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δ Cet (Phycochroma)


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Discovery of magnetic fields in the βCephei star ξ1 CMa and in several slowly pulsating B stars*
We present the results of a magnetic survey of a sample of eightβCephei stars and 26 slowly pulsating B (SPBs) stars with the FOcalReducer low dispersion Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. A weakmean longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss isdetected in the βCephei star ξ1CMa and in 13 SPBstars. The star ξ1CMa becomes the third magnetic staramong the βCephei stars. Before our study, the star ζCas wasthe only known magnetic SPB star. All magnetic SPB stars for which wegathered several magnetic field measurements show a field that varies intime. We do not find a relation between the evolution of the magneticfield with stellar age in our small sample. Our observations imply thatβCephei and SPB stars can no longer be considered as classes ofnon-magnetic pulsators, but the effect of the fields on the oscillationproperties remains to be studied.

Reduction of time-resolved space-based CCD photometry developed for MOST Fabry Imaging data*
The MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars) satellite obtainsultraprecise photometry from space with high sampling rates and dutycycles. Astronomical photometry or imaging missions in low Earth orbits,like MOST, are especially sensitive to scattered light from Earthshine,and all these missions have a common need to extract target informationfrom voluminous data cubes. They consist of upwards of hundreds ofthousands of two-dimensional CCD frames (or subrasters) containing fromhundreds to millions of pixels each, where the target information,superposed on background and instrumental effects, is contained only ina subset of pixels (Fabry Images, defocused images, mini-spectra). Wedescribe a novel reduction technique for such data cubes: resolvinglinear correlations of target and background pixel intensities. Thisstep-wise multiple linear regression removes only those targetvariations which are also detected in the background. The advantage ofregression analysis versus background subtraction is the appropriatescaling, taking into account that the amount of contamination may differfrom pixel to pixel. The multivariate solution for all pairs oftarget/background pixels is minimally invasive of the raw photometrywhile being very effective in reducing contamination due to, e.g. straylight. The technique is tested and demonstrated with both simulatedoscillation signals and real MOST photometry.

Applications of pulsation amplitudes and phases for B-type main sequence pulsators
Combined data on pulsation amplitudes and phases from multicolourphotometry and spectroscopy yield constraints on mode identification aswell as on mean stellar parameters. The data allow for determination ofa certain complex parameter which may be compared with the model valueand thus constitute a new seismic probe of stellar interior,specifically of its outer layers. We present here some results obtainedfor the two beta Cephei stars delta Ceti and nu Eridani. We foundsignificant differences between models calculated with opacities fromthe OPAL and OP projects.

Near-Ultraviolet Observations of HD 221170: New Insights into the Nature of r-Process-rich Stars
Employing high-resolution spectra obtained with the near-UV-sensitivedetector on the Keck I HIRES, supplemented by data obtained with theMcDonald Observatory 2d-coudé, we have performed a comprehensivechemical composition analysis of the bright r-process-rich metal-poorred giant star HD 221170. Analysis of 57 individual neutral and ionizedspecies yielded abundances for a total of 46 elements and significantupper limits for an additional five. Model stellar atmosphere parameterswere derived with the aid of ~200 Fe peak transitions. From more than350 transitions of 35 neutron-capture (Z>30) species, abundances for30 neutron-capture elements and upper limits for three others werederived. Utilizing 36 transitions of La, 16 of Eu, and seven of Th, wederive ratios of logε(Th/La)=-0.73 (σ=0.06) andlogε(Th/Eu)=-0.60 (σ=0.05), values in excellent agreementwith those previously derived for other r-process-rich metal-poor starssuch as CS 22892-052, BD +17 3248, and HD 115444. Based on the Th/Euchronometer, the inferred age is 11.7+/-2.8 Gyr. The abundancedistribution of the heavier neutron-capture elements (Z>=56) isfitted well by the predicted scaled solar system r-process abundances,as also seen in other r-process-rich stars. Unlike other r-process-richstars, however, we find that the abundances of the lighterneutron-capture elements (37

