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The Effective Temperature Scale of Galactic Red Supergiants: Cool, but Not As Cool As We Thought
We use moderate-resolution optical spectrophotometry and the new MARCSstellar atmosphere models to determine the effective temperatures of 74Galactic red supergiants (RSGs). The stars are mostly members of OBassociations or clusters with known distances, allowing a criticalcomparison with modern stellar evolutionary tracks. We find we canachieve excellent matches between the observations and the reddenedmodel fluxes and molecular transitions, although the atomic lines Ca Iλ4226 and Ca II H and K are found to be unrealistically strong inthe models. Our new effective temperature scale is significantly warmerthan those in the literature, with the differences amounting to 400 Kfor the latest type M supergiants (i.e., M5 I). We show that the newlyderived temperatures and bolometric corrections give much betteragreement with stellar evolutionary tracks. This agreement provides acompletely independent verification of our new temperature scale. Thecombination of effective temperature and bolometric luminosities allowsus to calculate stellar radii; the coolest and most luminous stars (KWSgr, Case 75, KY Cyg, HD 206936=μ Cep) have radii of roughly 1500Rsolar (7 AU), in excellent accordance with the largeststellar radii predicted from current evolutionary theory, althoughsmaller than that found by others for the binary VV Cep and for thepeculiar star VY CMa. We find that similar results are obtained for theeffective temperatures and bolometric luminosities using only thedereddened V-K colors, providing a powerful demonstration of theself-consistency of the MARCS models.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclusters
The availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165}

Improved Baade-Wesselink surface brightness relations
Recent, and older accurate, data on (limb-darkened) angular diameters iscompiled for 221 stars, as well as BVRIJK[12][25] magnitudes for thoseobjects, when available. Nine stars (all M-giants or supergiants)showing excess in the [12-25] colour are excluded from the analysis asthis may indicate the presence of dust influencing the optical andnear-infrared colours as well. Based on this large sample,Baade-Wesselink surface brightness (SB) relations are presented fordwarfs, giants, supergiants and dwarfs in the optical and near-infrared.M-giants are found to follow different SB relations from non-M-giants,in particular in V versus V-R. The preferred relation for non-M-giantsis compared to the earlier relation by Fouqué and Gieren (basedon 10 stars) and Nordgren et al. (based on 57 stars). Increasing thesample size does not lead to a lower rms value. It is shown that theresiduals do not correlate with metallicity at a significant level. Thefinally adopted observed angular diameters are compared to thosepredicted by Cohen et al. for 45 stars in common, and there isreasonable overall, and good agreement when θ < 6 mas.Finally, I comment on the common practice in the literature to average,and then fix, the zero-point of the V versus V-K, V versus V-R and Kversus J-K relations, and then rederive the slopes. Such a commonzero-point at zero colour is not expected from model atmospheres for theV-R colour and depends on gravity. Relations derived in this way may bebiased.

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

TEXES Observations of Betelgeuse: Dynamics and Thermodynamics of the Wind Acceleration Zone
We have detected Fe II 17.94 & 24.52μ m, and Fe I 24.04μ mforbidden line emission in Betelgeuse (M2 Iab) using the Texas EchelonCross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES). These optically thin emission linesare resolved at R≃ 50,000 and provide new diagnostics of thedynamics and thermodynamics of the wind acceleration zone. The [Fe II]lines, from the first excited term (a\>4F), are sensitiveto warm plasma where energy is deposited by currently unknown mechanismsinto the wind flow. These diagnostics complement previous ISOobservations which were sensitive to the cooler more extendedatmosphere.The turbulence observed in the forbidden lines is smaller than found inthe chromosphere from the C II] 2325Å {}lines. We comparepredictions from different semi-empirical models with the observed lineprofiles. We have also detected [Fe II] emission in two other Msupergiants, 119 Tau and α Her.This research was supported by NSF grant AST-0206367 and NASA grantNNG04GD33G. MJR acknowledges grants NSF 0307497 and NASA NNG04GG92G.TEXES was built and the observations funded by grants from NSF and TexasAdvanced Research Program.

