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IC 3686



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Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters. I. Dynamics and the Origin of Low-Mass Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
Early-type dwarfs are the most common galaxy in the local universe, yettheir origin and evolution remain a mystery. Various cosmologicalscenarios predict that dwarf-like galaxies in dense areas are the firstto form and hence should be the oldest stellar systems in clusters. Byusing radial velocities of early-type dwarfs in the Virgo cluster wedemonstrate that these galaxies are not an old cluster population buthave signatures of production from the infall of field galaxies.Evidence of this includes the combined large dispersions andsubstructure in spatial and kinematic distributions for Virgo early-typedwarfs and a velocity dispersion ratio with giant ellipticals expectedfor virialized and accreted populations. We also argue that thesegalaxies cannot originate from accreted field dwarfs, but must havephysically evolved from a precursor population, of different morphology,that fell into Virgo some time in the past.

Optical spectroscopy of galaxies in the direction of the Virgo cluster
Optical spectroscopy of 76 galaxies, 48 of which are projected in thedirection of the Virgo cluster and 28 onto the Coma-A1367 supercluster,is reported. Adding these new measurements to those found in theliterature, the redshift completeness in the Virgo region becomes 92% atB_T<=16.0 and 68% at B_T<=18.0. The one of CGCG galaxies in thedirection of the Coma-A1367 supercluster becomes 98%. The Virgo clustermembership estimates obtained on morphological grounds by Binggeli etal. (\cite{Binggeli}) are confirmed in all cases. However, several``possible members" classified as BCD (if in the cluster) are foundinstead to be giant emission-line galaxies in the background of theVirgo cluster Based on observations obtained with the Loiano telescopebelonging to the University of Bologna, Italy, with the OHP, operated bythe French CNRS and with the G. Haro telescope of the INAOE, Mexico.

HI-observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster of galaxies. I - The data
New H I-data for a large number of bright galaxies inside the 10 degradius area of the Virgo cluster of galaxies have been obtained with the100 m radiotelescope at Effelsberg. A total of 234 galaxies was observedfor the first time. Among them, 53 have been detected providing newaccurate radial velocities. Data from the literature have been compiled.Together with the new data, they form a (nearly homogeneous) set of H Iobservations for more than 450 galaxies.

Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h42m36.00s
Aparent dimensions:0.891′ × 0.347′

Catalogs and designations:
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ICIC 3686
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 1927

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