δ Ceti Is Not Monoperiodic: Seismic Modeling of a β Cephei Star from MOST Space-based Photometry
The β Cephei star δ Ceti was considered one of the fewmonoperiodic variables in its class. Despite (or perhaps because of) itsapparently simple oscillation spectrum, it has been challenging andcontroversial to identify this star's pulsation mode and constrain itsphysical parameters seismically. Broadband time-resolved photometry ofδ Ceti spanning 18.7 days with a duty cycle of about 65% obtainedby the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) satellite-thefirst scientific observations ever obtained by MOST-reveals that thestar is actually multiperiodic. Besides the well-known dominantfrequency of f1=6.205886 day-1, we have discoveredin the MOST data its first harmonic 2f1 and three otherfrequencies (f2=3.737, f3=3.673, andf4=0.318 day-1), all detected with asignal-to-noise ratio (S/N)>4. In retrospect, f2 was alsopresent in archival spectral line-profile data but at lower S/N. Wepresent seismic models whose modes match exactly the frequenciesf1 and f2. Only one model falls within the commonpart of the error boxes of the star's observed surface gravity andeffective temperature from photometry and spectroscopy. In this model,f1 is the radial (l=0) first overtone, and f2 isthe g2 (l=2, m=0) mode. This model has a mass of 10.2+/-0.2Msolar and an age of 17.9+/-0.3 Myr, making δ Ceti anevolved β Cephei star. If f2 and f3 arerotationally split components of the same g2 mode, then thestar's equatorial rotation velocity is either 27.6 km s-1 orhalf this value. Given its vsini of about 1 km s-1, thisimplies that we are seeing δ Ceti nearly pole-on.Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission,jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institutefor Aerospace Studies, and the University of British Columbia, with theassistance of the University of Vienna.

Abundance analysis of prime B-type targets for asteroseismology. I. Nitrogen excess in slowly-rotating β Cephei stars
Seismic modelling of the β Cephei stars promises major advances inour understanding of the physics of early B-type stars on (or close to)the main sequence. However, a precise knowledge of their physicalparameters and metallicity is a prerequisite for correct modeidentification and inferences regarding their internal structure. Herewe present the results of a detailed NLTE abundance study of nine primetargets for theoretical modelling: γ Peg,δ Cet, ν Eri,β CMa, ξ1 CMa,V836 Cen, V2052 Oph,β Cep and DD (12) Lac (hereafter 12Lac). The following chemical elements are considered: He, C,N, O, Mg, Al, Si, S and Fe. Our curve-of-growth abundance analysis isbased on a large number of time-resolved, high-resolution opticalspectra covering in most cases the entire oscillation cycle of thestars. Nitrogen is found to be enhanced by up to 0.6 dex in four stars,three of which have severe constraints on their equatorial rotationalvelocity, Ω R, from seismic or line-profile variation studies:β Cep (Ω R ~ 26 km s-1),V2052 Oph (Ω R ~ 56 km s-1),δ Cet (Ω R < 28 km s-1) andξ1 CMa (Ω R sin i  10 kms-1). The existence of core-processed material at the surfaceof such largely unevolved, slowly-rotating objects is not predicted bycurrent evolutionary models including rotation. We draw attention to thefact that three stars in this subsample have a detected magnetic fieldand briefly discuss recent theoretical work pointing to the occurrenceof diffusion effects in β Cephei stars possibly capable of alteringthe nitrogen surface abundance. On the other hand, the abundances of allthe other chemical elements considered are, within the errors,indistinguishable from the values found for OB dwarfs in the solarneighbourhood. Despite the mild nitrogen excess observed in someobjects, we thus find no evidence for a significantly higherphotospheric metal content in the studied β Cephei stars comparedto non-pulsating B-type stars of similar characteristics.

A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i ˜100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.

B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.

