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 The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. VIII. The Nuclei of Early-Type GalaxiesThe ACS Virgo Cluster Survey is a Hubble Space Telescope program toobtain high-resolution imaging in widely separated bandpasses (F475W~gand F850LP~z) for 100 early-type members of the Virgo Cluster, spanninga range of ~460 in blue luminosity. We use this large, homogenous dataset to examine the innermost structure of these galaxies and tocharacterize the properties of their compact central nuclei. We presenta sharp upward revision in the frequency of nucleation in early-typegalaxies brighter than MB~-15 (66%<~fn<~82%)and show that ground-based surveys underestimated the number of nucleidue to surface brightness selection effects, limited sensitivity andpoor spatial resolution. We speculate that previously reported claimsthat nucleated dwarfs are more concentrated toward the center of Virgothan their nonnucleated counterparts may be an artifact of theseselection effects. There is no clear evidence from the properties of thenuclei, or from the overall incidence of nucleation, for a change atMB~-17.6, the traditional dividing point between dwarf andgiant galaxies. There does, however, appear to be a fundamentaltransition at MB~-20.5, in the sense that the brighter,core-Sérsic'' galaxies lack resolved (stellar) nuclei. A searchfor nuclei that may be offset from the photocenters of their hostgalaxies reveals only five candidates with displacements of more than0.5", all of which are in dwarf galaxies. In each case, however, theevidence suggests that these nuclei'' are, in fact, globular clustersprojected close to the galaxy photocenter. Working from a sample of 51galaxies with prominent nuclei, we find a median half-light radius of=4.2 pc, with the sizes of individual nucleiranging from 62 pc down to <=2 pc (i.e., unresolved in our images) inabout a half-dozen cases. Excluding these unresolved objects, the nucleisizes are found to depend on nuclear luminosity according to therelation rh L0.50+/-0.03. Because the largemajority of nuclei are resolved, we can rule out low-level AGNs as anexplanation for the central luminosity excess in almost all cases. Onaverage, the nuclei are ~3.5 mag brighter than a typical globularcluster. Based on their broadband colors, the nuclei appear to have oldto intermediate age stellar populations. The colors of the nuclei ingalaxies fainter than MB~-17.6 are tightly correlated withtheir luminosities, and less so with the luminosities of their hostgalaxies, suggesting that their chemical enrichment histories weregoverned by local or internal factors. Comparing the nuclei to thenuclear clusters'' found in late-type spiral galaxies reveals a closematch in terms of size, luminosity, and overall frequency. A formationmechanism that is rather insensitive to the detailed properties of thehost galaxy properties is required to explain this ubiquity andhomogeneity. The mean of the frequency function for thenucleus-to-galaxy luminosity ratio in our nucleated galaxies,=-2.49+/-0.09 dex (σ=0.59+/-0.10), isindistinguishable from that of the SBH-to-bulge mass ratio,=-2.61+/-0.07dex (σ=0.45+/-0.09), calculated in 23 early-type galaxies withdetected supermassive black holes (SBHs). We argue that the compactstellar nuclei found in many of our program galaxies are the low-masscounterparts of the SBHs detected in the bright galaxies. If thisinterpretation is correct, then one should think in terms of centralmassive objects''-either SBHs or compact stellar nuclei-that accompanythe formation of almost all early-type galaxies and contain a meanfraction ~0.3% of the total bulge mass. In this view, SBHs would be thedominant formation mode above MB~-20.5.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. IX. The Color Distributions of Globular Cluster Systems in Early-Type GalaxiesWe present the color distributions of globular cluster (GC) systems for100 early-type galaxies observed in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, thedeepest and most homogeneous survey of this kind to date. On average,galaxies at all luminosities in our study (-22 Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. On the Possible Disk Nature of Bright Early-Type DwarfsWe present a systematic search for disk features in 476 Virgo Clusterearly-type dwarf (dE) galaxies. This is the first such study of analmost-complete, statistically significant dE sample, which includes allcertain or possible cluster members with mB<=18 that arecovered by the optical imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DataRelease 4. Disk features (spiral arms, edge-on disks, or bars) wereidentified by applying unsharp masks to a combined image from threebands (g, r, and i), as well as by subtracting the axisymmetric lightdistribution of each galaxy from that image. Fourteen objects areunambiguous identifications of disks, 10 objects show probable disk''features, and 17 objects show possible disk'' features. The numberfraction of these galaxies, for which we introduce the term dEdi,''reaches more than 50% at the