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# δγ Tau (Cleeia)

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 The Puzzle of the Metallic Line StarsIn the puzzle of the metallic line (Am) stars, there still seem to bemissing pieces. While the normal'' A stars have elemental abundancesclose to solar, the classical Am stars show stronger absorption linesfor most heavy elements in their spectra. Elements with ionizationpotentials that nearly agree with those of hydrogen or helium havereduced abundances. The Ca II and Sc II lines are especially weak. TheAm stars have no ultraviolet emission lines. They are binaries that,with very few exceptions, have rotational velocities vsini lower than100 km s-1. Of the main-sequence A stars, 20% to 30% are Amstars. Here we rediscuss previous suggestions that tried to explain thepeculiar line strengths in the Am star spectra. In particular, wecompare the well-studied properties of Hyades A and Am stars in order toidentify reasons that can or cannot explain the differences. We findthat accretion of interstellar material by A stars with distortedmagnetic fields, which are weaker than those in peculiar A (Ap) stars,has the best chance of explaining the main characteristics of thepeculiar heavy-element abundances in Am star photospheres.Charge-exchange reactions also seem to be important. The Origins and Evolutionary Status of B Stars Found Far from the Galactic Plane. II. Kinematics and Full Sample AnalysisThis paper continues the analysis of faint high-latitude B stars fromMartin. Here we analyze the kinematics of the stars and combine themwith the abundance information from the first paper to classify eachone. The sample contains 31 Population I runaways, 15 old evolved stars(including 5 blue horizontal-branch [BHB] stars, 3 post-HB stars, 1pulsating helium dwarf, and 6 stars of ambiguous classification), 1 Fdwarf, and 2 stars that do not easily fit in one of the othercategories. No star in the sample unambiguously shows thecharacteristics of a young massive star formed in situ in the halo. Thetwo unclassified stars are probably extreme Population I runaways. Thelow binary frequency and rotational velocity distribution of thePopulation I runaways imply that most were ejected from dense starclusters by the dynamic ejection scenario. However, we remain puzzled bythe lack of runaway Be stars. We also confirm that PB 166 and HIP 41979are both nearby solar-metallicity BHB stars.Based on observations made at the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope ofMcDonald Observatory, operated by the University of Texas at Austin. A Catalog of Temperatures and Red Cousins Photometry for the HyadesUsing Hyades photometry published by Mendoza and other authors,Pinsonneault et al. have recently concluded that Cousins V-I photometrypublished by Taylor & Joner is not on the Cousins system. Extensivetests of the Taylor-Joner photometry and other pertinent results aretherefore performed in this paper. It is found that in part, thePinsonneault et al. conclusion rests on (1) a systematic error inMendoza's (R-I)J photometry and (2) a small error in anapproximate Johnson-to-Cousins transformation published by Bessell. Forthe Taylor-Joner values of (V-R)C, it is found that there arepossible (though not definite) differences of several mmag with otherresults. However, the Taylor-Joner values of (R-I)C data aresupported at the 1 mmag level. Using the (R-I)C data andother published results, an (R-I)C catalog is assembled for146 Hyades stars with spectral types earlier than about K5. For singlestars with multiple contributing data, the rms errors of the catalogentries are less than 4.4 mmag. Temperatures on the Di Benedettoangular-diameter scale are also given in the catalog and are used tohelp update published analyses of high-dispersion values of [Fe/H] forthe Hyades. The best current mean Hyades value of [Fe/H] is found to be+0.103+/-0.008 dex and is essentially unchanged from its previous value.In addition to these numerical results, recommendations are made aboutimproving attitudes and practices that are pertinent to issues likethose raised by Pinsonneault et al. The Circumstellar Environment of T Tauri S at High Spatial and Spectral ResolutionWe have obtained the first high spatial (0.05") and spectral (R~35,000)resolution 2 μm spectrum of the T Tau S tight binary system usingadaptive optics on the Keck II telescope. We have also obtained thefirst 3.8 and 4.7 μm images that resolve the three components of theT Tau multiple system, as well as new 1.6 and 2.2 μm images. Togetherwith its very red near-infrared colors, the spectrum of T Tau Sb showsthat this T Tauri star is extincted