The Evolution of Massive Stars. I. Red Supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds
We investigate the red supergiant (RSG) content of the SMC and LMC usingmultiobject spectroscopy on a sample of red stars previously identifiedby BVR CCD photometry. We obtained high-accuracy (<1 kms-1) radial velocities for 118 red stars seen toward the SMCand 167 red stars seen toward the LMC, confirming most of these (89% and95%, respectively) as red supergiants. Spectral types were alsodetermined for most of these RSGs. We find that the distribution ofspectral types is skewed toward earlier type at lower metallicities: theaverage (median) spectral type is K5-K7 I in the SMC, M1 I in the LMC,and M2 I in the Milky Way. Our examination of the Kurucz ATLAS9 modelatmospheres suggests that the effect that metallicity has on theappearance on the TiO lines is probably sufficient to account for thiseffect, and we argue that RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds are 100 K (LMC)and 300 K (SMC) cooler than Galactic stars of the same spectral types.The colors of the Kurucz models are not consistent with thisinterpretation for the SMC, although other models (e.g., Bessell et al.)show good agreement. A finer grid of higher resolution synthetic spectraappropriate to cool supergiants is needed to better determine theeffective temperature scale. We compare the distribution of RSGs in theH-R diagram to that of various stellar evolutionary models; we find thatnone of the models produce RSGs as cool and luminous as what is actuallyobserved. This result is much larger than any uncertainty in theeffective temperature scale. We note that, were we to simply adopt theuncorrected Galactic effective scale for RSGs and apply this to oursample, then the SMC's RSGs would be underluminous compared with theLMC's, contrary to what we expect from stellar evolution considerations.In all of our H-R diagrams, however, there is an elegant sequence ofdecreasing effective temperatures with increasing luminosities;explaining this will be an important test of future stellar evolutionarymodels. Finally, we compute the blue-to-red supergiant ratio in the SMCand LMC, finding that the values are indistinguishable (~15) for the twoClouds. We emphasize that ``observed'' B/R values must be carefullydetermined if a comparison with that predicted by stellar models is tobe meaningful. The nonrotation Geneva models overestimate the number ofblue to red supergiants for the SMC, but underestimate it for the LMC;however, given the inability to produce high-luminosity RSGs in themodels that match what is observed in the H-R diagram, such adisagreement is not surprising.

High resolution spectroscopy over lambda lambda 8500-8750 Å for GAIA. IV. Extending the cool MK stars sample
A library of high resolution spectra of MK standard and reference stars,observed in support to the GAIA mission, is presented. The aim of thispaper is to integrate the MK mapping of Paper I of this series as wellas to consider stars over a wider range of metallicities. Radialvelocities are measured for all the target stars.The spectra are available in electronic form (ASCII format) at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/995 and from the webpage http://ulisse.pd.astro.it/MoreMK/, where further bibliographicalinformation for the target stars is given.

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
The Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom.

