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Atomic and Molecular Gas in Colliding Galaxy Systems. I. The Data
We present H I and CO (1-0) interferometric observations of 10comparable-mass interacting systems obtained at the Very Large Array(VLA) and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) millimeter array.The primary intent of this study is to investigate the response of coldgas during the early stages of collision of massive disk galaxies. Thesample sources are selected based on their luminosity(MB<=-19), projected separation (5-40 kpc), andsingle-dish CO (1-0) content (SCO>=20 Jy kms-1). These selection criteria result in a sample thatprimarily consists of systems in the early stages of an interaction or amerger. Despite this sample selection, 50% of the systems show long H Itidal tails indicative of a tidal disruption in a prograde orbit. Inaddition, all (4/4) of the infrared luminous pairs (LIRGs) in the sampleshow long H I tails, suggesting that the presence of a long H I tail canbe a possible signature of enhanced star formation activity in acollision of gas-rich galaxies. More than half of the groups show adisplacement of H I peaks from the stellar disks. The CO (1-0)distribution is generally clumpy and widely distributed, unlike in mostIR-selected late stage mergers-in fact, CO peaks are displaced from thestellar nucleus in 20% (4/18) of the galaxies with robust CO detection.H I and CO (1-0) position-velocity diagrams (PVDs) and rotation curvesare also presented, and their comparison with the numerical simulationanalyzed in Paper I show evidence for radial inflow and wide occurrencesof nuclear molecular rings. These results are further quantified byexamining physical and structural parameters derived in comparison withisolated systems in the BIMA SONG sample in our forthcoming paper.

Warm, Dense Molecular Gas in the ISM of Starbursts, LIRGs, and ULIRGs
The role of star formation in luminous and ultraluminous infraredgalaxies (LIRGs, LIR>=1011 LsolarULIRGs, LIR>=1012 Lsolar) is a hotlydebated issue: while it is clear that starbursts play a large role inpowering the IR luminosity in these galaxies, the relative importance ofpossible enshrouded AGNs is unknown. It is therefore important to betterunderstand the role of star-forming gas in contributing to the infraredluminosity in IR-bright galaxies. The J=3 level of 12CO lies33 K above ground and has a critical density of~1.5×104 cm-3. The 12CO J=3-2line serves as an effective tracer for warm, dense molecular gas heatedby active star formation. Here we report on 12CO J=3-2observations of 17 starburst spiral galaxies, LIRGs, and ULIRGs, whichwe obtained with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope on MountGraham, Arizona. Our main results are as follows. (1) We find a nearlylinear relation between the infrared luminosity and warm, densemolecular gas such that the infrared luminosity increases as the warm,dense molecular gas to the power 0.92; we interpret this to be roughlyconsistent with the recent results of Gao & Solomon. (2) We findLIR/MH2warm,dense ratios ranging from~38 to ~482 Lsolar/Msolar using a modifiedCO-H2 conversion factor of 8.3×1019cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 derived in thispaper.

Radial Gas Flows in Colliding Galaxies: Connecting Simulations and Observations
We investigate the detailed response of gas to the formation oftransient and long-lived dynamical structures induced in the earlystages of a disk-disk collision and identify observational signatures ofradial gas inflow through a detailed examination of the collisionsimulation of an equal-mass bulge-dominated galaxy. Our analysis anddiscussion mainly focuses on the evolution of the diffuse and dense gasin the early stages of the collision, when the two disks are interactingbut have not yet merged. Stars respond to the tidal interaction byforming both transient arms and long-lived m=2 bars, but the gasresponse is more transient, flowing directly toward the central regionswithin about 108 yr after the initial collision. The rate ofinflow declines when more than half of the total gas supply reaches theinner few kiloparsecs, where the gas forms a dense nuclear ring insidethe stellar bar. The average gas inflow rate to the central 1.8 kpc is~7 Msolar yr-1 with a peak rate of 17Msolar yr-1. Gas with high volume density is foundin the inner parts of the postcollision disks at size scales close tothe spatial resolution of the simulations, and this may be a directresult of shocks traced by the discontinuity in the gas velocity field.The evolution of gas in a bulgeless progenitor galaxy is also discussed,and a possible link to the ``chain galaxy'' population observed at highredshifts is inferred. The evolution of the structural parameters suchas asymmetry and concentration of both stars and gas are studied indetail. Further, a new structure parameter (the compactness parameter K)that traces the evolution of the size scale of the gas relative to thestellar disk is introduced, and this may be a useful tracer to determinethe merger chronology of colliding systems. Noncircular gas kinematicsdriven by the perturbation of the nonaxisymmetric structure can producedistinct emission features in the ``forbidden velocity quadrants'' ofthe position-velocity diagram (PVD). The dynamical mass calculated usingthe rotation curve derived from fitting the emission envelope of the PVDcan determine the true mass to within 20%-40%. The evolution of themolecular fraction(MH2/MH2+HI) is a potentialtracer to quantitatively assign the age of the interaction, but theapplication to real systems may require additional observationaldiagnostics to properly assess the exact chronology of the mergerevolution.

