-ray luminosities, projected rotationrates (v sin i), radial velocities, and binary status have beendetermined for the sample.

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