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|The Structural Properties of Isolated Galaxies, Spiral-Spiral Pairs, and Mergers: The Robustness of Galaxy Morphology during Secular Evolution|
We present a structural analysis of nearby galaxies in spiral-spiralpairs in optical BVRI bands and compare them with the structures ofisolated spiral galaxies and galaxies in ongoing mergers. We use thesecomparisons to determine how galaxy structure changes during galaxyinteractions and mergers. We analyze light concentration (C), asymmetry(A), and clumpiness (S) parameters, and use the projections of CASparameter space to compare these samples. We find that the CASparameters of paired galaxies are correlated with the projectedseparations of the pair. For the widest and closest pairs, the CASparameters tend to be similar to those of isolated and ongoing majormergers (e.g., ultraluminous infrared galaxies), respectively. Ourresults imply that galaxy morphology is a robust property that onlychanges significantly during a strong interaction or major merger. Thetypical timescale for this change in our paired sample, based ondynamical friction arguments, is short, τ~0.1-0.5 Gyr. We findaverage enhancement factors for the spiral-pair asymmetries andclumpiness values of ~2.2 and 1.5. The S parameter, which is related tostar formation (SF) activity, has a moderate level of enhancement,suggesting that this activity in modern spirals depends more on internalprocesses than on external conditions. We further test the statisticalcriterion for picking up interacting galaxies in an automated way byusing the A-S projection plane. The diversity of our spiral-pair samplein the CAS space suggests that structural/SF/morphological properties ofinteracting galaxies change abruptly only when the interaction becomesvery strong and the criteria given previously by Conselice for findinggalaxies involved in major mergers are effective.
|BVRI surface photometry of (S+S) binary galaxies I. The data|
We present multicolour broad band (BVRI) photometry for a sample of 33spiral-spiral (S+S) binary galaxies drawn from the KarachentsevCatalogue of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies (KPG). The data is part of ajoint observational programme devoted to systematic photometric study ofone of the most complete and homogeneous pair samples available in theliterature. We present azimuthally averaged colour and surfacebrightness profiles, colour index (B-I) maps, B band and sharp/filteredB band images as well as integrated magnitudes, magnitudes at differentcircular apertures and integrated colours for each pair. Internal andexternal data comparisons show consistency within the estimated errors.Two thirds of the sample have total aperture parameters homogeneouslyderived for the first time. After reevaluating morphology for all thepairs, we find a change in Hubble type for 24 galaxies compared to theoriginal POSS classifications. More than half of our pairs showmorphological concordance which could explain, in part, the strongcorrelation in the (B-V) colour indices (Holmberg Effect) between paircomponents. We find a tendency for barred galaxies to show grand designmorphologies and flat colour profiles. The measurements will be used ina series of forthcoming papers where we try to identify and isolate themain structural and photometric properties of disk galaxies at differentstages of interaction. Table A.1 is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/379/54 and Tables 2-4 arealso available in electronic form at the CDS. Full Fig. 5 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the http://www.edpsciences.org Based ondata obtained at the 2.1 m telescope of the Observatorio Guillermo Haroat Cananea, Sonora, México, operated by the Instituto Nacional deAstrofísica, Optica y Electrónica.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography|
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Rotation Curves and Velocity Measures for Spiral Galaxies in Pairs|