Superassociations and Stellar Complexes in Galaxies
The basic characteristics of stellar complexes and superassociations, aswell as the differences between these kinds of gigantic groups of youngstars, are discussed. The main difference is that superassociations arethe result of induced (triggered) star formation, while the stars andclusters in stellar complexes develop as a result of the spontaneousprocesses typical of galactic gaseous disks.

An IRAS High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) Atlas of All Interacting Galaxies in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
The importance of far-infrared observations for our understanding ofextreme activity in interacting and merging galaxies has beenillustrated by many studies. Even though two decades have passed sinceits launch, the most complete all-sky survey to date from which far-IRselected galaxy samples can be chosen is still that of the InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS). However, the spatial resolution of theIRAS all-sky survey is insufficient to resolve the emission fromindividual galaxies in most interacting galaxy pairs, and hence previousstudies of their far-IR properties have had to concentrate either onglobal system properties or on the properties of very widely separatedand weakly interacting pairs. Using the HIRES image reconstructiontechnique, it is possible to achieve a spatial resolution ranging from30" to 1.5m (depending on wavelength and detector coverage), whichis a fourfold improvement over the normal resolution of IRAS. This issufficient to resolve the far-IR emission from the individual galaxiesin many interacting systems detected by IRAS, which is very importantfor meaningful comparisons with single, isolated galaxies. We presenthigh-resolution 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm images of 106 interactinggalaxy systems contained in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS,Sanders et al.), a complete sample of all galaxies having a 60 μmflux density greater than 5.24 Jy. These systems were selected to haveat least two distinguishable galaxies separated by less than threeaverage galactic diameters, and thus we have excluded very widelyseparated systems and very advanced mergers. Additionally, some systemshave been included that are more than three galactic diameters apart,yet have separations less than 4' and are thus likely to suffer fromconfusion in the RBGS. The new complete survey has the same propertiesas the prototype survey of Surace et al. We find no increased tendencyfor infrared-bright galaxies to be associated with other infrared-brightgalaxies among the widely separated pairs studied here. We find smallenhancements in far-IR activity in multiple galaxy systems relative toRBGS noninteracting galaxies with the same blue luminosity distribution.We also find no differences in infrared activity (as measured byinfrared color and luminosity) between late- and early-type spiralgalaxies.

A Study of the Distribution of Star-forming Regions in Luminous Infrared Galaxies by Means of Hα Imaging Observations
We performed Hα imaging observations of 22 luminous infraredgalaxies to investigate how the distribution of star-forming regions inthese galaxies is related to galaxy interactions. Based on correlationdiagrams between Hα flux and continuum emission for individualgalaxies, a sequence for the distribution of star-forming regions wasfound: very compact (~100 pc) nuclear starbursts with almost nostar-forming activity in the outer regions (type 1), dominant nuclearstarbursts <~1 kpc in size with a negligible contribution from theouter regions (type 2), nuclear starbursts >~1 kpc in size with asignificant contribution from the outer regions (type 3), and extendedstarbursts with relatively faint nuclei (type 4). These classes ofstar-forming regions were found to be strongly related to globalstar-forming properties, such as star formation efficiency, far-infraredcolor, and dust extinction. There was a clear tendency for the objectswith more compact distributions of star-forming regions to show a higherstar formation efficiency and hotter far-infrared color. An appreciablefraction of the sample objects were dominated by extended starbursts(type 4), which is unexpected in the standard scenario ofinteraction-induced starburst galaxies. We also found that thedistribution of star-forming regions was weakly but clearly related togalaxy morphology: severely disturbed objects had a more concentrateddistribution of star-forming regions. This suggests that the propertiesof galaxy interactions, such as dynamical phase and orbital parameters,play a more important role than the internal properties of progenitorgalaxies, such as dynamical structure or gas mass fraction. We alsodiscuss the evolution of the distribution of star-forming regions ininteracting galaxies.