Pulsating Stars in the ASAS-3 Database. I. beta Cephei Stars
We present results of an analysis of the ASAS-3 data for short-periodvariables from the recently published catalog of over 38000 stars. Usingthe data available in the literature we verify the results of theautomatic classification related to \beta Cep pulsators. In particular,we find that 14 stars in the catalog can be classified unambiguously asnew beta Cep stars. By means of periodogram analysis we derive thefrequencies and amplitudes of the excited modes. The main modes in thenew beta Cep stars have large semi-amplitudes, between 35 and 80 mmag.Up to four modes were found in some stars. Two (maybe three) new betaCep stars are members of southern young open clusters: ASAS164409-4719.1 belongs to NGC 6200, ASAS 164630-4701.2 is a member ofHogg 22, and ASAS 164939-4431.7 could be a member of NGC 6216.We also analyze the photometry of four known beta Cep stars in theASAS-3 catalog, namely IL Vel, NSV 24078, V1449 Aql and SY Equ. Finally,we discuss the distribution of beta Cep stars in the Galaxy.

Constraints on parameters of B-type pulsators from combined multicolour photometry and radial velocity data. I. β Cephei stars
We analyze data on pulsation amplitudes and phases for two β Cepheistars, δ Cet and ν Eri. Strömgren photometry and radialvelocity measurements are used simultaneously to obtain constraints onmean parameters of the stars and identification of the excited modes.The inference about the radial mode order and mean star parameters isbased on comparison of certain complex parameter, f, determined fromdata, with its counterpart derived from linear nonadiabatic modelling ofstellar oscillations. The theoretical f values are very sensitive to theadopted opacity data. In our modelling we rely on the data from OPAL andOP projects. Significant differences were found. New seismic models ofν Eri were constructed with both the OPAL and OP opacities.

Metallicity of mono- and multiperiodic β Cephei stars
Analyzing IUE ultraviolet spectra of β Cep pulsating stars wenoticed that multiperiodic variables have a larger mean metal abundancein the photosphere, [ m/H] , than monoperiodic ones. We applystatistical tests to verify this dichotomy. We obtain that, with a largeprobability, the multiperiodic β Cep stars have greater values of [m/H] . This result is consistent with the linear non-adiabatic theory ofpulsation of early B-type stars.

Metallicities of the β Cephei stars from low-resolution ultraviolet spectra
We derive basic stellar parameters (angular diameters, effectivetemperatures, metallicities) and interstellar reddening for all βCephei stars observed during the IUE satellite mission, including thosebelonging to three open clusters. The parameters are derived by means ofan algorithmic procedure of fitting theoretical flux distributions tothe low-resolution IUE spectra and ground-based spectrophotometricobservations. Since the metallicity has a special importance forpulsating B-type stars, we focus our attention in particular on thisparameter.Tables 1, 2, 4 and 5 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

A catalog of stellar magnetic rotational phase curves
Magnetized stars usually exhibit periodic variations of the effective(longitudinal) magnetic field Be caused by their rotation. Wepresent a catalog of magnetic rotational phase curves, Be vs.the rotational phase φ, and tables of their parameters for 136stars on the main sequence and above it. Phase curves were obtained bythe least squares fitting of sine wave or double wave functions to theavailable Be measurements, which were compiled from theexisting literature. Most of the catalogued objects are chemicallypeculiar A and B type stars (127 stars). For some stars we also improvedor determined periods of their rotation. We discuss the distribution ofparameters describing magnetic rotational phase curves in our sample.All tables and Appendix A are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

β Cep stars from a spectroscopic point of view
In this review we present the current status of line-profile-variationstudies of β Cep stars. Such studies have been performed for 26bright members of this class of pulsating stars in the past 25 years. Wedescribe all these currently available data and summarize theinterpretations based on them in terms of the excited pulsation modes.We emphasize that line-profile variations offer a much more detailedpicture of the pulsational behaviour of pulsating stars compared toground-based photometric data. The latter, however, remain necessary tounravel the often complex frequency pattern and to achieve unambiguousmode identification for multiperiodic β Cep stars and also toderive the pulsational properties of the faint members of the class. Wehighlight the statistical properties of the sample of 26 stars for whichaccurate spectroscopic studies are available and point out some futureprospects.

