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|Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. On the Possible Disk Nature of Bright Early-Type Dwarfs|
We present a systematic search for disk features in 476 Virgo Clusterearly-type dwarf (dE) galaxies. This is the first such study of analmost-complete, statistically significant dE sample, which includes allcertain or possible cluster members with mB<=18 that arecovered by the optical imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DataRelease 4. Disk features (spiral arms, edge-on disks, or bars) wereidentified by applying unsharp masks to a combined image from threebands (g, r, and i), as well as by subtracting the axisymmetric lightdistribution of each galaxy from that image. Fourteen objects areunambiguous identifications of disks, 10 objects show ``probable disk''features, and 17 objects show ``possible disk'' features. The numberfraction of these galaxies, for which we introduce the term ``dEdi,''reaches more than 50% at the bright end of the dE population anddecreases to less than 5% for magnitudes mB>16. Althoughpart of this observed decline might be due to the lower signal-to-noiseratio at fainter magnitudes, we show that it cannot be caused solely bythe limitations of our detection method. The luminosity function of ourfull dE sample can be explained by a superposition of dEdis and ordinarydEs, strongly suggesting that dEdis are a distinct type of galaxy. Thisis supported by the projected spatial distribution: dEdis show basicallyno clustering and roughly follow the spatial distribution of spirals andirregulars, whereas ordinary dEs are distributed similarly to thestrongly clustered E/S0 galaxies. While the flattening distribution ofordinary dEs is typical for spheroidal objects, the distribution ofdEdis is significantly different and agrees with their being flat oblateobjects. We therefore conclude that the dEdis are not spheroidalgalaxies that just have an embedded disk component but are instead apopulation of genuine disk galaxies. Several dEdis display well-definedspiral arms with grand-design features that clearly differ from theflocculent, open arms typical for late-type spirals that have frequentlybeen proposed as progenitors of dEs. This raises the question of whatprocess is able to create such spiral arms-with pitch angles like thoseof Sab/Sb galaxies-in bulgeless dwarf galaxies.
|Spectrophotometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. The data|
Drift-scan mode (3600-6800 Å) spectra with 500
|Spectrophotometry of Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. I. The Star Formation History|
As a result of an extensive observational campaign targeting the VirgoCluster, we obtained integrated (drift-scan mode) optical spectra andmultiwavelength (UV, U, B, V, H) photometry for 124 and 330 galaxies,respectively, spanning the whole Hubble sequence, and withmp<=16(Mp<=-15). These data were combined toobtain galaxy Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) extending from 2000to 22000 Å. By fitting these SEDs with synthetic ones derivedusing Bruzual & Charlot population synthesis models we try toconstrain observationally the star formation history (SFH) of galaxiesin the rich cluster of galaxies nearest to us. Assuming a Salpeter IMFand an analytical form for the SFH, the fit free parameters are the age(T) of the star formation event, its characteristic timescale (τ),and the initial metallicity (Z). In this work we test the (simplistic)case in which all galaxies have a common age T=13 Gyr, exploring a SFHwith ``delayed'' exponential form (which we call ``a la Sandage''), thusallowing for an increasing SFR with time. This SFH is consistent withthe full range of observed SEDs, provided that the characteristictimescale τ is let free to vary between 0.1 (quasi-instantaneousburst) and 25 Gyr (increasing SFR) and Z between 1/50 and 2.5 Zsolar.Elliptical galaxies (including dEs) are best fitted with shorttimescales (τ~3 Gyr) and metallicity varying between 1/5 and Zsolar.The model metallicity is found to increase as a function of H-bandluminosity. Spiral galaxies require that both τ and metallicitycorrelate with H-band luminosity: low-mass Im+BCD have subsolar Z andτ>=10 Gyr, whereas giant spirals have solar metallicities andτ~3 Gyr, consistent with elliptical galaxies. Moreover, we find thatthe SFH of spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster depends upon thepresence at their interior of fresh gas capable of sustaining the starformation. In fact, the residuals of the τ vs. LHrelation depend significantly on the H I content. H I deficient galaxieshave shorter (up to a factor of 4) τ (truncated SFH) than spiralswith normal H I content. Based on observations collected at theObservatoire de Haute Provence (OHP) (France), operated by the CNRS,France, and at the European Southern Observatory (Chile) (programme66.B-0026).
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|Spatial Orientation of the Spin Vectors of the Disk Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster I. A Catalogue of the Disk Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster|
|Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.|
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.
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