Taurus Tunable Filter - Seven Years of Observing
The Taurus Tunable Filter (TTF) has now been in regular use for sevenyears on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). The instrument was alsoused for three years (1996-1999) on the William Herschel Telescope(WHT). We present a brief review of the different applications in orderto illustrate the versatility of tunable filters in optical/IRspectrophotometric imaging. Tunable filters are now either planned orunder development for 6-10m class telescopes which ensures their use foryears to come.

The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.

Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding Galaxies
Results from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objectssurrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample ofKazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of theKazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% ofbinary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazariangalaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-raysources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for completesamples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higherthan the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies.

A Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 Investigation of the Nuclear Morphology in the Toomre Sequence of Merging Galaxies
We report on the properties of nuclear regions in the Toomre sequence ofmerging galaxies, based on imaging data gathered with the Hubble SpaceTelescope WFPC2 camera. We have imaged the 11 systems in the proposedevolutionary merger sequence in the F555W and F814W broadband filters,and in Hα+[N II] narrowband filters. The broadband morphology ofthe nuclear regions varies from nonnucleated starburst clumps throughdust-covered nuclei to a nucleated morphology. There is no unambiguoustrend in the morphology with merger stage. The emission-line morphologyis extended beyond the nucleus in most cases, but centrally concentrated(within 1 kpc) emission-line gas can be seen in the four latest-stagemerger systems. We have quantified the intrinsic luminosity densitiesand colors within the inner 100 pc and 1 kpc of each identified nucleus.We find little evidence for a clear trend in nuclear properties alongthe merger sequence other than a suggestive rise in the nuclearluminosity density in the most evolved members of the sequence. The lackof clear trends in nuclear properties is likely due both to the effectsof obscuration and geometry, as well as the physical variety of galaxiesincluded in the Toomre sequence.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal8669.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

Massive Star Clusters in Ongoing Galaxy Interactions: Clues to Cluster Formation
We present HST WFPC2 observations, supplemented by ground-based Hαdata, of the star-cluster populations in two pairs of interactinggalaxies selected for being in very different kinds of encounters seenat different stages. Dynamical information and n-body simulationsprovide the details of encounter geometry, mass ratio, and timing. InNGC 5752/4 we are seeing a weak encounter, well past closest approach,after about 2.5×108 yr. The large spiral NGC 5754 has anormal population of disk clusters, while the fainter companion NGC 5752exhibits a rich population of luminous clusters with a flatterluminosity function. The strong, ongoing encounter in NGC 6621/2, seenabout 1.0×108 yr past closest approach between roughlyequal-mass galaxies, has produced an extensive population of luminousclusters, particularly young and luminous in a small region between thetwo nuclei. This region is dynamically interesting, with such a strongperturbation in the velocity field that the rotation curve reversessign. From these results, in comparison with other strongly interactingsystems discussed in the literature, cluster formation requires athreshold level of perturbation, with stage of the interaction a lessimportant factor. The location of the most active star formation in NGC6621/2 draws attention to a possible role for the Toomre stabilitythreshold in shaping star formation in interacting galaxies. The richcluster populations in NGC 5752 and NGC 6621 show that direct contactbetween gas-rich galaxy disks is not a requirement to form luminousclusters and that they can be triggered by processes happening within asingle galaxy disk (albeit triggered by external perturbations).Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

H I line observations of luminous infrared galaxy mergers
A total of 19 luminous infrared galaxy mergers, with LIR>~ 2 1011 Lsun, for H0=75 kms-1 Mpc-1, have been observed in the H I line atNançay and four of them were observed at Arecibo as well. Ofthese 19, ten had not been observed before. Six were clearly detected,one of which for the first time. The objective was to statisticallysample the H I gas mass in luminous infrared mergers along a starburstmerger sequence where the molecular CO gas content is already known. Wealso searched the literature for H I data and compared these with ourobservations.

