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 The epoch of the constellations on the Farnese Atlas and their origin in Hipparchus's lost catalogueNot Available Rotation and Lithium Surface Abundances, RevisitedFor giants in the Hertzsprung gap, the relations betweenTeff, vsini, and lithium surface abundances arereinvestigated and compared with the relations found for Hyadesmain-sequence F stars. For the Hyades main-sequence F stars, the vsinidecrease steeply around Teff~6450 K. At the same temperaturethe lithium surface abundances show a narrow, deep dip. For most giantsthere is also a steep decrease of vsini for Teff around 6450K. At this temperature the lithium surface abundances of the giants alsodecrease steeply and remain low for Teff<6400 K. Thechanges in rotation and Li surface abundances occur over a temperatureinterval of less than 300 K, which for a 2 Msolar giantcorresponds to an age interval of about 106 yr. Thesimultaneous steep decreases of rotation velocities and Li surfaceabundances indicate that for the giants these changes are due to thesame cause, which we suggest to be deep mixing. It then seems ratherlikely that for the Hyades main-sequence F5 V stars the decrease ofrotation and Li surface abundance is also caused by deep mixing. Wesuggest that in both cases the changes are related to the merging of thehydrogen and helium convection zones. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Survey of Far-Ultraviolet Coronal Forbidden Lines in Late-Type StarsWe describe an extensive search with the Space Telescope ImagingSpectrograph (STIS) for ultraviolet coronal (T>106 K)forbidden lines in a sample of 29 F-M dwarfs, giants, and supergiants.Measuring coronal lines in the 1150-1700 Å band with STIS hasimportant advantages of superior velocity resolution and an absolutewavelength calibration compared with using the Chandra or XMM-Newtongrating spectrometers to observe permitted transitions of the same ionstages in the kilovolt X-ray region. Fe XII λλ1242, 1349(T~2×106 K) and Fe XXI λ1354 (107 K)are well known from solar studies and have been reported in previousstellar work. A search for other coronal forbidden lines in the1200-1600 Å region was largely negative. The few candidateidentifications (e.g., Ar XIII λ1330 and Ca XV λ1375) aretoo faint to be diagnostically useful. We add new dwarfs to the list ofFe XII detections, including the nearby solar twin α Cen A (G2 V).Clear detections of Fe XXI were obtained in dMe stars, active giants, ashort-period RS CVn binary, and possibly in active solar-type dwarfs. Wedeveloped a semiempirical method for removing the C I blend thatpartially affects the Fe XXI λ1354 profile. As discussed recentlyby Johnson et al., Capella (α Aur; G8 III+G1 III) displays clearFe XXI variability between Goddard High-Resolution Spectograph (GHRS)and STIS observations 4 yr apart, which is apparently due to asubstantial decline in the contribution from the G8 primary. We presentan alternative model of the GHRS and STIS era profiles using informationin the two sets of line shapes jointly, as well as knowledge of thebehavior of Fe XXI profiles of other late-G clump'' giants similar toCapella G8. The full survey sample also provides a context for theapparent variability: the Fe XXI flux of the G8 star in the GHRSspectrum is nearly identical (in LFeXXI/Lbol) toother clump giants of similar LX/Lbol, but it haddropped at least a factor of 6 in the STIS measurement. The He IIλ1640 Bα feature-which is thought to be responsive tocoronal irradiation-also showed significant changes between the GHRS andSTIS epochs, but the decrease in the G8 star was much smaller than FeXXI. The Fe XII flux displays a correlation with the ROSAT 0.2-2 keVX-ray flux that can be described by an α=0.5 power law. Fe XXIexhibits a steeper, perhaps linear (α=1), correlation with theROSAT flux down to an activity level ofLX/Lbol~10-5, below which detections ofthe coronal forbidden line are rare. There is no evidence of large,systematic Doppler shifts in either Fe XII λ1242 or Fe XXIλ1354. This suggests that the emissions arise dominantly inconfined structures, analogous to magnetic loops on the Sun, ratherthan, say, in a hot wind. The Fe XII and Fe XXI line widths generallyare close to thermal (FWHM~40-90 km s-1 atT~106.2-107.0 K), except for the Hertzsprung-gapgiants 31 Comae (G0 III) and Capella G1 and the K1 subgiant