bright end of the dE population anddecreases to less than 5% for magnitudes mB>16. Althoughpart of this observed decline might be due to the lower signal-to-noiseratio at fainter magnitudes, we show that it cannot be caused solely bythe limitations of our detection method. The luminosity function of ourfull dE sample can be explained by a superposition of dEdis and ordinarydEs, strongly suggesting that dEdis are a distinct type of galaxy. Thisis supported by the projected spatial distribution: dEdis show basicallyno clustering and roughly follow the spatial distribution of spirals andirregulars, whereas ordinary dEs are distributed similarly to thestrongly clustered E/S0 galaxies. While the flattening distribution ofordinary dEs is typical for spheroidal objects, the distribution ofdEdis is significantly different and agrees with their being flat oblateobjects. We therefore conclude that the dEdis are not spheroidalgalaxies that just have an embedded disk component but are instead apopulation of genuine disk galaxies. Several dEdis display well-definedspiral arms with grand-design features that clearly differ from theflocculent, open arms typical for late-type spirals that have frequentlybeen proposed as progenitors of dEs. This raises the question of whatprocess is able to create such spiral arms-with pitch angles like thoseof Sab/Sb galaxies-in bulgeless dwarf galaxies. A Comparison of Surface Brightness Profiles for Ultracompact Dwarfs and Dwarf Elliptical Nuclei: Implications for the Threshing'' ScenarioUsing imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, we derive surfacebrightness profiles for ultracompact dwarfs in the Fornax Cluster andfor the nuclei of dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster.Ultracompact dwarfs are more extended and have higher surfacebrightnesses than typical dwarf nuclei, while the luminosities, colors,and sizes of the nuclei are closer to those of Galactic globularclusters. This calls into question the production of ultracompact dwarfsvia threshing,'' whereby the lower surface brightness envelope of adwarf elliptical galaxy is removed by tidal processes, leaving behind abare nucleus. Threshing may still be a viable model if the relativelybright Fornax ultracompact dwarfs considered here are descended fromdwarf elliptical galaxies whose nuclei are at the upper end of theirluminosity and size distributions. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. II. Data Reduction ProceduresThe ACS Virgo Cluster Survey is a large program to carry out multicolorimaging of 100 early-type members of the Virgo Cluster using theAdvanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. DeepF475W and F850LP images (~SDSS g and z) are being used to study thecentral regions of the program galaxies, their globular cluster systems,and the three-dimensional structure of Virgo itself. In this paper, wedescribe in detail the data reduction procedures used for the survey,including image registration, drizzling strategies, the computation ofweight images, object detection, the identification of globular clustercandidates, and the measurement of their photometric and structuralparameters.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. I. Introduction to the SurveyThe Virgo Cluster is the dominant mass concentration in the LocalSupercluster and the largest collection of elliptical and lenticulargalaxies in the nearby universe. In this paper, we present anintroduction to the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey: a program to image, in theF475W and F850LP bandpasses (~Sloan g and z), 100 early-type galaxies inthe Virgo Cluster using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the HubbleSpace Telescope. We describe the selection of the program galaxies andtheir ensemble properties, the choice of filters, the field placementand orientation, the limiting magnitudes of the survey, coordinatedparallel observations of 100 intergalactic'' fields with WFPC2, andsupporting ground-based spectroscopic observations of the programgalaxies. In terms of depth, spatial resolution, sample size, andhomogeneity, this represents the most comprehensive imaging survey todate of early-type galaxies in a cluster environment. We brieflydescribe the main scientific goals of the survey, which include themeasurement of luminosities, metallicities, ages, and structuralparameters for the many thousands of globular clusters associated withthese galaxies, a high-resolution isophotal analysis of galaxiesspanning a factor of ~450 in luminosity and sharing a commonenvironment, the measurement of accurate distances for the full sampleof galaxies using the method of surface brightness fluctuations, and adetermination of the three-dimensional structure of Virgo itself.ID="FN1"> 1Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Distances, Metallicities, and Ages of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster from Surface Brightness FluctuationsWe have employed FORS1 and 2 at the Very Large Telescope at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO) to acquire deep B and R-band CCD images of 16dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the direction of the Virgo cluster.For each dwarf, we measure the apparent R-band surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) magnitude mR and the (B-R)0color in a number of fields at different galactocentric distances. Fromthe field-to-field variation of the two quantities, we determine the SBFdistance by means of the (B-R)0-MR relation. Thederived distances of the dwarfs range from 14.9 to 21.3 Mpc, with a mean1 σ uncertainty of 1.4 Mpc or 8% of the distance, which confirmsthat there is considerable depth in the distance distribution ofearly-type cluster members. For VCC 1104 (IC 3388), our SBF distancemodulus of (m-M)SBF=31.15+/-0.19 (17.0+/-1.5 Mpc) is in goodagreement with the Harris et al result of(m-M)TRGB=30.98+/-0.19 mag (15.7+/-1.5 Mpc) based on HubbleSpace Telescope (HST) observations and the tip magnitude of the redgiant branch. Combining our results with existing distances for giantVirgo ellipticals, we identify two major galaxy concentrations in thedistance distribution: a broad primary clump around (M-m)=31.0 mag (15.8Mpc) and a narrow secondary clump around 31.33 mag (18.5 Mpc). Anadaptive kernel analysis finds the two concentrations to be significantat the 99% (2.5 σ) and 89% (1.6 σ) levels, respectively.While the near-side clump of Virgo early-type galaxies can be associatedwith the subcluster centered on M87, the second clump is believed to bemainly due to the far side infalling group of galaxies around M86. Theages and metallicities of the dE stellar populations are estimated bycombining the observed (B-R)0 colors with Worthey's stellarpopulation synthesis models. It appears that the Virgo dE galaxies covera wider range in metallicity, from [Fe/H]~-1.4 (VCC 0815) to -0.5 (NGC4415), than Fornax cluster dEs. The derived metallicities place theVirgo dEs on the extension of the metallicity-luminosity relationdefined by the low-luminosity Local Group dEs. The data further suggestan age range from genuinely old (~17 Gyr) stellar systems such as IC3019 and IC 0783 to intermediate-age (8-12 Gyr) dwarfs such as NGC 4431and IC 3468. Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters. IV. Deep H I Observations of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo ClusterIn this paper we present deep Arecibo H I and WIYN optical observationsof Virgo Cluster dwarf elliptical galaxies. Based on this data we arguethat a significant fraction of low-mass galaxies in the Virgo Clusterrecently underwent evolution. Our new observations consist of H I 21 cmline observations for 22 classified dE galaxies with optical radialvelocities consistent with membership in the Virgo Cluster. Clustermembers VCC 390 and VCC 1713 are detected with H I massesMHI=6×107 and 8×107Msolar, respectively, while MHI values in theremaining 20 dE galaxies have upper limits as low as~5×105 Msolar. We combine our results withthose for 26 other Virgo Cluster dE galaxies with H I observations inthe literature, seven of which have H I detection claims. New opticalimages from the WIYN telescope of five of these H I-detected dEgalaxies, along with archival data, suggest that seven of the claimeddetections are true H I detections, yielding a ~15% detection rate.These H I-detected, classified dE galaxies are preferentially locatednear the periphery of the Virgo Cluster. Three Virgo dE galaxies haveobserved H I velocity widths greater than 200 km s-1,possibly indicating the presence of a large dark matter content ortransient extended H I. We discuss the possible origins of these objectsand argue that they originate from field galaxies accreted onto highangular momentum orbits by Virgo in the last few Gyr. As a result ofthis, we argue, these galaxies are slowly transformed within the clusterby gradual gas-stripping processes, associated truncation of starformation, and passive fading of stellar populations. Low-mass,early-type cluster galaxies are therefore currently being produced asthe product of cluster environmental effects. We utilize our results ina simple model to estimate the recent (past 1-3 Gyr) average massaccretion rate into the Virgo Cluster, deriving a value of M~50Msolar yr-1. VLT surface photometry and isophotal analysis of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo clusterWe have carried out surface photometry and an isophotal analysis for asample of 25 early-type dwarf (dE and dS0) galaxies in the Virgo clusterbased on CCD images taken at the VLT with FORS1 and FORS2. For eachgalaxy we present B and R-band surface brightness profiles, as well asthe radial colour (B-R) profile. We give total apparent BR magnitudes,effective radii, effective surface brightnesses and total colourindices. The light profiles have been fitted with Sérsic modelsand the corresponding parameters are compared to the ones for otherclasses of objects. In general, dEs and dS0s bridge the gap in parameterspace between the giant ellipticals and the low-luminosity dwarfspheroidals in the Local Group, in accordance with previous findings.However, the observed profiles of the brightest cluster dwarfs