Mapping Infrared Enhancements in Closely Interacting Spiral-Spiral Pairs. I. ISO CAM and ISO SWS Observations
Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging and spectroscopic observations are presentedfor a well-defined sample of eight closely interacting (CLO) pairs ofspiral galaxies that have overlapping disks and show enhancedfar-infrared (FIR) emission. The goal is to study the star formationdistribution in CLO pairs, with special emphasis on the role of``overlap starbursts.'' Observations were made with the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO) using the CAM and SWS instruments. The ISO CAM maps,tracing the MIR emission of warm dust heated by young massive stars, arecompared to new ground-based Hα and R-band images. We identifythree possible subgroups in the sample, classified according to the starformation morphology: (1) advanced mergers (Arp 157, Arp 244, and Arp299), (2) severely disturbed systems (Arp 81 and Arp 278), and (3) lessdisturbed systems (Arp 276, KPG 347, and KPG 426). Localized starburstsare detected in the overlap regions in all five pairs of subgroups (1)and (2), suggesting that they are a common property in collidingsystems. Except for Arp 244, the ``overlap starburst'' is usuallyfainter than the major nuclear starburst in CLO pairs. Star formation in``less disturbed systems'' is often distributed throughout the disks ofboth galaxies with no ``overlap starburst'' detected in any of them.These systems also show less enhanced FIR emission, suggesting that theyare in an earlier interaction stage when the direct disk collisions haveprobably not yet occurred. Based on observations made with ISO, an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA Member States and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Galaxy Structural Parameters: Star Formation Rate and Evolution with Redshift
The evolution of the structure of galaxies as a function of redshift isinvestigated using two parameters: the metric radius of the galaxy(R_eta) and the power at high spatial frequencies in the disk of thegalaxy (chi). A direct comparison is made between nearby (z~0) anddistant (0.2<~z<~1) galaxies by following a fixed range in restframe wavelengths. The data of the nearby galaxies comprise 136broadband images at ~4500 Å observed with the 0.9 m telescope atKitt Peak National Observatory (23 galaxies) and selected from thecatalog of digital images of Frei et al. (113 galaxies). Thehigh-redshift sample comprises 94 galaxies selected from the Hubble DeepField (HDF) observations with the Hubble Space Telescope using the WideField Planetary Camera 2 in four broad bands that range between ~3000and ~9000 Å (Williams et al.). The radius is measured from theintensity profile of the galaxy using the formulation of Petrosian, andit is argued to be a metric radius that should not depend very stronglyon the angular resolution and limiting surface brightness level of theimaging data. It is found that the metric radii of nearby and distantgalaxies are comparable to each other. The median value of the radius ofthe local sample is ~5+/-1 kpc, and the median radius ofthe HDF sample is ~6+/-2 kpc for q_0=0.5, H_0=65 km s^-1Mpc^-1 however, for q_0=0.1, ~7 kpc and for q_0=1,~5 kpc. In the HDF, galaxies with redshifts larger thanz>0.6 have flatter R_eta distributions than galaxies with redshiftssmaller than z<=0.6. However, the median R_eta values of high- andlow-redshift galaxies are consistent with each other. This result isconsistent with the simulations of galaxy images at redshifts z=0.35,z=0.5, and z=0.9, which show that the metric sizes can be recoveredwithin +/-2 kpc. The flocculency or power at high spatial frequencies isquantified using a simple method that is based on surface photometry inone band and that depends on the size of the star-forming regions and onthe intensity profile of the galaxy. In nearby galaxies, the flocculencyis found to trace the star formation rate as chi is correlated withoptical colors (B-V) and the strength of the hydrogen recombinationlines (Hα). In the HDF, galaxies at redshifts smaller than z~1 andwith fluxes brighter than B=25 have values of chi similar to what ismeasured in nearby galaxies and to what is expected from simulations ofdistant galaxy images. Among the HDF galaxies, I find that at most 4%can be identified as dwarf galaxies with rates of star formation similarto NGC 4449 and NGC 1569. Most HDF galaxies are giants with starformation rates similar to those in nearby giant galaxies. In summary,in this study I have introduced a method to measure the metric sizes andflocculency of the two-dimensional light distribution of galaxies. As aresult, I find that the high spatial frequency power is related to thestar formation rate. Further, I find that the sizes and power at highspatial frequencies of HDF galaxies remain largely unchanged between thepresent epoch and redshifts lower than z~1.

