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|A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars|
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i 100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.
|Evolution of interacting binaries with a B type primary at birth|
We revisited the analytical expression for the mass ratio distributionfor non-evolved binaries with a B type primary. Selection effectsgoverning the observations were taken into account in order to comparetheory with observations. Theory was optimized so as to fit best withthe observed q-distribution of SB1s and SB2s. The accuracy of thistheoretical mass ratio distribution function is severely hindered by theuncertainties on the observations. We present a library of evolutionarycomputations for binaries with a B type primary at birth. Some liberalcomputations including loss of mass and angular momentum during binaryevolution are added to an extensive grid of conservative calculations.Our computations are compared statistically to the observeddistributions of orbital periods and mass ratios of Algols. ConservativeRoche Lobe Over Flow (RLOF) reproduces the observed distribution oforbital periods but fails to explain the observed mass ratios in therange q in [0.4-1]. In order to obtain a better fit the binaries have tolose a significant amount of matter, without losing much angularmomentum.
|Shocked Clouds in the Vela Supernova Remnant|
Unusually strong high-excitation C I has been detected in 11 lines ofsight through the Vela supernova remnant (SNR) by means of UV absorptionline studies of IUE data. Most of these lines of sight lie near thewestern edge of the bright X-ray region of the SNR in a spatiallydistinct band approximately 1° by 4° oriented approximatelynorth-south. The high-excitation C I (denoted C I* and C I**) isinterpreted as evidence of a complex of shocked dense clouds interactingwith the SNR, because of the high pressures indicated in this region. Tofurther analyze the properties of this region of enhanced C I* and CI**, we present new HIRES-processed IRAS data of the entire Vela SNR. Atemperature map calculated from the HIRES IRAS data, based on atwo-component dust model, reveals the signature of hot dust at severallocations in the SNR. The hot dust is anticorrelated spatially withX-ray emission, as would be expected for a dusty medium interacting witha shock wave. The regions of hot dust are strongly correlated withoptical filaments, supporting a scenario of dense clouds interior to theSNR that have been shocked and are now cooling behind the supernovablast wave. With few exceptions, the lines of sight to the stronghigh-excitation C I pass through regions of hot dust and opticalfilaments. Possible mechanisms for the production of the unexpectedlylarge columns of high-excitation C I are discussed. Dense clouds on theback western hemisphere of the remnant may explain the relatively lowX-ray emission in the western portion of the Vela SNR due to the slowerforward shock velocity in regions where the shock has encountered thedense clouds. An alternate explanation for the presence of ground-stateand excited-state neutrals, as well as ionized species, along the sameline of sight is a magnetic precursor that heats and compresses the gasahead of the shock.
|The discovery of a low-mass, pre-main-sequence stellar association around γ Velorum|
We report the serendipitous discovery of a population of low-mass,pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars in the direction of the Wolf-Rayet/O-starbinary system γ2Vel and the Vela OB2 association. Weargue that γ2Vel and the low-mass stars are trulyassociated and approximately coeval, and that both are at distancesbetween 360 and 490pc, disagreeing at the 2σ level with the recentHipparcos parallax of γ2Vel, but consistent with olderdistance estimates. Our results clearly have implications for thephysical parameters of the γ2Vel system, but also offeran exciting opportunity to investigate the influence of high-mass starson the mass function and circumstellar disc lifetimes of their lowermass PMS siblings.