showsignificant deviations from a simple Sérsic model, indicatingthat there is more inner structure than just a nucleus. This picture isreinforced by our isophotal analysis where complex radial dependenciesof ellipticity, position angle, and isophotal shape parameter a_4 areexhibited not only by objects like IC 3328, for which the presence of adisk component has been confirmed, but by many apparently normal dEs aswell. In addition, we find a relation between the effective surfacebrightness, at a given luminosity, and the strength of the offset of thegalaxy's nucleus with respect to the center of the isophotes. Dwarfswith large nuclear offsets also tend to have stronger isophotal twists.However, such twists are preferentially found in apparently round(epsilon < 0.3) galaxies and are always accompanied by significantradial changes of the ellipticity, which clearly points to a projectioneffect. In sum, our findings suggest the presence of substructure inmost, and preferentially in the less compact, bright early-type dwarfs.The physical (dynamical) meaning of this has yet to be explored.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory(ESO 63.O-0055 and 65.N-0062).Figure \ref{fig1} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The UZC-SSRS2 Group CatalogWe apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers. Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters. I. Dynamics and the Origin of Low-Mass Galaxies in the Virgo ClusterEarly-type dwarfs are the most common galaxy in the local universe, yettheir origin and evolution remain a mystery. Various cosmologicalscenarios predict that dwarf-like galaxies in dense areas are the firstto form and hence should be the oldest stellar systems in clusters. Byusing radial velocities of early-type dwarfs in the Virgo cluster wedemonstrate that these galaxies are not an old cluster population buthave signatures of production from the infall of field galaxies.Evidence of this includes the combined large dispersions andsubstructure in spatial and kinematic distributions for Virgo early-typedwarfs and a velocity dispersion ratio with giant ellipticals expectedfor virialized and accreted populations. We also argue that thesegalaxies cannot originate from accreted field dwarfs, but must havephysically evolved from a precursor population, of different morphology,that fell into Virgo some time in the past. Detailed Surface Photometry of Dwarf Elliptical and Dwarf S0 Galaxies in the Virgo ClusterWe analyze new V-band images of 14 dwarf S0 galaxies and 10 dwarfelliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, in combination with R-bandimages of 70 dwarf elliptical galaxies from an earlier paper. We computethe intensity-weighted mean ellipticity, the mean deviations fromelliptical isophotes, and a newly defined parameter to measure isophotaltwists. We also fit each major-axis profile to a power lawSigma(a)~exp[-(a/a_s)^n], where n is allowed to vary. Consistent withother studies of the Virgo dwarf ellipticals, we find that the profileshapes for the entire sample is strongly peaked near n=1 (exponentialprofiles) and that no galaxies have n=1/4 (de Vaucouleurs profile). Thefaintest galaxies all have nearly exponential profiles, while thebrighter ones on average have n<1. The correlation betweenellipticity and the boxy/disky parameter is similar to that of largeelliptical galaxies, suggesting that dwarfs may also be divided into twogroups with differing internal dynamics. The Virgo dEs also show agreater degree of isophotal twisting than more luminous ellipticalgalaxies. There does not seem to be any combination of parameters fromthe surface photometry that statistically correlates with the dE/dS0designation: in particular, the dS0 galaxies do not, on average, havemore pointed (disky) isophotes than the dEs. A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clustersWe present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp 130.79.128.5. Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form. The Virgo photometry catalogue''; a catalogue of 1180 galaxies in the direction of the Virgo Cluster's coreWe present a new catalogue of galaxies in the direction of the VirgoCluster's core: the Virgo Photometry Catalogue (VPC)*. This cataloguecontains 1180 galaxies (including background objects) within a 23square-degree area of the sky centred on R.A._{1950.0} = 12h 26m anddec._{1950.0} = 13(deg) 08'. The VPC galaxy sample comprises ofnon-stellar objects brighter than B_J25 = 19.0; thecompleteness limits being B_J25 ~18.5 for the northern halfof the survey area and B_J25 ~18.0 for the southern half.Independently-calibrated photographic surface photometry is presentedfor over 1000 galaxies in the U, B_J and R_C bands. Parameters listedfor catalogued galaxies include: equatorial coordinates, morphologicaltypes, surface-brightness profile parameters (which preserve themajority of the original surface photometry information), U, B_J &R_C isophotal magnitudes, B_J and [transformed] B total magnitudes,(U-B_J) and (B_J-R_C) equal-area and total colours, apparent angularradii, ellipticities, position