An X-Ray Survey of Galaxies in Pairs
Results are reported from the first survey of X-ray emission fromgalaxies in pairs. The sample consists of 52 pairs of galaxies from theCatalog of Paired Galaxies whose coordinates overlap the ROSAT PositionSensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations. The mean observedlogl_X for early-type pairs is 41.35+/-0.21, while the mean logl_Xpredicted using the l_X-l_b relationship for isolated early-typegalaxies is 42.10+/-0.19. With 95% confidence, the galaxies in pairs areunderluminous in the X-ray, compared with isolated galaxies, for thesame l_b. A significant fraction of the mixed pair sample also appearssimilarly underluminous. A spatial analysis shows that the X-rayemission from pairs of both types typically has an extent of ~10-50 kpc,much smaller than the group intergalactic medium, and thus likelyoriginates from the galaxies. CPG 564, the most X-ray luminousearly-type pair, 4.7x10^42 ergs s^-1, is an exception. The extent of itsX-ray emission, greater than 169 kpc, and HWHM, ~80 kpc, is comparableto that expected from an intergalactic medium. The sample shows only aweak correlation, ~81% confidence, between l_X and l_b, presumably dueto variations in gas content within the galaxies. No correlation betweenl_X and the pair velocity difference (Deltav), separation (Deltar), orfar-infrared luminosity (l_fir) is found, although the detection rate islow, 22%.

Molecular Gas in Strongly Interacting Galaxies. I. CO (1-0) Observations
We present observations of the CO (1-0) line in 80 interacting galaxiesas part of a program to study the role of interactions and mergers intriggering starbursts. The sample, which only includes obviouslyinteracting pairs of galaxies, is the largest such sample observed inCO. The observations were carried out at the NRAO 12 m and IRAM 30 mtelescopes. CO emission was detected in 56 galaxies (of which 32 are newdetections), corresponding to a detection rate of 70%. Because mostgalaxies are slightly larger than the telescope beam, correction factorswere applied to include CO emission outside the beam. The correctionfactors were derived by fitting a Gaussian function or an exponential CObrightness distribution to galaxies with multiple pointings and byassuming an exponential model for galaxies with single pointing. Wecompared the global CO fluxes of 10 galaxies observed by us at bothtelescopes. We also compared the measured fluxes for another 10 galaxiesobserved by us with those by other authors using the NRAO 12 m and FCRAO14 m telescopes. These comparisons provide an estimate of the accuracyof our derived global fluxes, which is ~40%. Mapping observations of twoclose pairs of galaxies, UGC 594 (NGC 317) and UGC 11175 (NGC 6621), arealso presented. In subsequent papers we will report the statisticalanalyses of the molecular properties in our sample galaxies and makecomparisons between isolated spirals and interacting galaxies.

Study of the Interacting System NGC 6845
We present optical spectroscopy, B, V, R, and I CCD photometry, and VLAneutral hydrogen observations of the interacting quartet NGC 6845, alsoknow as Klemola 30. NGC 6845 A, the dominant component, sports a broadand bright tidal bridge and a faint tidal tail, which bifurcates. Thetidal bridge has a B-I color bluer than that of the inner disk of NGC6845 A. Five strong condensations, identified as H II regions brighterthan the brightest one known in our Galaxy, are found along the tidalbridge, with the two most luminous located at the bridge tip. Two giantH II regions, comparable to 30 Dor, are located where the tidal bridgeand the tidal tail join the disk of NGC 6845 A. Since the age of the HII regions is 3-8 Myr, star formation continued to occur along the tidalbridge and in the tidal arm well after they began to be torn apart(>=100 Myr). Satoh model fitting to the optical rotation curve of theA component reveals a kinematical mass of (4.4+/-1.2)x10^11 M_solar,inside the central 12 kpc (H_0=75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1). The H I emissionconsist of two components, a more massive one that belongs to NGC 6845 Aand a second one associated with NGC 6845 B. We do not detect gasassociated with galaxies C and D. The total amount of H I is 1.4x10^10M_solar, 5 time higher than the H I content of the Milky Way. The H Ikinematics indicates an amount of dark matter associated with the Acomponent 2 times higher than the mass inside its central 12 kpc. Thegroup kinematics indicates M/L~43(+/-2)(M/L)_solar orM/L~66(+/-2)(M/L)_solar, according to two different prescriptions forthe internal absorption correction. In spite of this large difference,both values furnish a similar group mass (~1x10^13 M_solar). Althoughpreliminary results on N-body simulations indicate that either B or Cmight well create a tidal feature like the bridge of the A component,the collision with B appears to be more favorable.