Lick Spectral Indices for Super-Metal-rich Stars
We present Lick spectral indices for a complete sample of 139 candidatesuper-metal-rich stars of different luminosity classes (MK type from Ito V). For 91 of these stars we were able to identify, in anaccompanying paper, the fundamental atmosphere parameters. This confirmsthat at least 2/3 of the sample consists of stars with [Fe/H] in excessof +0.1 dex. Optical indices for both observations and fiducialsynthetic spectra have been calibrated to the Lick system according toWorthey et al. and include the Fe I indices of Fe5015, Fe5270, andFe5335 and the Mg I and MgH indices of Mg2 and Mg b at 5180Å. The internal accuracy of the observations is found to beσ(Fe5015)=+/-0.32 Å, σ(Fe5270)=+/-0.19 Å,σ(Fe5335)=+/-0.22 Å, σ(Mg2)=+/-0.004 mag,and σ(Mg b)=+/-0.19 Å. This is about a factor of 2 betterthan the corresponding theoretical indices from the synthetic spectra,the latter being a consequence of the intrinsic limitations in the inputphysics, as discussed by Chavez et al. By comparing models andobservations, we find no evidence for nonstandard Mg versus Fe relativeabundance, so [Mg/Fe]=0, on the average, for our sample. Both theWorthey et al. and Buzzoni et al. fitting functions are found tosuitably match the data and can therefore confidently be extended forpopulation synthesis application also to supersolar metallicity regimes.A somewhat different behavior of the two fitting sets appears, however,beyond the temperature constraints of our stellar sample. Its impact onthe theoretical output is discussed, as far as the integratedMg2 index is derived from synthesis models of stellaraggregates. A two-index plot, such as Mg2 versus Fe5270, isfound to provide a simple and powerful tool for probing distinctiveproperties of single stars and stellar aggregates as a whole. The majoradvantage, over a classical CM diagram, is that it is both reddeningfree and distance independent. Based on observations collected at theInstituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica(INAOE) ``G. Haro'' Observatory, Cananea (Mexico).

A Spatially Resolved, Semiempirical Model for the Extended Atmosphere of α Orionis (M2 Iab)
We have constructed a detailed mean density and temperature model forthe extended outer atmosphere of the O-rich supergiant Betelgeuse(α Ori [M2 Iab]), which extends from 1.0 to 10.0 stellar radii. Aone-dimensional model is based on fitting NRAO1 VLA centimeter visibility data, andtwo-dimensional models are constructed using the intensity contours ofthe 0.7 cm observations of Lim et al. As one moves in toward the starfrom about 10 R* the mean electron temperature increases to avalue of ~=3800 K, then declines down below Teff, and thenrises to photospheric values. The peak mean model temperature is lessthan the typical chromospheric temperatures found in previous models.Observations of Hα and chromospheric ultraviolet (UV) emissionshow that higher temperature components must also exist, but they do notdominate the weighted mean temperature structure. We tentativelyidentify the radius where the temperature distribution peaks (R~=1.45R*) with the dominant chromospheric UV emission region andfind an areal filling factor of <=1/4. In the extended semiempiricalmodel the dominant source of electrons is from photoionized metals andis dominated by carbon. The low ionization of hydrogen leads to adominance by H- (free-free) opacity at centimeterwavelengths. We derive simple estimates of the radio spectral indicesfor other similar M supergiants. We have constructed two-dimensionalmodels to examine whether the intensity asymmetry observed at 0.7 cm ismost likely to result from density or temperature variations. Adoptingan elliptical two-dimensional model, a density asymmetry along the axesof symmetry would need to be 20:1. If we assume the radial wind velocityis independent of angle the integrated mass-loss rate is only a factorof ~2 greater than that derived from the one-dimensional model. However,previous Hα speckle observations that sample the same spatialregions suggest the asymmetry observed at 0.7 cm is not due to such alarge-scale density asymmetry. A modest change in temperature can moreeasily provide the asymmetry, increasing both the opacity and thethermal source term. If the radial density structure is assumed to bethe same as in 1992 September, when HST/GHRS spectra were obtained, thenthe Fe II wind absorption features provide an estimate of the mass-lossrate of 3.1(+/-1.3)×10-6 Msolaryr-1. This further implies that the cool material dominatesthe mass of the extended atmosphere and that the radio-emitting regionis within the base of the outflow observed in the circumstellar layers.A simple silicate dust model is constructed and the semiempirical modelsuggests an onset of dust formation at R~=33 R* whereTdust~360 K. This region lies outside the semiempirical modelbut simple extrapolations suggest that at this radius Te~220K, and the mean hydrogen density nH~3×106cm-3. We address the difficult question of whether the meanthermal model based on the radio data can be consistent with theobserved off-limb Hα scattering emission if inhomogeneities arepresent.

Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars
We present in this paper the astronomical validation of a new approachto interferometric starlight combination. Using integrated opticstechnologies developed by the telecommunication industry, we haveimplemented optical circuits on coin-size chips that combine two beamsand provide simultaneous photometric calibration signals. We report thefirst interferometric observations of stars using such beam combiners atthe Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA). This result opens the wayto a new generation of miniaturized, high performance, and reliableinstruments, dedicated to interferometric aperture synthesis.

On the Wilson-Bappu relationship in the Mg II k line
An investigation is carried out on the Wilson-Bappu effect in the Mg Iik line at 2796.34 Å. The work is based on a selection of 230 starsobserved by both the IUE and HIPPARCOS satellites, covering a wide rangeof spectral types (F to M) and absolute visual magnitudes (-5.4<=MV <=9.0). A semi-automatic procedure is used to measurethe line widths, which applies also in the presence of strong centralabsorption reversal. The Wilson-Bappu relationship here provided isconsidered to represent an improvement over previous recent results forthe considerably larger data sample used, as well as for a properconsideration of the measurement errors. No evidence has been found fora possible dependence of the WB effect on stellar metallicity andeffective temperature.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Observations and Atmospheric Parameters of Super-Metal-rich Candidates
The spectroscopic properties of a sample of 92 Population I bright stars(V<8) with literature values of [Fe/H]>=+0.1 are reviewed in orderto study the metallicity scale at supersolar regimes. For 73 of thesecandidate super-metal-rich (SMR) stars we identified the photosphericfiducial parameters (Teff, logg, [M/H]) from among publishedparameter sets via a comparison of new observations in the wavelengthrange 5034-5398 Å with synthetic spectra derived from the 1997database of Chavez et al. As a main issue in our analysis, we find thata ``genuine'' SMR stellar component in the Galactic disk exists withmore than one-fourth of the stars in our sample fulfilling the criterion[Fe/H]>=0.2 dex, and three of them as rich as [Fe/H]>+0.4 dex.Based on observations collected at the INAOE ``G. Haro'' Observatory,Cananea (Mexico).

Atomic Carbon in the Envelopes of Carbon-rich Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars
Atomic carbon has been detected in the envelopes of three carbon-richevolved stars: HD 44179 (=AFGL 915, the ``Red Rectangle''), HD 56126,and, tentatively, the carbon star V Hya. This brings to seven the numberof evolved star envelopes in which C I has been detected. Upper limitswere found for several other stars, including R CrB. C I was notdetected in several oxygen-rich post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars(OH 231.8+4.2, for example), although it is detected in theircarbon-rich analogs. Two trends are evident in the data. First,circumstellar envelopes with detectable C I are overwhelminglycarbon-rich, suggesting that much of the C I is produced by thedissociation of molecules other than CO. Second, the more evolved theenvelope away from the AGB, the higher the C I/CO ratio. The oxygen-richsupergiant star α Ori remains the only oxygen-rich star with awind containing detectable C I. These data suggest an evolutionarysequence for the C I/CO ratio in cool circumstellar envelopes. Thisratio is small (a few percent) while the star is on the AGB, and the C Iis located in the outer envelope and produced by photodissociation. Theratio increases to about 0.5 as the star evolves away from the AGBbecause of the dissociation of CO and other carbon-bearing molecules byshocks caused by the fast winds which appear at the end of evolution onthe AGB. Finally, the ratio becomes >>1 as the central starbecomes hot enough to photodissociate CO.

Moderate-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Cool Stars: A New K-Band Library
I present an atlas of near-infrared K-band spectra of 31 late-typegiants and supergiants and two carbon stars. The spectra were obtainedat resolving powers of 830 and 2000, and have a signal-to-noise ratio>~100. These data are complemented with results from similar existinglibraries in both K and H band, and they are used to identify varioustools useful for stellar population studies at moderate resolution. Ifocus on several of the most prominent absorption features and (1)investigate the effects of spectral resolution on measurements of theirequivalent width (EW), (2) examine the variations with stellarparameters of the EWs, and (3) construct composite indices as indicatorsof stellar parameters and of the contribution from excess continuumsources commonly found in star-forming and AGN galaxies. Among thefeatures considered, the 12CO (2,0) and 12CO (6,3)bandheads together with the Si I 1.59 μm feature, first proposed byOliva, Origlia, and coworkers, constitute the best diagnostic set forstellar spectral classification and for constraining the excesscontinuum emission. The Ca I 2.26 μm and Mg I 2.28 μm featuresoffer alternatives in the K band to the 12CO (6,3) bandheadand Si I feature.