Rotation curves have been obtained for 76 spiral galaxies in pairs,including a geometrically selected subset from the Karachentsev catalogand a set of Seyfert galaxies with close companions. Derived parametersof the rotation curves and the galaxies light distributions are alsopresented. The rotation curves are classified broadly by shape, withspecial emphasis on kinematic disturbances and regions of solid-bodybehavior that may lead to bar development. Broadband images of thegalaxies allow assessments of their degree of symmetry or disturbance.These velocity slices afford an empirical basis for evaluating theaccuracy of radial velocity measures for spiral galaxies in pairs, andthe dynamically important radial velocity differences. Specifically, thedisagreement among several plausible ways of estimating the centralvelocity from these rotation data is used to estimate how closely any ofthese might approximate the nuclear or center-of-mass values. From sevenindicators of central velocity, the internal scatter is σ_vv_ = 34km s^-1^. Of these, the velocity weighted by Hα intensity alongthe slit shows a systematic offset of about 20 km s^-1^ with respect tothe others for the Karachentsev pairs, in the sense that this measure isredshifted with respect to the other indicators. This is in the sense(but not of the total magnitude) required to account for statisticalasymmetries in pair velocity differences. Individual scatter between thevelocity indicators taken pairwise ranges from σ = 20 to 52 km s^-1^. These results imply that emission-line data such as these cannotspecify the center of mass or nuclear redshift at a level more accuratethan this, even for arbitrarily precise velocity measurements, becauseit is not clear how the observed quantities relate to the desiredmeasurement in a physical sense. No useful predictor of which galaxieshave large or small scatter among velocity measures was found, exceptthat the scatter is small for the class of "nonrotating" galaxies withsmall overall velocity amplitudes. Projected separation, separationnormalized to disk scale length, and morphological disturbance do notcorrelate with the velocity scatter.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Kinematic regulation of star formation in interacting galaxies|
Kinematic data for a geometrically-selected set of spiral galaxies inpairs are presented, and analyzed for correlations between indicators ofstar formation and indices of orbital type and extent of kinematicdisturbance. Both nuclear and global star formation rate are connectedto kinematic disturbance with the kind and degree of disturbance moreimportant than either projected separation or relative directions ofgalaxy spin and companion orbit. Enhanced star formation is found forgalaxies with large areas of solid-body rotation and for galaxies withmore general kinds of disturbed velocity structure, with the highestlevels occurring in a set of galaxies distinguished by anomalously smalloverall velocity amplitude. The strongest correlation is between starformation rate (SFR) and amplitude of velocity disturbance, fromrotation curves, when the velocity disturbance is scaled by the galaxyrotation velocity. Triggered star formation is more sensitive to galaxydynamics than to strictly local phenomena such as cloud disruptionvelocities. Comparsion with various models for the enhanced SFR ininteracting systems shows that cloud-collision processes cannot accountfor the strong starbursts in retrograde systems, and models relying oninteractions between different phases of the interstellar mediumsimilarly require too many direct collisions between galaxy disks.Schemes involving gravitational instability of the disk driven initiallyby the external perturbation fare best; such instability can then drivethe rates of other processes such as cloud collisions, possibly in acascadelike series. Solid-body kinematics appear more important than thepresence of a stellar bar in this connection. Using a new set ofclassifications from uniform CCD images, there is a better correlationbetween disturbed kinematics and morphological disturbance of individualgalaxies than with pair interaction types in the Karachentsev catalog,though the relationship is not one-to-one. There is a substantialpopulation of pairs with disturbed kinematics but not disturbed forms.The kinds of disturbance found from direct and retrograde encountersmatch well the predictions of n-body calculations for each kind ofencounter.
|Far-infrared properties of cluster galaxies|
Far-infrared properties are derived for a sample of over 200 galaxies inseven clusters: A262, Cancer, A1367, A1656 (Coma), A2147, A2151(Hercules), and Pegasus. The IR-selected sample consists almost entirelyof IR normal galaxies, with Log of L(FIR) = 9.79 solar luminosities, Logof L(FIR)/L(B) = 0.79, and Log of S(100 microns)/S(60 microns) = 0.42.None of the sample galaxies has Log of L(FIR) greater than 11.0 solarluminosities, and only one has a FIR-to-blue luminosity ratio greaterthan 10. No significant differences are found in the FIR properties ofHI-deficient and HI-normal cluster galaxies.
|A Study of the Largescale Structure in the Distribution of Galaxies in a Region Centered about the Cancer Cluster - Part Two - Further Observational Results|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1986AJ.....91..732B&db_key=AST
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