by a roughly constant extinction ofAV~15 mag, which is probably the 0.7"×0.5" circumbinarystructure recently observed in absorption in the ultraviolet. T Tau Sa,which is also observed through this screen and is actively accreting,further possesses a small edge-on disk that is evidenced by warm (390K), narrow overtone CO rovibrational absorption features in ourspectrum. We find that T Tau Sa is most likely an intermediate-mass starsurrounded by a semitransparent 2-3 AU radius disk whose asymmetries andshort Keplerian rotation explain the large photometric variability ofthe source on relatively short timescales. We also show that molecularhydrogen emission exclusively arises from the gas that surrounds T Tau Sand that its spatial and kinematic structure, while providing suggestiveevidence of a jetlike structure, is highly complex. Decay of Planetary Debris DisksWe report new Spitzer 24 μm photometry of 76 main-sequence A-typestars. We combine these results with previously reported Spitzer 24μm data and 24 and 25 μm photometry from the Infrared SpaceObservatory and the Infrared Astronomy Satellite. The result is a sampleof 266 stars with mass close to 2.5 Msolar, all detected toat least the ~7 σ level relative to their photospheric emission.We culled ages for the entire sample from the literature and/orestimated them using the H-R diagram and isochrones; they range from 5to 850 Myr. We identified excess thermal emission using an internallyderived K-24 (or 25) μm photospheric color and then compared allstars in the sample to that color. Because we have excluded stars withstrong emission lines or extended emission (associated with nearbyinterstellar gas), these excesses are likely to be generated by debrisdisks. Younger stars in the sample exhibit excess thermal emission morefrequently and with higher fractional excess than do the older stars.However, as many as 50% of the younger stars do not show excessemission. The decline in the magnitude of excess emission, for thosestars that show it, has a roughly t0/time dependence, witht0~150 Myr. If anything, stars in binary systems (includingAlgol-type stars) and λ Boo stars show less excess emission thanthe other members of the sample. Our results indicate that (1) there issubstantial variety among debris disks, including that a significantnumber of stars emerge from the protoplanetary stage of evolution withlittle remaining disk in the 10-60 AU region and (2) in addition, it islikely that much of the dust we detect is generated episodically bycollisions of large planetesimals during the planet accretion end game,and that individual events often dominate the radiometric properties ofa debris system. This latter behavior agrees generally with what we knowabout the evolution of the solar system, and also with theoreticalmodels of planetary system formation. High-Mass Triple Systems: The Classical Cepheid Y CarinaeWe have obtained a Hubble Space Telescope STIS ultraviolethigh-dispersion echelle-mode spectrum of the binary companion of thedouble-mode classical Cepheid Y Car. The velocity measured for the hotcompanion from this spectrum is very different from reasonablepredictions for binary motion, implying that the companion is itself ashort-period binary. The measured velocity changed by 7 kms-1 during the 4 days between two segments of theobservation, confirming this interpretation. We summarize binary''Cepheids that are in fact members of a triple system and find that atleast 44% are triples. The summary of information on Cepheids withorbits makes it likely that the fraction is underestimated.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. Stark broadening of Cd I spectral linesStark broadening parameters, widths, and shifts for 33 Cd I singlets and37 triplets were calculated using the semiclassical perturbation method.The results were compared with available experimental and theoreticaldata. Also, regularity in the spectral series 5s2 ^1S-np^1P° was investigated. The influence of Stark broadening wasanalyzed in A-type stellar atmospheres. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 The physical properties of normal A starsDesignating a star as of A-type is a result of spectral classification.After separating the peculiar stars from those deemed to be normal usingthe results of a century of stellar astrophysical wisdom, I define thephysical properties of the "normal" stars. The hotter A stars haveatmospheres almost in radiative equilibrium. In the A stars convectivemotions can be found which increase in strength as the temperaturedecreases. Absolute Properties of the Upper Main-Sequence Eclipsing Binary Star MU CassiopeiaeWe present 6151 differential observations in the V filter measured by arobotic telescope, as well as 29 pairs of radial velocities fromhigh-resolution spectroscopic observations, of the detached, EA-type,9.65 day period double-lined eclipsing binary star MU Cas. Absolutedimensions of the components are determined with good precision (betterthan 2% in the masses and radii) for the purpose of testing variousaspects of theoretical modeling. We obtain 4.57+/-0.09 Msolarand 3.67+/-0.04 Rsolar for the hotter, but smaller, lessmassive and less luminous photometric primary (star A), and 4.66+/-0.10Msolar and 4.19+/-0.05 Rsolar for the cooler,larger, more massive and more luminous photometric secondary (star B).The effective temperatures and interstellar reddening of the stars areaccurately determined from uvbyβ photometry: 15,100+/-500 K for theprimary, 14,750+/-500 K for the secondary-corresponding to spectraltypes of B5 and B5-and 0.356 mag for Eb-y. The stars arelocated at a distance of about 1.7 kpc near the plane of the Galacticdisk. The orbits of the stars are eccentric, and spectral line widthsgive observed rotational velocities that are synchronous with the meanorbital motion for both components. The components of MU Cas are uppermain-sequence stars with an age of about 65 Myr according to models. Absolute Properties of the Eclipsing Binary Star V459 CassiopeiaeWe present 5064 differential observations in the V filter measured by arobotic telescope, as well as 30 pairs of radial velocities fromhigh-resolution spectroscopic observations, of the detached, EA-type,8.46 day period double-lined eclipsing binary star V459 Cas. Absolutedimensions of the components are determined with good precision (betterthan 1.6% in the masses and radii) for the purpose of testing variousaspects of theoretical modeling. We obtain 2.02+/-0.03 Msolarand 2.009+/-0.013 Rsolar for the hotter, larger, more massiveand more luminous photometric primary (star A), and 1.96+/-0.03Msolar and 1.965+/-0.013 Rsolar for the cooler,smaller, less massive and less luminous photometric secondary (star B).The effective temperatures and interstellar reddening of the stars areaccurately determined from uvbyβ photometry: 9140+/-300 K for theprimary, 9100+/-300 K for the secondary-corresponding to spectral typesof A1-and 0.186 mag for Eb-y. The orbits are eccentric, andspectral line widths give observed rotational velocities that are muchfaster than synchronous for both components. The components of V459 Casare main-sequence stars with an age of about 525 Myr according tomodels. Rotational Velocities of B, A, and Early-F Narrow-lined StarsProjected rotational velocities for 58 B, A, and early-F stars have beendetermined from high-resolution spectroscopic observations made at KittPeak National Observatory with the coudé feed telescope. All thestars are slowly rotating with vsini<60 km s-1. Because oftheir low rotational velocities, 15 of the stars have been observed asprospective, early-type, radial velocity standards. Absolute Properties of the Main-Sequence Eclipsing Binary Star BP VulpeculaeWe present 5236 differential observations in the V filter measured by arobotic telescope, as well as radial velocities from spectroscopicobservations, of the detached, eccentric 1.9 day double-lined eclipsingbinary star BP Vul. Absolute dimensions of the components are determinedwith high precision (better than 1% in the masses and radii) for thepurpose of testing various aspects of theoretical modeling. We obtain1.737+/-0.015 Msolar and 1.852+/-0.014 Rsolar forthe primary, and 1.408+/-0.009 Msolar and 1.489+/-0.014Rsolar for the secondary. The effective temperatures andinterstellar reddening of the stars are accurately determined fromuvbyβ photometry: 7700+/-150 K for the primary, 6800+/-150 K forthe secondary-corresponding to spectral types of A7m and F2m-and 0.022mag for Eb-y. The metallic-lined character of the stars isrevealed by high-resolution spectroscopy and uvbyβ photometry.Spectral line widths give rotational velocities that are synchronouswith the orbital motion for the secondary component, but subsynchronousfor the primary component, in a slightly eccentric orbit (e=0.0345).Apsidal motion based on times of minimum light appears to be negativewith a period of about 75 years based on recent observations of minima,but this result is not confirmed by the radial velocity measurements,and it is indeterminate when older photographic and visual data areincluded. The components of BP Vul are main-sequence stars with an ageof about 1 Gyr according to models.Some of the observations reported here were obtained with the MultipleMirror Telescope, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution andthe University of Arizona. Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type starsThis paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Elemental abundance analyses with the EBASIM spectrograph of the 2.1-m CASLEO Observatory Telescope. I. The late B and early A stars vec xi Octantis, alpha Sextantis, and 68 TauriWe used data from the EBASIM spectrograph of the 2.1-m CASLEO telescopeto study three rather sharp-lined late B to early A stars xi Oct (B6IV), alpha Sex (B9.5 III), and 68 Tau (A2 IV). These measurements arecompared with those from the Anglo-Austrialian Telescope for the firststar and to those from the coudé spectrograph of the 1.22-mtelescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) for the othertwo stars. The equivalent width scales of the EBASIM and the DAO dataare similar. Thus for the latter two stars the DAO data is also used inthe analyses. Both xi Oct and alpha Sex generally have abundancesclose to those of the Sun in the range of values found for other normalstars with similar effective temperatures. The abundance pattern for 68Tau is that of a metallic-lined star as is well known.Tables 5 to 7 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/987 On the relationship between the mercury-manganese stars and the metallic-lined starsAn HR diagram indicating the positions of the HgMn and the Am starsanalyzed by the senior author and his collaborators shows that thecoolest HgMn stars and the hottest Am stars are found on the samestellar evolutionary tracks and hence the former must evolve into thelater. The explanation of the dividing line between these two types ofnonmagnetic chemically peculiar stars where the Hg abundances suddenlychange their degree of overabundance is a major test of the theorieswhich try to explain the anomalous abundances of such stars. Some otherimportant relationships are found which can also serve as tests oftheories which purport to explain the properties of these stars. Composite spectra Paper 11: α Equulei, an astrometric binary with an Am secondaryThe spectrum of the secondary component of the bright composite-binarysystem α Equ, whose visual orbit is already known accurately, isisolated by the method of spectrum subtraction and classified accuratelyfor the first time. The primary is a normal giant of type ~G7, while thesecondary is an Am star of type ~kA3hA4mA9. The system's mass ratio, q ,is determined to be from measurements of the relative radial-velocitydisplacements between the components. Random and systematic errors in qare evaluated on the basis of the scatter of results derived from setsof spectra obtained from three different sources, and from testsconducted on independent versions of the secondary's spectrum. Aspectroscopic analysis of a composite system such as α Equ isstrongly challenged by the blending of a great many lines that arecommon to both spectra. Even when the primary spectrum is thought tohave been subtracted adequately, a seemingly unavoidable ghost spectrumof faint residuals can bias wavelength measurements of the secondary'slines. That blending was the principal cause of a history of puzzlingand discrepant measurements of q in α Equ. The derived masses of ,for the giant and dwarf, respectively, constrain the choice of modelsfor fitting evolutionary tracks in the (logT eff , logL )plane; the stellar points fit a single isochrone (for 0.74Gyr). Bothcomponents are found to be slightly over-luminous compared to normal fortheir supposed luminosity classes. The giant appears to be commencingits first ascent of the red-giant branch. The dwarf has started toevolve away from the main sequence; its M V is similar tothat of a sub-giant. IR observations of Am starsThe IR observations of chemically peculiar stars are carried out andcompared with the previous data in IR and far IR from IRAS. The fluxredistribution appears to be a common phenomenon in all the stars ofthis class. The observed energy distribution and a model fit based oneffective temperature estimates show slight excess in the IR. The Quadruple System μ Orionis: Three-dimensional Orbit and Physical ParametersThe star μ Orionis is a spectroscopic visual quadruple system inwhich each visual component is a short-period spectroscopic binary. Thevisual orbit has a period of 18.644 yr, a high eccentricity of 0.7426,and a high inclination of 96.2d. The visual primary consists of an Amstar and probably a G or early K dwarf that orbit each other in a nearlycircular orbit with a period of 4.4475858 days. The visual secondaryconsists of a pair of F5: V stars in a circular orbit with a period of4.7835361 days. While the masses of the two stars are nearly identicaland