3D self-consistent N-body barred models of the Milky Way. II. Gas dynamics
The gas dynamics in the Galactic disc is modeled by releasing aninitially axisymmetric SPH component in a completely self-consistent andsymmetry-free 3D N-body simulation of the Milky Way in which the stellarcomponents display a COBE-like bar. The density centre of the stellarbar wanders around the centre of mass and the resulting gas flow isasymmetric and non-stationary, reproducing the HI and CO l-V diagramsonly at specific times and thus suggesting a transient nature of theobserved inner gas kinematics. The best matching models allow a new andcoherent interpretation of the main features standing out of the l-Vdata within the bar region. In particular, the l-V traces of theprominent offset dustlanes leading the bar major axis in early-typebarred spirals can be unambiguously identified, and the 3-kpc arm andits non-symmetric galactocentric opposite counterarm are the innerprolongations of disc spiral arms passing round the bar and joining thedustlanes at very different galactocentric distances. Bania's clump 1and 2, and another velocity-elongated feature near l= 5.5degr , areinterpreted as gas lumps crossing the dustlane shocks. The terminalvelocity peaks near l=+/- 2.5degr are produced by gas along thedustlanes and not by the trace of the cusped x_1 orbit, which passesfarther away from the Galactic centre. According to these models and torelated geometrical constraints, the Galactic bar must have aninclination angle of 25degr +/- 4degr , a corotation radius of 4.0-4.5kpc and a face-on axis ratio b/a~ 0.6.

The Pico DOS Dias Survey Starburst Galaxies
We discuss the nature of the galaxies found in the Pico dos Dias Survey(PDS) for young stellar objects. The PDS galaxies were selected from theIRAS Point Source catalog. They have flux density of moderate or highquality at 12, 25, and 60 μm and spectral indices in the ranges -3.00<= alpha(25, 12) <= + 0.35 and -2.50 <= alpha(60, 25) <=+0.85. These criteria allowed the detection of 382 galaxies, which are amixture of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. Most of the PDS Seyfertgalaxies are included in the catalog of warm IRAS sources by de Grijp etal. The remaining galaxies constitute a homogeneous sample of luminous[log F (L_B/L_ȯ) = 9.9 +/- 0.4] starburst galaxies, 67% of whichwere not recognized as such before. The starburst nature of the PDSgalaxies is established by comparing their L_IR/L_B ratios and IRAScolors with a sample of emission-line galaxies from the literaturealready classified as starburst galaxies. The starburst galaxies show anexcess of FIR luminosity, and their IRAS colors are significantlydifferent from those of Seyfert galaxies-99% of the starburst galaxiesin our sample have a spectral index alpha(60, 25) < -1.9. As opposedto Seyfert galaxies, very few PDS starbursts are detected in X-rays. Inthe infrared, the starburst galaxies form a continuous sequence withnormal galaxies. But they generally can be distinguished from normalgalaxies by their spectral index alpha(60, 25) > -2.5. This colorcutoff also marks a change in the dominant morphologies of the galaxies:the normal IRAS galaxies are preferentially late-type spirals (Sb andlater), while the starbursts are more numerous among early-type spirals(earlier than Sbc). This preference of starbursts for early-type spiralsis not new, but a trait of the massive starburst nucleus galaxies(Coziol et al.). As in other starburst nucleus galaxy samples, the PDSstarbursts show no preference for barred galaxies. No difference isfound between the starbursts detected in the FIR and those detected onthe basis of UV excess. The PDS starburst galaxies represent the FIRluminous branch of the UV-bright starburst nucleus galaxies, with meanFIR luminosity log (L_IR/L_ȯ) = 10.3 +/- 0.5 and redshifts smallerthan 0.1. They form a complete sample limited in flux in the FIR at 2 x10^-10 ergs cm^-2 s^-1.