primary ofHR 1099, all of which show evidence for excess broadening in Fe XXI (FeXII is obscured in these objects by broad N V λ1242 features). Ifthe excess broadening is rotational, it implies that the hot coronae ofX-ray-deficient'' 31 Com and Capella G1 are highly extended, contraryto the compact structures suggested by recent density estimates in anumber of active coronal sources. Observational constraints for lithium depletion before the RGBPrecise Li abundances are determined for 54 giant stars mostly evolvingacross the Hertzsprung gap. We combine these data with rotationalvelocity and with information related to the deepening of the convectivezone of the stars to analyse their link to Li dilution in the referredspectral region. A sudden decline in Li abundance paralleling the onealready established in rotation is quite clear. Following similarresults for other stellar luminosity classes and spectral regions, thereis no linear relation between Li abundance and rotation, in spite of thefact that most of the fast rotators present high Li content. The effectsof convection in driving the Li dilution is also quite clear. Stars withhigh Li content are mostly those with an undeveloped convective zone,whereas stars with a developed convective zone present clear sign of Lidilution.Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla, Chile, and at theObservatoire de Haute Provence, France, operated by the Centre Nationalde la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associationsRadial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446 The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. II. Basic Parameters of Program Stars and the Role of MicroturbulencePaper I of this series presented precise MK spectral types for 372 lateA-, F-, and early G-type stars with the aim of understanding the natureof luminosity classification on the MK spectral classification systemfor this range of spectral types. In this paper, a multidimensionaldownhill simplex technique is introduced to determine the basicparameters of the program stars from fits of synthetic spectra andfluxes with observed spectra and fluxes from Strömgren uvbyphotometry. This exercise yields useful calibrations of the MK spectralclassification system but, most importantly, gives insight into thephysical nature of luminosity classification on the MK spectralclassification system. In particular, we find that in this range ofspectral types, microturbulence appears to be at least as important asgravity in determining the MK luminosity type. The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. I. Precise Spectral Types for 372 StarsThis is the first in a series of two papers that address the problem ofthe physical nature of luminosity classification in the late A-, F-, andearly G-type stars. In this paper, we present precise spectralclassifications of 372 stars on the MK system. For those stars in theset with Strömgren uvbyβ photometry, we derive reddenings andpresent a calibration of MK temperature types in terms of the intrinsicStrömgren (b-y)0 index. We also examine the relationshipbetween the luminosity class and the Strömgren c1 index,which measures the Balmer jump. The second paper will address thederivation of the physical parameters of these stars, and therelationships between these physical parameters and the luminosityclass. Stars classified in this paper include one new λ Bootisstar and 10 of the F- and G-type dwarfs with recently discoveredplanets. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Binaries in the Praesepe and Coma Star Clusters and Their Implications for Binary EvolutionThis completes a study of the evolution of binary systems in five openclusters of various ages. Among 21 stars observed in Praesepe, eight arefound or confirmed to be spectroscopic binaries and orbital elements arederived, while one more shows long-term binary motion. Among 18 starsobserved in the Coma Berenices cluster, five are found or confirmed tobe spectroscopic binaries and orbital elements are derived, while asixth has tentative elements. Among five clusters studied we searchedfor three expected evolutionary effects, namely an increase with age inthe mass ratios, a decrease with age of the binary periods, and anincrease in binary frequencies. We find that there is a progression (atthe 3 sigma level) from no binaries out of 10 with mass ratios greaterthan 0.5 