Statistics of the Instability Strip of β Cephei Stars
We present a study of the β Cephei instability strip based on asample of 49 stars of this type. After deriving their effectivetemperatures and luminosities from their observed (B-V), (U-B) colorsand parallaxes we find their positions in the HR diagram to be mostlyconfined to the main sequence, and their masses to lie between 7Mȯ and 30 Mȯ. Their distribution on theHR diagram matches well with our previous theoretical instability stripwhich has an upper bound in the luminosity and rather tight boundariesin the effective temperature.

Simultaneous Optical and Near-Infrared Spectropolarimetry of Type 2 Seyfert Galaxies
We present optical and near-infrared spectropolarimetry of the nuclei offour type 2 Seyfert galaxies, Mrk 463E, Mrk 1210, NGC 1068, and NGC4388. The data were obtained simultaneously, covering the wavelengthrange of 0.46-2.5 μm. We model the polarizations from twodust-scattering components: (1) scattering in dusty regions inionization cones and (2) scattering in a torus surrounding a type 1nucleus. The polarizations from electron scattering in the cones anddichroic absorption by aligned dust grains in the torus are alsocompared with the observations. We confirmed that a combination ofelectron and dust scattering in the ionization cones is the preferredmechanism for the optical continuum polarization. For the near-infrared,dichroic absorption by aligned grains can explain the continuumpolarization of Mrk 463E and Mrk 1210 as well as NGC 1068. Visualoptical depths of the order of 10-20 are estimated for dichroicabsorption in these nuclei. Dust scattering in the torus, whose grainsize distribution is assumed to be the same as in the Galactic diffuseinterstellar medium, cannot reproduce the observed spectral slope of thenear-infrared polarization and total nuclear flux simultaneously.However, this might only indicate that the grain size distribution inthe torus of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is different, and dustscattering with moderate optical depth and dominated by large grainsmight provide a reasonable explanation for the near-infrared radiationfrom AGNs.

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Quantitative Stellar Spectral Classification. II. Early Type Stars
The method developed by Stock & Stock (1999) for stars of spectraltypes A to K to derive absolute magnitudes and intrinsic colors from theequivalent widths of absorption lines in stellar spectra is extended toB-type stars. Spectra of this type of stars for which the Hipparcoscatalogue gives parallaxes with an error of less than 20% were observedwith the CIDA one-meter reflector equipped with a Richardsonspectrograph with a Thompson 576×384 CCD detector. The dispersionis 1.753 Å/pixel using a 600 lines/mm grating in the first order.In order to cover the spectral range 3850 Å to 5750 Å thegrating had to be used in two different positions, with an overlap inthe region from 4800 Å to 4900 Å . A total of 116 stars wasobserved, but not all with both grating positions. A total of 12measurable absorption lines were identified in the spectra and theirequivalent widths were measured. These were related to the absolutemagnitudes derived from the Hipparcos catalogue and to the intrinsiccolors (deduced from the MK spectral types) using linear and secondorder polynomials and two or three lines as independent variables. Thebest solutions were obtained with polynomials of three lines,reproducing the absolute magnitudes with an average residual of about0.40 magnitudes and the intrinsic colors with an average residual of0.016 magnitudes.

On the behavior of the Cii 4267.261, 6578.052 and 6582.882 Å lines in chemically peculiar and standard stars
With the aim of investigating the possible particular behavior of carbonin a sample of chemically peculiar stars of the main sequence withoutturning to modeling, we performed spectroscopic observations of threeimportant and usually prominent single ionized carbon lines: 4267.261,6578.052 and 6582.882 Å. In addition, we observed a large numberof standard stars in order to define a kind of normality strip, usefulfor comparing the observed trend for the peculiar stars. We paidparticular attention to the problem of the determination of fundamentalatmospheric parameters, especially for the chemically peculiar stars forwhich the abundance anomalies change the flux distribution in such a waythat the classical photometric methods to infer effective temperaturesand gravities parameter cannot be applied. Regarding CP stars, we founda normal carbon abundance in Hg-Mn, Si (with some exceptions) and Hestrong stars. He weak stars are normal too, but with a large spread outof the data around the mean value. A more complicated behavior has beennoted in the group of SrCrEu stars: four out of seven show a strongoverabundance, being the others normal.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