the magnitude difference between the pair is close to zero, theprojected rotational velocities differ by almost a factor of 2. Theorbit for the B subsystem is not coplanar with the visual orbit, whilethat for the A subsystem is probably not coplanar as well. The orbitalparallax of 0.02107"+/-0.00018" is more accurate than that obtained fromthe Hipparcos observations and corresponds to a distance of 47.5+/-0.4pc. A comparison with evolutionary tracks indicates that the Am star isnear the end of its main-sequence evolution. Absolute Properties of the Main-Sequence Eclipsing Binary Star WW CamelopardalisWe present absolute photometric observations in uvbyβ and 5759differential observations in the V filter (the most complete light curveever obtained) measured by a robotic telescope, as well as radialvelocities from spectroscopic observations of the detached, eccentric,2.3 day, double-lined, eclipsing binary star WW Camelopardalis. Absolutedimensions of the components are determined with high precision (betterthan 1% in the masses and radii) for the purpose of testing variousaspects of theoretical modeling. We obtain 1.920+/-0.013Msolar and 1.911+/-0.016 Rsolar for the primary,and 1.873+/-0.018 Msolar and 1.808+/-0.014 Rsolarfor the secondary. The effective temperatures and interstellar reddeningof the stars are accurately determined from new uvbyβ photometry:8350+/-135 K for the primary and 8240+/-135 K for the secondary,corresponding to a spectral type of A4m for both, and 0.294 mag forEb-y. The metallic-lined character of the stars is revealedby high-resolution spectroscopy and uvbyβ photometry. Spectral linewidths give rotational velocities that are synchronous with the orbitalmotion in a slightly eccentric orbit (e=0.0098). The components of WWCam are main-sequence stars with an age of about 490 Myr according tomodels. Some of the observations reported here were obtained with theMultiple Mirror Telescope, a joint facility of the SmithsonianInstitution and the University of Arizona. Composite Spectra. XII. μ Leonis: An Evolving Am BinaryIt is shown by techniques of spectrum disentangling that both componentsof the composite-spectrum binary ο Leo (V=3.52 mag) have Amcharacteristics, even though the primary is an evolving giant(logg=3.25) with Teff~6100 K. This is believed to be thefirst isolation of such a cool Am star, and the finding challenges thetheories of diffusion, which are widely accepted as the cause ofmetallicism. The primary component of ο Leo appears to bedeficient in Ca and Sc, as are classical Am stars-though the δ Delstars which are described as evolved Am stars are not-and thereforeseems to be in a class on its own. It is suggested that the unusualstate of the primary component is attributable either to its currentstate of rapid evolution or to regular Am-star evolution that isdifficult to recognize spectroscopically. This paper describes thetechnical problems that have hitherto prevented the identification ofsuch unexpected properties in this easily observed binary, determinesthe physical parameters of the component stars, examines theirevolutionary states, and debates the possible classification of thegiant component. Future directions for this work will include detailedchemical composition analyses and an observing program designed tosearch for other cases of substantially evolved Am stars. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 On the effective temperatures and surface gravities of superficially normal main sequence band B and A starsEffective temperatures and surface gravities for 48 main sequence band Band A stars were found by matching optical region spectrophotometry andHγ profiles with the predictions of ATLAS9 solar composition modelatmospheres. When these values were compared with those found usingStrömgren uvbybeta photometry based on ATLAS6 model atmospheres, wefound a difference (photometry-spectrophotometry) of 25+/- 118 K for 29stars with 8000 K le Teff <= 10 050 K compared to 76 +/-105 K for 14 stars with 10 050 K <= Teff <= 17 000 K.The surface gravity scales are in agreement. These stars aresufficiently hot that their effective temperatures and surface gravitydeterminations are unaffected by discrepancies due to the choice ofMixing-Length or Canuto-Mazzitelli convection theories. CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associationsRadial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446 Rotational velocities of A-type stars. I. Measurement of v sin i in the southern hemisphereWithin the scope of a Key Programme determining fundamental parametersof stars observed by HIPPARCOS, spectra of 525 B8 to F2-type starsbrighter than V=8 have been collected