in the youngest cluster (combined with the published resultsfor NGC 6193) to 25% such stars in the intermediate-age clusters to 43%such stars in these two oldest clusters. There is no evidence for anincrease in short-period binaries with age. And there is slight evidence(at the 1 sigma level) for an increase with age from 15% to 28% in thefraction of large-amplitude binaries. These results are mostlyconsistent with the idea that most binaries are formed or modified inthree-body interactions, and successive generations of formation anddisruptions tend to form binaries with larger mass ratios. However, partof the initial generation of binaries is probably primordial. Open clusters with Hipparcos. I. Mean astrometric parametersNew memberships, mean parallaxes and proper motions of all 9 openclusters closer than 300 pc (except the Hyades) and 9rich clusters between 300 and 500 pc have been computed using Hipparcosdata. Precisions, ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mas for parallaxes and 0.1 to0.5 mas/yr for proper motions, are of great interest for calibratingphotometric parallaxes as well as for kinematical studies. Carefulinvestigations of possible biases have been performed and no evidence ofsignificant systematic errors on the mean cluster parallaxes has beenfound. The distances and proper motions of 32 more distant clusters,which may be used statistically, are also indicated. Based onobservations made with the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite O. C. Wilson and his K-line intensitiesNot Available The Coronae of Moderate-Mass Giants in the Hertzsprung Gap and the ClumpWe have used the Roentgensatellit (ROSAT), the Extreme UltravioletExplorer (EUVE), and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to measure X-rayand ultraviolet emissions of moderate-mass (~2-3 Mȯ) giants in theHertzsprung gap (spectral types early F to mid-G) and the post-heliumflash "clump" (~G8-K0). Our motivation was to document the evolution ofhot coronae (T > 106 K) along the post-main-sequence trajectoriestraveled by such stars in order to gain insight concerning the "X-raydeficiency" of the F-G0 giants and the strong braking of stellarrotation at the red edge of the Hertzsprung gap. With few exceptions,Hertzsprung gap and clump giants observed by ROSAT PSPC show hot (T ~107 K) coronal energy distributions, regardless of any X-ray deficiency.EUVE spectra of gap star 31 Com (G0 III) indicate a broad coronalemission measure hump at ~107.2 K, while the active clump giant betaCeti (K0 III) displays a sharp peak at ~106.8 K, as seen previously inthe mixed clump/gap binary Capella ( alpha Aur: G8 III + G0 III). Thegap giants upsilon Peg (F8 III) and 24 UMa (G4 III) have EUV emissionsof intermediate temperature (~107.0 K). The stars 31 Com, psi 3 Psc (G0III), and beta Cet exhibit redshifted transition zone (TZ: ~105 K) linesin HST GHRS spectra, as reported earlier in Procyon ( alpha CMi: F5IV-V) and Capella G0. Such redshifts on the Sun are thought to signifyflows in magnetic loops. beta Cas (F2 III)--a rare soft coronal sourceamong the gap stars--displays blueshifts of C IV and O IV], althoughemissions at cooler and hotter temperatures are near the photosphericvelocity. The remarkably broad line profiles of the fastest rotating gapgiants suggest that the 105 K "subcoronal" emission zones extend to h~R_{*} above the photosphere, about 50 scale heights. In contrast to theTZ line redshifts, the upper chromospheric emissions (e.g., Mg II and SiIII) of 31 Com and psi 3 Psc have blueshifted cores. Blue-asymmetricpeaks in the solar Mg II lines are thought to indicate dynamical heatingin the chromosphere. Observations of the H I Ly alpha feature of 31 Comtaken 9 months apart reveal striking profile changes, reminiscent ofthose noted previously in the Ly alpha blue peak of the Capella G0 star.We used the far-ultraviolet diagnostics, in combination with ROSAT X-rayphotometry and EUVE high-excitation line strengths, to constrainphysical models of the stellar outer atmospheres. Quasi-static magneticloops can simulate the empirical coronal emission measures of the giantstars, but the inferred pressures for sensible loop lengths conflictwith direct measurements of subcoronal densities. Furthermore, the highrate of emission at ~105 K cannot be explained by thermal conductiondown the legs of hot quasi-static loops. On the other hand, the