Variations of Luminosity, Radius, and Temperature of the Pulsating Red Supergiant CE Tauri
Not Available

Lunar occultation measurements of stellar angular diameters
Not Available

The Infrared Spectral Classification of Oxygen-rich Dust Shells
This paper presents infrared spectral classifications for a flux-limitedsample of 635 optically identified oxygen-rich variables includingsupergiants and sources on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Severalclasses of spectra from oxygen-rich dust exist, and these can bearranged in a smoothly varying sequence of spectral shapes known as thesilicate dust sequence. Classification based on this sequence revealsseveral dependencies of the dust emission on the properties of thecentral star. Nearly all S stars show broad emission features fromalumina dust, while most of the supergiants exhibit classic featuresfrom amorphous silicate dust. Mira variables with symmetric light curvesgenerally show broad alumina emission, while those with more asymmetriclight curves show classic silicate emission. These differences may arisefrom differences in the photospheric C/O ratio.

Atomic Carbon in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Evolved Stars
We report James Clerk Maxwell Telescope observations of the 609 μmground-state fine-structure line of neutral atomic carbon in thecircumstellar envelopes of a sample of evolved late-type stars. C iemission is detected in the envelopes of alpha Orionis and IRC +10216with line intensities of 10.9 and 3.9 K km s^-1, respectively, but isnot detected in other envelopes (including Mira) down to the much lowerlevels of 0.4-1.9 K km s^-1. The detections are in good agreement withprevious C i observations, indicating that C i is not present in theinner envelope of IRC +10216 (with a C i/CO abundance ratio of<~0.01) but is present in a shell structure of radius 14", whereas inalpha Ori, C i is the main carrier of carbon in the inner envelope, withC i/CO ~ 5. The absence of C i emission from the other stars placesupper limits on C i/CO in the bulk of their envelopes of <~1 in mostcases, implying that CO is a good indicator of their mass-loss rates.The extreme case of alpha Ori can be ascribed to its supergiant statusand the presence of a chromosphere.

The luminosity index for M stars and the distance to the LMC.
Not Available

Radii and effective temperatures for K and M giants and supergiants. II.
Not Available

On the HIPPARCOS photometry of chemically peculiar B, A, and F stars
The Hipparcos photometry of the Chemically Peculiar main sequence B, A,and F stars is examined for variability. Some non-magnetic CP stars,Mercury-Manganese and metallic-line stars, which according to canonicalwisdom should not be variable, may be variable and are identified forfurther study. Some potentially important magnetic CP stars are noted.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are available only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Infrared high angular resolution measurements of stellar sources. IV. Angular diameters and effective temperatures of fifteen late-type stars
We have measured the angular diameter of fifteen late-type stars in thenear-infrared using the technique of lunar occultations. Included areten giant stars in the spectral range K0-M10, three M supergiants andtwo carbon stars. The resulting uniform-disk angular diameters are inthe range 2.5 to 10.0 milliseconds of arc (mas), and the average formalerror is 0.17 mas. In one case where the same occultation has beenobserved from two different locations, the two diameter determinationsagree well within the formal errors. Six of the sources had beenresolved earlier by previous lunar occultation observations, and ourresults are in general agreement and show good reliability. Theremaining nine sources are resolved here for the first time. In the caseof one carbon star, we find a significant departure of the brightnessprofile from a simple uniform disk model. In addition, we have obtainednear-infrared (and partially visual) photometric observations for allthe sources. Complementing this with available literature data at otherwavelengths, we have computed the bolometric fluxes, and used them toderive the effective temperatures. For this purpose, we have applied anominal limb-darkening correction to the angular diameters. The averageaccuracy of our angular diameter determinations is at the level of ~4%,making it possible in principle to achieve uncertainties of 2% or ~50 Kin the effective temperatures, provided that sufficiently accuratebolometric fluxes are available. Due to problems such as scarcity ofphotometric data and variability, bolometric fluxes represent at presentan important limitation in this field. With this work, the set ofangular diameter measurements obtained by our group comprises about 50cool stars. This database will be used in a separate work to derive arefined calibration of the effective temperature of M giant stars. Basedon observations collected at TIRGO (Gornergrat, Switzerland) and atCalar Alto (Spain). TIRGO is operated by CNR -- CAISMI Arcetri, Italy.Calar Alto is operated by the German-Spanish Astronomical Center.