|Spectroscopy and Time Variability of Absorption Lines in the Direction of the Vela Supernova Remnant|
We present high-resolution (R~75,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N~100) CaII λ3933.663 and Na I λλ5889.951, 5895.924 spectraof 68 stars in the direction of the Vela supernova remnant. The spectracomprise the most complete high-resolution, high S/N optical survey ofearly-type stars in this region of the sky. A subset of the sight lineshas been observed at multiple epochs, 1993/1994 and 1996. Of the 13stars observed twice, seven have spectra revealing changes in theequivalent width and/or velocity structure of lines, most of which arisefrom remnant gas. Such time variability has been reported previously forthe sight lines toward HD 72089 and HD 72997 by Danks & Sembach andfor HD 72127 by Hobbs and coworkers. We have confirmed the ongoing timevariability of these spectra and present new evidence of variability inthe spectra of HD 73658, HD 74455, HD 75309, and HD 75821. We havetabulated Na I and Ca II absorption-line information for the sight linesin our sample to serve as a benchmark for further investigations of thedynamics and evolution of the Vela SNR. Based on observations obtainedat the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.
|Spatial Variability in the Ratio of Interstellar Atomic Deuterium to Hydrogen. II. Observations toward γ2 Velorum and ζ Puppis by the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph|
High-resolution far-ultraviolet spectra of the early-type starsγ2 Vel and ζ Pup were obtained to measure theinterstellar deuterium abundances in these directions. The observationswere made with the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph(IMAPS) during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission in 1996. IMAPS spectra coverthe wavelength range 930-1150 Å withλ/Δλ~80,000. The interstellar D I features areresolved and cleanly separated from interstellar H I in the Lyδand Lyɛ profiles of both sight lines and also in the Lyγprofile of ζ Pup. The D I profiles were modeled using a velocitytemplate derived from several N I lines in the IMAPS spectra recorded athigher signal-to-noise ratio. To find the best D I column density, weminimized χ2 for model D I profiles that included notonly the N(D I) as a free parameter, but also the effects of severalpotential sources of systematic error, which were allowed to vary asfree parameters. H I column densities were measured by analyzingLyα absorption profiles in a large number of IUE high-dispersionspectra for each of these stars and applying this sameχ2-minimization technique. Ultimately we found thatD/H=2.18+0.36-0.31×10-5 forγ2 Vel and1.42+0.25-0.23×10-5 for ζPup, values that contrast markedly with D/H derived in Paper I forδ Ori A (the stated errors are 90% confidence limits). Evidently,the atomic D/H ratio in the ISM, averaged over path lengths of 250-500pc, exhibits significant spatial variability. Furthermore, the observedspatial variations in D/H do not appear to be anticorrelated with N/H,one measure of heavy-element abundances. We briefly discuss somehypotheses to explain the D/H spatial variability. Within the frameworkof standard big bang nucleosynthesis, the large value of D/H foundtoward γ2 Vel is equivalent to a cosmic baryon densityof ΩBh2=0.023+/-0.002, which we regard as anupper limit since there is no correction for the destruction ofdeuterium in stars. This paper is dedicated in memory of Judith L.Tokel, wife of the first author, who passed away on 2000 June 10. Herenthusiastic support and encouragement were essential to its successfulcompletion.