possibleexistence of elongated (l ~ R_{*} ) emission structures on the gapgiants leads to a speculative scenario to explain the X-ray deficiency.It is based on the increased importance of the dynamical filling phase("explosive evaporation") of the loop life cycle; conductive cooling,yielding TZ emissions at the footpoints, when the heating isinterrupted; and the possibility for transitions between "hot" and"cool" energy balance solutions owing to dynamical suspension andcentrifugal trapping of the cooling gas. The long loops might representa vestigial global "magnetosphere" inherited from the main-sequencephase, which ultimately is disrupted near ~G0 by the deepeningconvective envelope and growth of a more solar-like dynamo. Coronalemissions might be boosted temporarily as the X-ray deficiency isremoved but soon would be quenched by wind braking previously inhibitedby the magnetospheric "dead zone." The Age Range of Hyades StarsOn the basis of canonical models, the age of Hyades supercluster stars,whether in the Hyades and Praesepe clusters or the noncluster field,ranges from (5-6) x 10^8 to 10^9 yr. The difference between the parallaxderived from the supercluster motion and that obtained from Hipparcosobservations has a dispersion only twice that of the mean dispersion ofthe individual Hipparcos values. The supercluster appears not to containred giants on the first ascent of the red giant branch, but onlyasymptotic giant branch (clump'') stars. The masses obtained forindividual components of binary stars in the supercluster show adispersion of less than 10% when compared with model predictions. The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright late-type giants and supergiantsWe present X-ray data for all late-type (A, F, G, K, M) giants andsupergiants (luminosity classes I to III-IV) listed in the Bright StarCatalogue that have been detected in the ROSAT all-sky survey.Altogether, our catalogue contains 450 entries of X-ray emitting evolvedlate-type stars, which corresponds to an average detection rate of about11.7 percent. The selection of the sample stars, the data analysis, thecriteria for an accepted match between star and X-ray source, and thedetermination of X-ray fluxes are described. Catalogue only available atCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Evolution of mass segregation in open clusters: some observational evidencesOn the basis of the best available member list and duplicityinformation, we have studied the radial structure of Praesepe and of thevery young open cluster NGC 6231. We have found mass segregation amongthe cluster members and between binaries and single stars, which isexplained by the greater average mass of the multiple systems. However,the degree of mass segregation for stars between 1.5 and 2.3 M_sun isless pronounced in Praesepe than in the Pleiades. Furthermore, masssegregation is already present in the very young open cluster NGC 6231although this cluster is likely still not dynamically relaxed. Wediscuss the implications of these results and propose a qualitativescenario for the evolution of mass segregation in open clusters. InPraesepe the mass function of single stars and primaries appears to besignificantly different, like in the Pleiades. We observe an absence ofellipticity of the outer part of Praesepe. Tables 2 and 3 are availableonly in electronic form from the Strasbourg ftp server at 130.79.128.5 Classification of Population II Stars in the Vilnius Photometric System. II. ResultsThe results of photometric classification of 848 true and suspectedPopulation II stars, some of which were found to belong to Population I,are presented. The stars were classified using a new calibrationdescribed in Paper I (Bartkevicius & Lazauskaite 1996). We combinethese results with our results from Paper I and discuss in greaterdetail the following groups of stars: UU Herculis-type stars and otherhigh-galactic-latitude supergiants, field red horizontal-branch stars,metal-deficient visual binaries, metal-deficient subgiants, stars fromthe Catalogue of Metal-deficient F--M Stars Classified Photometrically(MDPH; Bartkevicius 1993) and stars from one of the HIPPARCOS programs(Bartkevicius 1994a). It is confirmed that high galactic latitudesupergiants from the Bartaya (1979) catalog are giants or even dwarfs.Some stars, identified by Rose (1985) and Tautvaisiene (1996a) as fieldRHB