Boron Abundances in B-Type Stars: A Test of Rotational Depletion during Main-Sequence Evolution
Boron abundances have been derived for seven main-sequence B-type starsfrom Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra around the B III λ2066line. In two stars, boron appears to be undepleted with respect to thepresumed initial abundance. In one star, boron is detectable but isclearly depleted. In the other four stars, boron is undetectable,implying depletions of 1-2 dex. Three of these four stars are nitrogenenriched, but the fourth shows no enrichment of nitrogen. Onlyrotationally induced mixing predicts that boron depletions areunaccompanied by nitrogen enrichments. The inferred rate of borondepletion from our observations is in good agreement with thesepredictions. Other boron-depleted nitrogen-normal stars are identifiedfrom the literature. In addition, several boron-depleted nitrogen-richstars are identified, and while all fall on the boron-nitrogen trendpredicted by rotationally induced mixing, a majority have nitrogenenrichments that are not uniquely explained by rotation. The spectrahave also been used to determine iron group (Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni)abundances. The seven B-type stars have near-solar iron groupabundances, as expected for young stars in the solar neighborhood. Wehave also analyzed the halo B-type star PG 0832+676. We find[Fe/H]=-0.88+/-0.10, and the absence of the B III line gives the upperlimit [B/H]<-2.5. These and other published abundances are used toinfer the star's evolutionary status as a post-asymptotic giant branchstar. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associatedwith proposal GO 07400.

Influence of non-adiabatic temperature variations on line profile variations of slowly rotating beta Cephei stars and SPBs. II. Simulations of line profile time series
We investigate to what extent non-adiabatic temperature variations atthe surface of slowly rotating non-radially pulsating beta Cephei starsand slowly pulsating B stars affect silicon line profile variations. Weuse the non-adiabatic amplitudes of the effective temperature andgravity variation presented in Dupret et al. (\cite{Dupret02}), togetherwith a Kurucz intensity grid, to compute time series of line profilevariations. Our simulations point out that the line shapes do not changesignificantly due to temperature variations. We find equivalent widthvariations of at most two percent of the mean equivalent width. Weconfront our results with observational equivalent width variations andwith photometrically obtained effective temperature variations. Based onobservations obtained with the Swiss photometric telescope and with theESO/CAT telescope, at La Silla in Chile.

Long-Term Behavior of Mira Ceti Maxima
We gathered the maxima of Mira Ceti (1596-2000) in order to evaluate thefrequency of two consecuitve bright apparitions. We did an evaluation ofthe correlation between two following maxima in order to verify theprobability of occurrence of two consecutive bright maxima. Analysingthe maxima of Mira, we found a probability of seeing it brighter than ?Ceti once every 21 years. In this case, as in February 1997, Mira can bedetected at the first sight as a new component near the most significantasterism in its zone, and composed of ???????and ? Ceti. We found also acorrelation between the magnitude of two consecutive maxima described bythe linear fit: Mi+1 - Mi = -(1.10 ñ 0.08) Mi + (3.74 ñ 0.26), withR=-0.74. This study was done to test whether Mira could have been theStar of Bethlehem and fulfilled the hypothesis suggested by Kepler of anew star that appeared during the triple conjunction at 1 degree ofJupiter and Saturn that occurred in 7-6 B.C.E.