angles, heliocentric radial velocitiesand alternative designations. All total magnitudes and total colours areextrapolated according to a new system denoted t in order to distinguishit from the T system already in use. The VPC is based primarily on four(one U, two B_J and one R_C) UK-Schmidt plates, all of which weredigitised using the Royal Observatory Edinburgh's (ROE) COSMOS measuringmachine. All magnitudes, colours and surface-brightness parameters arederived from numerical integrations of segmented plate-scan data, exceptfor (in 109 cases) saturated or (in 51 cases) inextricably-mergedimages; our segmentation software being able to cope with the vastmajority of image mergers. * Appendices B, C and E, which contain thesurface photometry, the main catalogue and the summary cataloguerespectively, are only available in electronic form. They can beobtained from La Centre des Donees astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. Extragalactic Globular Clusters. IV. The DataWe have explored the use of absorption line strength indices, measuredfrom integrated globular cluster spectra, to predict mean metallicity inlate-type stellar systems. In previous papers we identified the bestindices for such metallicity calibrations out of ~13 measured in a largesample of galactic and M31 cluster spectra. In this paper we present theindividual measurements of 13 indices and averages of multiplemeasurements, where appropriate. Data are given for 151 M31 globularclusters, 88 galaxies, 22 M33 cluster candidates, 10 M87 clusters, eightM81 globular clusters, three Fornax dwarf galaxy clusters, "standard"stars from the lists of Faber et al., stars in the open cluster NGC 188and, for completeness, other stars observed as candidate globularclusters. An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect. The UV properties of normal galaxies. III. Standard luminosity profiles and total magnitudes.In the previous papers of this series we collected and reduced to thesame system all the available photometric data obtained in theultraviolet (UV) range for normal (i.e. non active) galaxies. Here weuse these data to derive standard UV luminosity profiles for threemorphological bins (E/S0; Sa/Sb; Sc/Sd) and extrapolated totalmagnitudes for almost 400 galaxies. We find that: 1) the UV growthcurves are well matched by the B-band revised standard luminosityprofiles, once a proper shift in the effective radius is applied, and 2)the UV light in early-type galaxies is more centrally concentrated thanthe visible light. The UV properties of normal galaxies. II. The non-IUE'' data.In the last decade several satellite and balloon borne experiments havecollected a large number of ultraviolet fluxes of normal galaxiesmeasured through apertures of various sizes and shapes. We havehomogenized this data set by deriving scale corrections with respect toIUE. In a forthcoming paper these data will be used to derive standardluminosity profiles and total magnitudes. The flattening distribution of dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Virgo ClusterWe have obtained R-band surface photometry of 70 dwarf ellipticalgalaxies in the Virgo Cluster. We find, in contrast to the results ofearlier studies, that the dwarfs have a markedly flatter distribution ofellipticities than either 'normal' elliptical galaxies or brightestcluster ellipticals. The ensemble of nucleated dwarfs is rounder thanthe non-nucleated galaxies. Neither the nucleated nor the nonnucleateddwarfs, however, have distributions as round as giant ellipticals. The kinematics of the Virgo cluster revisitedThe paper updates the velocity data of Virgo cluster galaxies andreconsiders the kinematic structure of the Virgo cluster. New velocitiesare given for 144 galaxies listed in the Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC).Improved velocities are given for another 131 VCC galaxies. The Virgocluster is disentangled from its surrounding clouds of galaxies, and thelikely members of each of these clouds are listed. The velocitydistribution of dwarf elliptical cluster members is found to be highlyasymmetric. This phenomenon is interpreted as evidence for the imminentmerging of two subclusters in the core region, which points to thedynamical youth of the Virgo cluster. The mean heliocentric velocity ofthe Virgo cluster is estimated at 1050 +/- 35 km/s. Extragalactic globular clusters. III - Metallicity comparisons and anomaliesA method based on the strengths of six absorption line indices measuredin integrated spectra is used to derive metallicities for 22 globularclusters associated with the Sc galaxy, M33, 10 globular clusters withthe giant elliptical galaxy, M87, eight globular clusters associatedwith the Sb(r)I-II galaxy, M81, and three globular clusters associatedwith the Fornax dwarf elliptical galaxy. Mean metallicities are derivedfor 38 bright galaxies, mostly ellipticals, 29 dwarf elliptical galaxiesin the Virgo cluster, 10 dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Fornaxcluster, and four local group dwarf galaxies. These results are comparedwith previously derived metallicities for 