stars, appear to be ordinary giants according to our classification.Some of the visual binaries studied can be considered as physical pairs.Quite a large fraction of stars from the MDPH catalog are found to havesolar metallicity. A number of new possible UU Herculis-type stars, RHBstars and metal-deficient subgiants are identified. DDO Metal Abundances of High-Luminosity Late-Type Stars in Galactic Open ClustersResults from UBV and DDO photometry are presented for 54 high-luminositylate-type stars in the fields of 23 open clusters. The probability ofcluster membership for each observed star is evaluated using twoindependent photometric criteria. It is found that 32 stars are verylikely cluster members, the remaining ones being almost certainly fieldobjects. The recently improved calibrations of the DDO system have beenused to derive MK spectral types, effective temperatures, andmetallicities, while E(B-V) color excesses have been determined throughknown photometric and spectroscopic procedures. The DDO metallicitiesrange between values typical of moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H]=~ -0.3) tomoderately metal-rich ([Fe/H] =~ 0.2) clusters. The masses of thecluster giants range between 1 and 4 solar masses, with the scatterwithin a cluster being less than 1 solar mass. (SECTION: StellarClusters and Associations) The RIASS coronathon: Joint X-ray and ultraviolet observations of normal F-K starsBetween 1990 August and 1991 January the ROSAT/IUE All Sky Survey(RIASS) coordinated pointings by the International Ultraviolet Explorer(IUE) with the continuous X-ray/EUV mapping by the Roentgensatellit(ROSAT). The campaign provided an unprecedented multiwavelength view ofa wide variety of cosmic sources. We report findings for F-K stars, alarge proportion of the RIASS targets. Forty-eight of our 91'Coronathon' candidates were observed by the IUE during the campaign.For stars missed by the IUE, we supplemented the ROSAT survey fluxeswith archival UV spectra and/or follow-on observations. Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Radio continuum emission from stars: a catalogue update.An updated version of my catalogue of radio stars is presented. Somestatistics and availability are discussed. A ROSAT X-ray study of the Praesepe cluster.We present the results of ROSAT PSPC observations of the Praesepecluster. 68 Praesepe candidates have been detected, above a threshold of=~2x10^28^erg/s, in the ~4x4deg area of the cluster covered by theobservations. 56 out of the 68 detected objects are cataloged as highprobability Praesepe members. Praesepe members of all spectral typeshave been detected with X-ray luminosities ranging from the sensitivitylimit to approximately 10^30^erg/s in the ROSAT broad band. The highestX-ray luminosity has been measured for a very short period W UMa typeSB2 binary. 2 out of the 4 Praesepe late-type giants have also beendetected. X-ray luminosity distribution functions have been derived forlate-type stars in the sample, taking into account both detections andupper limits. The main and most surprising finding are the low detectionrates derived for Praesepe low mass dwarfs. We detected about 30% of theF and G stars, and the detection rate among K and M dwarfs is evenlower. Correspondingly, the luminosity distribution functions for starsin selected color intervals are dominated by the contribution of upperlimits, with the medians below the sensitivity threshold. The comparisonwith the Hyades all-sky survey results shows an evident discrepancybetween the average X-ray properties of late-type dwarfs in the twoapparently coeval clusters; such a discrepancy must be an intrinsic one,since the observations are characterized by similar sensitivities. The lithium content and other properties of F2-G5 giants in the Hertzsprung GapAs stars of 2-5 solar mass evolve across the Hertzsprung Gap they shouldfirst deplete their surface lithium by convective dilution and then,when convection penetrates deeper, begin to bring CN processed materialto their surfaces. To investigate this process we have observed 52giants, 25 of which have known C/N ratios, for their Li abundances.After eliminating four stars that may actually be dwarfs and includingthe two components of Capella analyzed by Pilachowski and Sowell we havecompared our (Li/Fe) ratios with models of Swenson. For stars showing vsin i greater than 50 km/s we