Distances and Metallicities of High- and Intermediate-Velocity Clouds
A table is presented that summarizes published absorption linemeasurements for the high- and intermediate-velocity clouds (HVCs andIVCs). New values are derived for N(H I) in the direction of observedprobes, in order to arrive at reliable abundances and abundance limits(the H I data are described in Paper II). Distances to stellar probesare revisited and calculated consistently, in order to derive distancebrackets or limits for many of the clouds, taking care to properlyinterpret nondetections. The main conclusions are the following. (1)Absolute abundances have been measured using lines of S II, N I, and OI, with the following resulting values: ~0.1 solar for one HVC (complexC), ~0.3 solar for the Magellanic Stream, ~0.5 solar for a southern IVC,and ~solar for two northern IVCs (the IV Arch and LLIV Arch). Finally,approximate values in the range 0.5-2 solar are found for three moreIVCs. (2) Depletion patterns in IVCs are like those in warm disk or halogas. (3) Most distance limits are based on strong UV lines of C II, SiII, and Mg II, a few on Ca II. Distance limits for major HVCs aregreater than 5 kpc, while distance brackets for several IVCs are in therange 0.5-2 kpc. (4) Mass limits for major IVCs are0.5-8×105 Msolar, but for major HVCs theyare more than 106 Msolar. (5) The Ca II/H I ratiovaries by up to a factor 2-5 within a single cloud, somewhat morebetween clouds. (6) The Na I/H I ratio varies by a factor of more than10 within a cloud, and even more between clouds. Thus, Ca II can beuseful for determining both lower and upper distance limits, but Na Ionly yields upper limits.

Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry of Variable Early-Type Be and B Stars Derived from High-Resolution IUE Data
High-dispersion IUE data encode significant information about aggregateline absorptions that cannot be conveniently extracted from individualstellar spectra. Here we apply a new technique in which fluxes from eachechelle order of a short-wavelength IUE spectrum are binned together toconstruct low-resolution spectra of a rapidly varying B or Be star. Thedivision of binned spectra obtained during a ``bright-star'' phase byspectra from a ``faint-star'' phase leads to a ratioed spectrum thatcontains information about the mechanism responsible for a star'svariability. The most likely candidate mechanisms are either theperiodic or episodic occultations of the star by ejected matter or achange in photospheric structure, e.g., from pulsation. We model thevariations caused by these mechanism by means of model atmosphere andabsorbing-slab codes. Line absorptions strength changes are rathersensitive to physical conditions in circumstellar shells and ``clouds''at temperatures of 8000-13,000 K, which is the regime expected forcircumstellar structures of early B stars. To demonstrate proofs of thisconcept, we construct spectral ratios for circumstellar structuresassociated with flux variability in various Be stars: (1) Vela X-1 has abow-shock wind trailing its neutron star companion; at successive phasesand hence in different sectors, the wind exhibits spectrophotometricsignatures of a 13,000 or 26,000 K medium; (2) 88 Her undergoes episodic``outbursts'' during which its UV flux fades, followed a year later by adimming at visible wavelengths as well; the ratioed spectrum indicatesthe ``phase lag'' is a result of a nearly gray opacity that dominatesall wavelengths as the shell expands from the star and cools, permittingthe absorptions in the visible to ``catch up'' to those in the UV; and(3) ζ Tau and 60 Cyg exhibit periodic spectrum and flux changes,which match model absorptions for occulting clouds but are actually mosteasily seen from selective variations of various resonance lines. Inaddition, ratioed UV spectra of radial and large-amplitude nonradialpulsating stars show unique spectrophotometric signatures, which can besimulated with model atmospheres. An analysis of ratioed spectraobtained for a representative sample of 18 classical Be stars known tohave rapid periodic flux variations indicates that 13 of them haveratioed spectra that are relatively featureless or have signatures ofpulsation. Ratioed spectra of three others in the sample exhibitsignatures that are consistent with the presence of corotating clouds.