149 clusters in M31 and withthe Milky Way cluster metallicities to show that the mean metallicity ofa cluster system is linearly related to the luminosity of the parentgalaxy. A similar relationship is suggested between galaxy metallicityand luminosity for the bright and dwarf galaxies. The use of dwarf elliptical galaxies as distance indicators - The relative distances between Virgo, Fornax, and CentaurusPhotometric parameters derived from surface photometry of dwarfelliptical galaxies are used to determine the relative distance betweenthe Virgo, Fornax, and Centaurus clusters. The study uses a sample ofabout 25 dwarf elliptical galaxies in each cluster. With Virgo as thefiducial cluster, it is found that R(Fornax)/R(Virgo) = 0.93 + or - 0.07and R(Centaurus)/R(Virgo) = 1.91 + or - 0.07. The results are in goodagreement with those obtained by Aaronson et al. (1989) using the IRTully-Fisher relation. Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones. The statistical distribution of the neutral-hydrogen content of elliptical galaxiesAn examination has been conducted of the form of the distributionfunction for the relative H I content, MH I/LB, of elliptical galaxies,using a data set derived from all recent H I observations of ellipticalsin the literature. The characteristics of this combined data set arepoorly defined, but upon examination it appears to be reassuringly freeof built-in biases and correlations. The data set contains 152 galaxies;23 of these have been detected in the H I line. The detected galaxiesare shown to be more H I rich on average than the galaxies in the wholesample. A method for recovering the intrinsic distribution of MH I/LB,using both detection and upper-limit data, is described, and the dataare shown to be consistent with a shallow power-law differentialdistribution N approximately (MH I/LB) to the -1.5th. This distributionis quite different from that for spirals, where N(MH I/LB) has awell-defined mean value and a small dispersion. This result stronglysuggests that the gas and star contents of ellipticals are decoupled,i.e., the gas has an external origin. A successful survey of H I in low-luminosity elliptical galaxiesA neutral hydrogen survey of 28 faint elliptical galaxies was made usingthe 305 m antenna of the Arecibo Observatory in order to explorevariations in gas content that are related to size, stellar velocitydispersion, and rotation. Eleven out of 28 galaxies were detected, and acorrelation of the H I line width with blue luminosity, similar to theFaber-Jackson relation, was found. The larger gas content of faintelliptical galaxies is attributed to a combination of much shortercooling times and the possible change in the structure in the wind dueto the angular momentum of the gas shed from a more rapidly rotatingstellar system. A catalog of dwarf galaxies in VirgoA catalog listing the location, apparent angular diameter, type,estimated central light concentration, and estimated brightness of 846dwarf galaxies in a 200-deg-sq region in Virgo is presented. Thegalaxies comprise 634 ellipticals, 137 IC-3475-type galaxies, 73 dwarfspirals and irregulars, and two objects which are jets of normalgalaxies, and were found on nine long-exposure IIIa-J-emulsion platesmade with the 1.2-m-Schmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory from 1971to 1976. Concordances to other catalogs, tables of additionalparameters, maps, graphs, and photographs are provided. The projecteddistributions of normal and dwarf galaxies and the dependence ofapparent luminosity on central light concentration are discussed. It isfound that dwarf ellipticals and IC-3475-type galaxies are probablemembers of the Virgo cluster, while dwarf spirals and possibly dwarfirregulars are not. Radial Velocities of Galaxies in the Virgo ClusterNot Available Middle-ultraviolet photometry of Virgo cluster galaxiesPhotographic photometry of Virgo cluster galaxies has been performed ina wavelength band extending from 1620-3200 A using sounding rockettechniques. The observational results are middle ultraviolet magnitudes,U2421, or faint limits for U2421, for 201 galaxies within 5.5 arcmin ofthe cluster center. A strong negative correlation is found between U2421- V and V for all observed S0 galaxies and a similar but weakercorrelation for the observed ellipticals. No such correlation is foundfor spiral galaxies regardless of their projection angles on the sky.The measured colors are generally compatible with colors computed frompreviously generated composite spectra. A radio continuum survey at 1.4 GHz of the galaxies in the Virgo regionRadio continuum observations made with the Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope at 1.4 GHz are presented for 274 galaxies in the Virgo Clusterregion. The observations are partly full syntheses and partly east-weststrip distributions. For the 55 detected galaxies the emission isseparated into central and extended components. A brief summary of theanalysis is also given. Corrections to the Reference Catalogue of Bright GalaxiesNot Available
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