at ESO. Fourier transforms ofseveral line profiles in the range 4200-4500 Å are used to derivev sin i from the frequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis ofthe sample indicates that measurement error is a function of v sin i andthis relative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 6%on average. The results obtained are compared with data from theliterature. There is a systematic shift from standard values from\citet{Slk_75}, which are 10 to 12% lower than our findings. Comparisonswith other independent v sin i values tend to prove that those fromSlettebak et al. are underestimated. This effect is attributed to thepresence of binaries in the standard sample of Slettebak et al., and tothe model atmosphere they used. Based on observations made at theEuropean Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, in the frameworkof the Key Programme 5-004-43K. Table 4 is only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/105 Vertical Chromium Distribution in the Atmosphere of a Chemically Peculiar Star. I. DiagnosticsOn the basis of CCD spectrograms obtained with high resolution at theCoudé focus of the 2.6-m telescope of the Crimean AstrophysicalObservatory, Cr II lines lying in the wings of the H hydrogen line areinvestigated. Vertical chromium stratification in the atmospheres of twonormal and eight chemically peculiar stars is diagnosed using the methodof spectral synthesis. An increase in Cr abundance with depth is foundfor the cool Ap stars CrB, HR 7575, Equ, and 10 Aql. Some increase in Crabundance in the upper layers of the atmosphere is presumed for all Amstars and for both HgMn components of 46 Dra. The verticalchromium distribution in the atmospheres of the hot, spotted Ap stars 17Com and 2 CVn is evidently uniform. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable starsThe data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297 A Hipparcos study of the Hyades open cluster. Improved colour-absolute magnitude and Hertzsprung-Russell diagramsHipparcos parallaxes fix distances to individual stars in the Hyadescluster with an accuracy of ~ 6 percent. We use the Hipparcos propermotions, which have a larger relative precision than the trigonometricparallaxes, to derive ~ 3 times more precise distance estimates, byassuming that all members share the same space motion. An investigationof the available kinematic data confirms that the Hyades velocity fielddoes not contain significant structure in the form of rotation and/orshear, but is fully consistent with a common space motion plus a(one-dimensional) internal velocity dispersion of ~ 0.30 kms-1. The improved parallaxes as a set are statisticallyconsistent with the Hipparcos parallaxes. The maximum expectedsystematic error in the proper motion-based parallaxes for stars in theouter regions of the cluster (i.e., beyond ~ 2 tidal radii ~ 20 pc) isla 0.30 mas. The new parallaxes confirm that the Hipparcos measurementsare correlated on small angular scales, consistent with the limitsspecified in the Hipparcos Catalogue, though with significantly smalleramplitudes'' than claimed by Narayanan & Gould. We use the Tycho-2long time-baseline astrometric catalogue to derive a set of independentproper motion-based parallaxes for the Hipparcos members. The newparallaxes provide a uniquely sharp view of the three-dimensionalstructure of the Hyades. The colour-absolute magnitude diagram of thecluster based on the new parallaxes shows a well-defined main sequencewith two gaps''/turn-offs''. These features provide the first directobservational support of Böhm-Vitense's prediction that (the onsetof) surface convection in stars significantly affects their (B-V)colours. We present and discuss the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram (log L versus log T_eff) for an objectively defined set of 88high-fidelity members of the cluster as well as the delta Scuti startheta 2 Tau, the giants delta 1, theta1, epsilon , and gamma Tau, and the white dwarfs V471 Tau andHD 27483 (all of which are also members). The precision with which thenew parallaxes place individual Hyades in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram is limited by (systematic) uncertainties related to thetransformations from observed colours and absolute magnitudes toeffective temperatures and luminosities. The new parallaxes providestringent constraints on the calibration of such transformations whencombined with detailed theoretical stellar evolutionary modelling,tailored to the chemical composition and age of the Hyades, over thelarge stellar mass range of the cluster probed by Hipparcos.
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