Boron Abundances in Early B Stars: Results from the B III Resonance Line in IUE Data
We have used archival International Ultraviolet Explorer high-dispersionSWP spectra to study the B III resonance line at 2065.8 Å in 44early B stars. We find a median boron abundance about half that of solarsystem meteoritic material, consistent with the values found fromprevious studies of boron in early B stars. About one-third of the starsstudied appear to have boron abundances that are a factor of 4 or morelower than this median. Many of these are stars with enhanced nitrogenabundances, confirming the belief that deep envelope mixing can occur inmain-sequence B stars. A few stars with low boron abundances have normalN/C ratios. It is unclear whether all of these can be explained as starswhere mixing depleted the boron but did not go deep enough to bringCN-processed material to the surface or if some stars were actuallyformed with an unusually low boron abundance.

Spectroscopic nonadiabatic observables in β Cephei models
We calculate time sequences of Si III 455.26 nm line profiles for 10Msun models using results of the linear nonadiabaticcalculations of Dziembowski & Pamyatnykh (\cite{dziem93}) foroscillations of beta Cephei stars. The spectroscopic observables areamplitude ratios and phase differences for various oscillatingparameters derived from line profiles. We search theoretical diagramsinvolving these observables for unstable modes with low harmonic degrees(l = 0, 1 and 2) and azimuthal orders of m = -l, ..., +l. We show thatall unstable modes are grouped in domains assigned by different l andm-values. In almost all studied diagrams, the retrograde (m > 0),prograde (m < 0) and zonal (m = 0) modes are well separated from eachother. The clearest separation of the domains occurs for the m-values inthe diagram making use of the first and second moments of line profiles.Neither the inclination angle i or the amplitude of the stellar radiusvariation epsilon change this conclusion. The diagram is howeversensitive to the equatorial velocity ve of the star. Themethod of determination of m is valid and efficient for the equatorialrotational velocity 20 < ve < 50 km {s}-1.The observables studied here are usually by-products of periodogramanalyses of time series of observed characteristics of line profiles.Our results point to the significance of such data for asteroseismologyin addition to measurements of oscillation frequencies and photometricnonadiabatic observables.

Time-resolved spectroscopy of the roAp star gamma Equ
We report results of the spectroscopic monitoring of the roAp star gammaEqu/ with the ESO 3.6-m telescope. During 1.5 hours of observations aseries of very high-resolution and high S/N spectra was obtained forthis star in the 6138-6165 Å/ spectral region. Short exposuretimes allowed us to resolve changes of gamma Equ/ line profiles due tothe rapid pulsations and to follow profile variations over 5 oscillationcycles. From this unique observational material information onamplitudes and phase shifts of radial velocity (RV) variations wasextracted for 29 lines of 17 individual ions. We confirmed that spectrallines of rare-earth elements (REE) have the largest pulsationamplitudes, reaching up to 0.8 km s-1. Moreover, we detecteda phase shift between RV variations of singly and doubly ionized REE,discovered significant RV shifts of weak Na I lines and analysed lineprofile variations of Pr Iii/ and Nd Iii/ spectral features. This richobservational material opens a possibility to obtain a detailed pictureof the vertical stratification of chemical elements and extract the maincharacteristics of the pulsational mode(s). In our observations we didnot find support for the existence of the unique dependence of RVamplitude on line strength suggested in earlier spectroscopic studies ofroAp stars. Instead, we argue that the individuality of the variationsof all ions is a result of the complex interplay between inhomogeneousvertical and horizontal distributions of chemical elements andindividual pulsation modes of gamma Equ. We show that the extra linebroadening observed in gamma Equ/ spectrum is most likely caused bypulsations. A detailed analysis of Pr Iii/ and Nd Iii/ line profilevariations resulted in the estimate of l=2 or 3, m=-l or -l+1 andvp,~10 km s-1/ for the p-mode of the mainpulsation frequency. Based on observations obtained at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Cetus
Right ascension:02h39m29.00s
Declination:+00°19'43.0"
Apparent magnitude:4.07
Distance:198.413 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:0
B-T magnitude:3.794
V-T magnitude:4.029

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesPhycochroma
  (Edit)
Bayerδ Cet
Flamsteed82 Cet
HD 1989HD 16582
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 46-1633-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0900-00621415
BSC 1991HR 779
HIPHIP 12387

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