|Wolf-Rayet stars before and after Hipparcos.|
|Resolved young open star clusters: keys to understanding massive hot stars.|
|A HIPPARCOS Census of the Nearby OB Associations|
A comprehensive census of the stellar content of the OB associationswithin 1 kpc from the Sun is presented, based on Hipparcos positions,proper motions, and parallaxes. It is a key part of a long-term projectto study the formation, structure, and evolution of nearby young stellargroups and related star-forming regions. OB associations are unbound``moving groups,'' which can be detected kinematically because of theirsmall internal velocity dispersion. The nearby associations have a largeextent on the sky, which traditionally has limited astrometricmembership determination to bright stars (V<~6 mag), with spectraltypes earlier than ~B5. The Hipparcos measurements allow a majorimprovement in this situation. Moving groups are identified in theHipparcos Catalog by combining de Bruijne's refurbished convergent pointmethod with the ``Spaghetti method'' of Hoogerwerf & Aguilar.Astrometric members are listed for 12 young stellar groups, out to adistance of ~650 pc. These are the three subgroups Upper Scorpius, UpperCentaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux of Sco OB2, as well as VelOB2, Tr 10, Col 121, Per OB2, alpha Persei (Per OB3), Cas-Tau, Lac OB1,Cep OB2, and a new group in Cepheus, designated as Cep OB6. Theselection procedure corrects the list of previously known astrometricand photometric B- and A-type members in these groups and identifiesmany new members, including a significant number of F stars, as well asevolved stars, e.g., the Wolf-Rayet stars gamma^2 Vel (WR 11) in Vel OB2and EZ CMa (WR 6) in Col 121, and the classical Cepheid delta Cep in CepOB6. Membership probabilities are given for all selected stars. MonteCarlo simulations are used to estimate the expected number of interloperfield stars. In the nearest associations, notably in Sco OB2, thelater-type members include T Tauri objects and other stars in the finalpre-main-sequence phase. This provides a firm link between the classicalhigh-mass stellar content and ongoing low-mass star formation. Detailedstudies of these 12 groups, and their relation to the surroundinginterstellar medium, will be presented elsewhere. Astrometric evidencefor moving groups in the fields of R CrA, CMa OB1, Mon OB1, Ori OB1, CamOB1, Cep OB3, Cep OB4, Cyg OB4, Cyg OB7, and Sct OB2, is inconclusive.OB associations do exist in many of these regions, but they are eitherat distances beyond ~500 pc where the Hipparcos parallaxes are oflimited use, or they have unfavorable kinematics, so that the groupproper motion does not distinguish it from the field stars in theGalactic disk. The mean distances of the well-established groups aresystematically smaller than the pre-Hipparcos photometric estimates.While part of this may be caused by the improved membership lists, arecalibration of the upper main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram may be called for. The mean motions display a systematicpattern, which is discussed in relation to the Gould Belt. Six of the 12detected moving groups do not appear in the classical list of nearby OBassociations. This is sometimes caused by the absence of O stars, but inother cases a previously known open cluster turns out to be (part of) anextended OB association. The number of unbound young stellar groups inthe solar neighborhood may be significantly larger than thoughtpreviously.
|A near IR adaptive optics search for faint companions to early-type multiple stars|
We report on a high dynamical range (>10(m) ) and high angularresolution (down to 0.2arcsec ) search for low-mass components ofearly-type primaries in 7 intermediate-age (5 Myr) multiple systems withthe ESO 3.6 m telescope and the adaptive optics system ADONIS. Theimages were obtained in the J and SK bands with and without acoronographic mask of 2arcsec diameter. The census is nearly complete inthe angular separation range 1arcsec - 6arcsec , corresponding to linearseparations of 200-1200 AU, which have remained unstudied so far due tothe intrinsic brightness of the massive primaries. The best detectionlimits are around K=15(m) at 1arcsec and K=19(m) at 5arcsec separationfrom the primary. In 13 fields of 12.5arcsec x 12.5arcsec 6 new faintstars were detected. Their magnitudes and colours indicate that 2 ofthem can be physical low-mass components. The bright (K=11.2, J-K=1.2)companion to HD 108250 C at 2.17arcsec has an IR excess and deservesfurther study. Several fields were explored without a mask; somewhatsurprisingly, no new components at sub-arcsecond separations down to0.2arcsec were detected. The first order stability analysis indicatesthat the studied multiple systems are hierarchical at spatial scales of40-1000 AU. The data are briefly discussed in the light of the formationand evolution of multiple systems with massive primaries. Based onobservations collected at the ESO La Silla Observatory (program58.D-0455).
|ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. XIX - an astrometric/spectroscopic survey of O stars|
We present the results of a speckle interferometric survey made with theCHARA speckle camera and 4 m class telescopes of Galactic O-type starswith V less than 8. We can detect with the speckle camera binaries inthe angular separation range 0.035-1.5 arcsec with delta M less than 3,and we have discovered 15 binaries among 227 O-type systems. We combinedour results on visual binaries with measurements of wider pairs from theWashington Double Star Catalog and fainter pairs from the HipparcosCatalog, and we made a literature survey of the spectroscopic binariesamong the sample. We then investigated the overall binary frequency ofthe sample and the orbital characteristics of the known binaries.Binaries are common among O stars in clusters and associations but lessso among field and especially runaway stars. There are many triplesystems among the speckle binaries, and we discuss their possible rolein the ejection of stars from clusters. The period distribution of thebinaries is bimodal in log P, but we suggest that binaries with periodsof years and decades may eventually be found to fill the gap. The massratio distribution of the visual binaries increases toward lower massratios, but low mass ratio companions are rare among close,spectroscopic binaries. We present distributions of the eccentricity andlongitude of periastron for spectroscopic binaries with ellipticalorbits, and we find strong evidence of a bias in the longitude ofperiastron distribution.
|The HIPPARCOS distance determination of the Wolf-Rayet system Gamma^2 Velorum (WC8+O) and its ramifications|
Hipparcos parallax measurements give a distance to the Wolf-Rayet WC8+Ospectroscopic binary gamma^2 Vel of d=258^+41_-31 pc and a distance tothe O4I(n)f star zeta Pup of d=429^+120_-77 pc. Adopting for gamma^2 Velan interstellar extinction of A_v=0.06 mag, this implies an absolutemagnitude M_v=-5.4 mag for the WC8+O binary system. Given that thebinary components have a magnitude difference Delta m=1.4 mag, we deriveM_v(WC8)=-3.7 and M_V(O)=-5.0 mag. The latter indicates an O8.5IIIrather than an O9I companion, as was adopted during the last 25 years.Apparently gamma^2 Vel is not a member of, but a foreground objectbefore the open cluster Cr 173 and the association Vel OB2. Given are-assessment of the distance of the Gum Nebula, gamma^2 Vel is stillone of its ionizing sources, while zeta Pup appears to be located at theback of the Gum Nebula. Consequences of the Hipparcos distancedetermination of gamma^2 Vel for its mass, mass loss rate, luminositiesat various wavelengths, and, briefly, its association with the GumNebula, are discussed.
|An All-Sky Catalog of Faint Extreme Ultraviolet Sources|
We present a list of 534 objects detected jointly in the ExtremeUltraviolet Explorer (EUVE) 100 Angstroms all-sky survey and in theROSAT X-Ray Telescope 0.25 keV band. The joint selection criterionpermits use of a low count rate threshold in each survey. This lowthreshold is roughly 60% of the threshold used in the previous EUVEall-sky surveys, and 166 of the objects listed here are new EUV sources,appearing in neither the Second EUVE Source Catalog nor the ROSAT WideField Camera Second Catalog. The spatial distribution of this all-skycatalog shows three features: an enhanced concentration of objects inUrsa Major, where the Galactic integrated H I column reaches its globalminimum; an enhanced concentration in the third quadrant of the Galaxy(lII from 180 deg to 270 deg) including the Canis Major tunnel, whereparticularly low H I columns are found to distances beyond 200 pc; and aparticularly low number of faint objects in the direction of the fourthquadrant of the Galaxy, where nearby intervening H I columns areappreciable. Of particular interest is the composition of the 166detections not previously reported in any EUV catalog. We offerpreliminary identifications for 105 of these sources. By far the mostnumerous (81) of the identifications are late-type stars (F, G, K, M),while 18 are other stellar types, only five are white dwarfs (WDs), andnone are extragalactic. The paucity of WDs and extragalactic objects maybe explained by a strong horizon effect wherein interstellar absorptionstrongly limits the effective new-source search volume and, thereby,selectively favors low-luminosity nearby sources over more luminous butdistant objects.
|ASCA observations of gamma2 Velorum (WC8+O9I): the variable X-ray spectrum of colliding winds.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996MNRAS.283..589S&db_key=AST
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.|
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.