find (Li/Fe) to be unaffected by mixingfor B - V less than 0.7 as predicted. For stars cooler than B - V = 0.7both v sin i and (Li/Fe) drop to smaller values. For the sharp linedstars (v sin i less than 50 km/s) we find a drop in Li between B - V =0.45 and 0.60 which cannot be understood in terms of dilution byconvection. Various possible causes of such an early depletion ordilution of surface Li are discussed including diffusion at the base ofthe convection zone, mass loss possibly enhanced by pulsation, andmagnetic activity as in the magnetic A and B type stars. The models ofRicher & Michaud (1993) with diffusion point toward a satisfactorysolution. A few giants with low v sin i values stand out with muchhigher than expected (Li/Fe) values despite their cool effectivetemperatures. We do not understand why those stars have not depletedtheir lithium as have most giants of similar color. The correlation of(N/C) with (Li/Fe) follows expectations in so far as almost all starswith enhanced (N/C) have depleted their Li as well. The integrated spectra of M32 and of 47 Tuc: A comparative study at high spectral resolutionIntegrated spectra have been obtained for the elliptical galaxy M32 andfor the 'metal-rich' Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc. The spectra coverthe wavelength interval lambda lambda 3800-4400 A at a resolution of 2.5A full width at half maximum (FWHM) and S/N ratio of approximately100:1. Similar data have been acquired for a library of 191 individualstars, and, to support the 47 Tuc observations, integrated spectra offour additional metal-rich Galactic globular clusters have beenobtained. These observations are used to compare in detail theintegrated spectra of M32 (the most extensively studied ellipticalgalaxy) and 47 Tuc (the best-studied metal-rich Galactic globularcluster). Although M32 and 47 Tuc have similar optical broadband colorsand overall spectral types, when viewed at 2.5 A resolution spectranumerous subtle differences between their integrated are clearlyvisible. A system of 13 spectral indices, many of them originallydefined in Rose (1984), has been used to quantify these differences.Altogether twelve diagnostic diagrams are presented to illustrate themanner in which the integrated spectrum of M32 differs from that of 47Tuc. These diagrams are used to place several strong constraints on thestellar populations in these two systems. Chromospheric Activity in Galactic Open ClustersAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993ApJ...417..157B&db_key=AST A catalog of stellar Lyman-alpha fluxesWe present a catalog of stellar Ly-alpha emission fluxes, based on newand archival images obtained with the IUE spacecraft. The catalogincludes 227 stars with detectable Ly-alpha emission fluxes, and upperlimits on the Ly-alpha emission flux for another 48 stars. Multiple fluxmeasurements are given for 52 stars. We present a model for correctingthe observed Ly-alpha flux for attenuation by the local interstellarmedium, and we apply this model to derive intrinsic Ly-alpha fluxes for149 catalog stars which are located in low H I column density directionsof the local interstellar medium. In our catalog, there are 14 late-Aand early-F stars at B-V = 0.29 or less that show detectable emission atLy-alpha. We find a linear correlation between the intrinsic Ly-alphaflux and C II 1335 A flux for stars with B-V greater than 0.60, but theA and F stars deviate from this relation in the sense that theirLy-alpha flux is too low. We also find a good correlation betweenLy-alpha strength and coronal X-ray emission. This correlation holdsover most of the H-R diagram, even for the F stars, where an X-raydeficit has previously been found relative to the transition regionlines of C II and C IV. ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. IX - A duplicity survey of the Pleiades, Praesepe, and IC 4665 clustersMultiplicity of stars within clusters is a well-studied phenomenon.However, recent survey work done on the Hyades by Mason et al. (1993)would seem to indicate that even in the most often studied clusters,there may be binaries yet undiscovered. In order to expand the sample ofcluster binaries with potentially short-period visual orbits, a specklesurvey of 45 Pleiades, 54 Praesepe, and 22 IC 4665 bright stars (V isless than 10) for possible multiplicity was conducted at the KPNO 4 mMayall telescope between 1987 October and 1991 November. Of these, threenew binaries have been discovered: one in the Pleiades where the newcomponent may be spectroscopic, another in Praesepe which has beenconfirmed from examinations of archival observations and also has beenresolved by occultation, and the third in IC 4665. Continued study ofthese new binary stars could further refine the cluster distance modulias well as the cluster mass-luminosity relations. Carbon and nitrogen abundances determined from transition layer linesThe possibility of determining relative carbon, nitrogen, and siliconabundances from the emission-line fluxes in the lower transition layersbetween stellar chromospheres and coronae is explored. Observations formain-sequence and luminosity class IV stars with presumably solarelement abundances show that for the lower transition layers Em =BT-gamma. For a given carbon abundance the constants gammaand B in this relation can be determined from the C II and C IVemission-line fluxes. From the N V and S IV lines, the abundances ofthese elements relative to carbon can be determined from their surfaceemission-line fluxes. Ratios of N/C abundances determined in this wayfor some giants and supergiants agree within the limits of errors withthose determined from molecular bands. For giants, an increase in theratio of N/C at B-V of about 0.8 is found, as expected theoretically. Washington photometry of open cluster giants - Nine old disk clusters in the third Galactic quadrantWashington photoelectric photometry for 136 stars in nine old openclusters is presented and used to determine the luminosity class, T(e),and metallicity. The virtually unstudied cluster NGC 2324 is found tohave a metallicity one tenth that of the sun, as is the cluster NGC 2660for which previous estimates have ranged from about +0.1 to -0.5. Athird cluster, NGC 3960, with a Galactocentric distance of only 8 kpc,is found to have a metallicity of -0.7, also substantially lower thanpublished values. Such clusters indicate that substantial scatteractually exists in the tight relation found by Friel and Janes (1992)between the metallicity of an open cluster and its currentGalactocentric distance. Outer disk clusters have a metallicity at agiven age that is much more like that of the LMC counterparts than thatof solar neighborhood disk field stars or clusters. The Hyades supercluster in the FK5The members of the Hyades supercluster brighter than about M(V) = + 4mag and contained in the FK5, or having nearly FK5 quality propermotions, show a convergent point of (A,D) = (6h, + 6.5 deg). The Hyadescluster stars in the FK5 have a mean distance of 46.7 pc. Thesupercluster, as well as the Hyades and Praesepe cluster, populationsrepresent at least three age groups. Standard models indicate ages of 3to 4, 6, and 8 x 10 exp 8 yr, whereas model ages with convectiveovershoot are nearly twice this. Most of the Am and USPC stars in thesupercluster are of the same age. The Ap stars mark the onset of shellhydrogen burning. The photometry of the red giants confirms the agespread and indicates a weakening of CN strength with age. Attention iscalled to the need for further study of NGC 2423 as an effectiveprolusion to understanding the evolution of the supercluster. Rotation and transition layer emission in cool giantsGray (1981, 1982) found that field giants with T(eff) less than about5500 K experience a steep decrease in rotational velocities coupled witha decrease in transition layer emission. This decrease may beattributable to fast magnetic braking or to redistribution of angularmomentum for rapidly increasing depths of the convection zones if theserotate with depth independent specific angular momentum. Additionalarguments in favor of the latter interpretation are presented. Theincrease of N/C abundances due to deep mixing occurs at the same pointas the decrease in v sin i. On the other hand, the ratios of the C IV toC II emission line fluxes decrease at this point indicating smallercontributions of MHD wave heating. The X-ray fluxes decrease at nearlythe same T(eff). Thus, no observations are found which would indicatelarger magnetic activity which could lead to fast magnetic braking.Theory predicts a rapid increase in the convection zone depth at theT(eff) where the decrease in v sin i is observed. This can explain theobserved phenomena.
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