Extension of the effective temperature scale of giants to types later than M6
Effective temperatures for nine giant stars are derived from recentdiameter determinations at 2.2mu m with the FLUOR beam combiner on theIOTA interferometer. A good overlap with previous studies for starsearlier than M6 is verified. The present paper extends the temperaturescale of giant stars based on direct measurements to types between M6and M8.

The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.

1--4 MU M Spectroscopy of Very Red Stars Found in an I-Band Objective Prism Survey
We present the 1.2--4.2 mu m spectroscopy of stars found in an objectiveprism survey of the galactic plane by Stephenson (1992, AAA 55.002.010).These stars were thought by Stephenson to be heavily reddened byinterstellar absorption. However, almost all of them have turned out tobe late-type stars with clear 2.3 mu m CO absorption, which means thatthey are intrinsically red as well. A few stars have AV ~ 9, but mostof them are only moderately reddened (AV = 1--5).

Quantitative spectral classification of galactic disc K-M stars from spectrophotometric measurements
New spectral observations for 47 southern galactic red supergiantsobtained with the new RUBIKON spectrophotometer (developed at theAstronomisches Institut der Ruhr-Universitat Bochum) at the Bochum 61-cmtelescope on La Silla are presented. The spectra range from 4800 to 7700A and their resolution is 10 A. The mean error of absolute fluxes is0.028 mag and that of relative fluxes 0.021 mag. The spectra will beavailable at the Strasbourg Stellar Database (CDS). Together with datataken from recently published spectral catalogues, the new observationshave been used to define spectral indices as measures of the strengthsof the following features: Fe i+TiOalpha_1, Mgb+TiOalpha_0,NaD+TiOgamma'_1, TiOgamma'_0 and TiOgamma_1 systems. The indices havebeen checked against errors introduced by reductions, interstellarreddening and different resolutions of different spectral catalogues,and have been found to be very insensitive to all these effects.Therefore, different catalogues may be combined without any loss ofaccuracy and homogeneity. The mean error of a single index has beenfound to be 0.011 mag. For stars from K4 to M7, a strong temperaturedependence is found for all indices. For the Fe i+TiO and especially theMgb+TiO features, a strong dependence on luminosity has also beenobserved. These indices therefore have been combined to form aluminosity index, while the others together form a spectral index. Thecombined indices have been calibrated in terms of MK data using thestepwise linear regression technique, and may be used for quantitativetwo- dimensional spectral classification of late K- and M-type stars.The mean error of the classification is 0.6 of spectral subtype and 0.8of luminosity class, which is much higher than would be expected fromthe uncertainty of the indices alone (which, e.g., for an M4 giantcorrespond to an uncertainty of 0.1 of spectral subtype and 0.3 ofluminosity class). This may be explained by the uncertainty of theoriginal MK classifications and the variability of some programme stars.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h32m12.80s
Apparent magnitude:4.38
Distance:588.235 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:-3.9
B-T magnitude:7.083
V-T magnitude:4.639

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesRuby Star
Flamsteed119 Tau
HD 1989HD 36389
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 1301-707-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1050-02152829
BSC 1991HR 1845
HIPHIP 25945

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