|Close binaries observed polarimetrically|
|The interstellar medium in the solar vicinity - Analysis of the distribution of colour excesses E(b-y) towards 10 selected areas|
The distribution of color excesses, E(b-y), and the distances to about680 stars (mainly of spectral types A and F belonging to ten Kapteyn'sselected areas) are analyzed in order to investigate some of thereddening properties of the interstellar obscuring matter in the solarvicinity. Particular attention among these areas is given to sevenregions with line-of-sight toward the Gum Nebula and the interfacebetween the Local and Loop I Bubbles. It is shown that the Gum Nebulaand the interface between the Local Bubble and the Loop I Bubble arelikely to be the main sources of the diffuse absorbing material in thedirection of the seven low-galactic-latitude areas analyzed.
|Catalogue of i and w/w crit values for rotating early type stars|
|Effects of stellar rotation on the Geneva photometric system|
The effects of stellar rotation on colors and parameters of the Genevaphotometric system are considered, using homogeneous material. Attentionis focused on these parameters useful for deriving physical propertiesof B- and A-type stars. Two major photometric planes in this respect,the (X, Y) plane and the (d, Delta) plane, are not discernibly affectedby rotation. The temperature parameter, B(2) - V(1) is reddened byrotation to an extent that is in agreement with model calculations foruniformly rotating stars.
|Determination of omega and IOTA values for rotating BO-B3 stars. I.|
|The VELA star cloud. III - The B8 to A0 stars and interstellar reddening|
The present discussion of intermediate band and H-beta observations of360 HD stars B8-A0 in Vela, and all of the CPD stars in a small adjacentregion, notes that the interstellar absorption in both cases can beunderstood as a combination of three absorbing clouds of 1 kpc-A(V) =1.5, 0.5, and 0.17. The major difference in the two environments is thepresence of numerous T Tauri stars in Taurus. Several clusters in theVela region are discussed.
|Polarimetric determination of spatial orbital orientation of the bynary systems gamma 1 and gamma 2 Vel.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985RMxAA..10..267L&db_key=AST
|IUE absorption line studies of highly ionized interstellar gas|
The IUE high dispersion echelle spectra of galactic and extragalacticsources have generally revealed the presence of absorption byinterstellar Si IV and C IV. Occasionally N V was detected. Theobservational results relating to these species will be reviewed for HII regions, supernova remnants, galactic disk gas, galactic halo gas,and extragalactic gas. For the various regions, the likely origin of theionization is considered.
|The IUE spectrum of gamma(1) Velorum|
Gamma(1) Vel is suggested by IUE observations to be an interactingbinary system with nonthermal energy sources and the possibility of twohigh electron temperature regions, as well as mass outflow from one ofthe components. A UV continuum is obtained which fits the Kurucz (1979)LTE model atmosphere computations for an effective temperature of 20,000K and log g of about 3. It is noted that these parameters are typicalfor a B2 III star, such as the spectrum of Gamma(1) Vel as observed inthe photographic region.
|Spectroscopic binaries - 14th complementary catalog|
Orbital-element data for 380 spectroscopic binaries are compiled andannotated in tables. The catalog represents a continuation of the 13thcatalog (Pedoussaut and Nadal, 1977) and uses the same general format.The techniques used in making the magnitudes and spectral typeshomogeneous are indicated.
|The common origin of some open clusters|
Eight open clusters have been observed with uvby-beta photometry and forseven of them the metal abundances have been determined. Six of thesehave similar metallicities. They are close in space and are also knownto have similar ages and radial velocities. These clusters are suspectedof having a common origin. Some studies are made of the reliability ofthe photometric system. A large gain in limiting magnitude can beachieved against an unimportant loss of accuracy if interference filtersare removed.
|The orbit of gamma 2 Velorum|
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|Proper motion Dec:||9.7|
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