The Distribution of Mid- and Far-Infrared Emission in 10 Interacting Galaxy Systems
A sample of 10 interacting and merging galaxy systems has been mapped atmid-infrared (10 μm) and far-infrared (100-160 μm) wavelengthswith spatial resolutions of 4"and 45", respectively. The interacting andmerging systems are known to be strong IRAS sources; however, the IRASdata contain limited information concerning the distribution of infraredemission between the two galaxies in each pair and no information on thedistribution within each galaxy. The observations presented here showthat in five of the seven paired systems, one galaxy is the dominant orthe only infrared source. There is a good correlation between theHα and infrared emission levels for these galaxies, indicatingthat the infrared emission is closely tied to dust heated by youngstars. There is also a good spatial correlation between the Hα,infrared, and radio continuum morphologies of these systems, whichfurther strengthens the belief that the infrared, as well as the radioemission, is associated with regions of active star formation. The 10μm emission is concentrated around the nuclei of most of thesegalaxies, indicating that the highest levels of current star formationactivity are also confined to the near-nuclear regions. Some systems,however, show evidence for significant star formation activitythroughout the outer disk regions of the galaxies. All the samplegalaxies that are bright in the infrared also have optical indicationsof high levels of star formation or nuclear activity, suggesting thatthese conditions are necessary in order for a galaxy to exhibit excessinfrared emission.

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Bright galaxies from WENSS. I. The minisurvey
A search for bright galaxies associated with radio sources from theWENSS minisurvey has been carried out. A galaxy counterpart was foundfor 402 of almost 10,000 radio sources. Of these a radio and opticallycomplete sample, with a flux density limit at 325 MHz of 30 mJy and alimiting red magnitude of 16, can be constructed, which contains 119galaxies. This paper is the first step of a more general study, in whichwe aim to derive a bright galaxy sample from the entire WENSS survey(which is now available in the public domain) and thus to constructpractically definitive local radio luminosity functions of ellipticaland spiral galaxies. We briefly describe the WENSS minisurvey, and thesteps that are needed for the optical identification of its radiosources. Due to the large numbers of sources involved (over 200,000)completely automated procedures are obviously needed and we discussthese in some detail. It is shown that with modern utilities projects asdescribed here have become quite feasible. Some results (e.g. apreliminary determination of the local radio luminosity function) arepresented. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Rotation Curves and Velocity Measures for Spiral Galaxies in Pairs
Rotation curves have been obtained for 76 spiral galaxies in pairs,including a geometrically selected subset from the Karachentsev catalogand a set of Seyfert galaxies with close companions. Derived parametersof the rotation curves and the galaxies light distributions are alsopresented. The rotation curves are classified broadly by shape, withspecial emphasis on kinematic disturbances and regions of solid-bodybehavior that may lead to bar development. Broadband images of thegalaxies allow assessments of their degree of symmetry or disturbance.These velocity slices afford an empirical basis for evaluating theaccuracy of radial velocity measures for spiral galaxies in pairs, andthe dynamically important radial velocity differences. Specifically, thedisagreement among several plausible ways of estimating the centralvelocity from these rotation data is used to estimate how closely any ofthese might approximate the nuclear or center-of-mass values. From sevenindicators of central velocity, the internal scatter is σ_vv_ = 34km s^-1^. Of these, the velocity weighted by Hα intensity alongthe slit shows a systematic offset of about 20 km s^-1^ with respect tothe others for the Karachentsev pairs, in the sense that this measure isredshifted with respect to the other indicators. This is in the sense(but not of the total magnitude) required to account for statisticalasymmetries in pair velocity differences. Individual scatter between thevelocity indicators taken pairwise ranges from σ = 20 to 52 km s^-1^. These results imply that emission-line data such as these cannotspecify the center of mass or nuclear redshift at a level more accuratethan this, even for arbitrarily precise velocity measurements, becauseit is not clear how the observed quantities relate to the desiredmeasurement in a physical sense. No useful predictor of which galaxieshave large or small scatter among velocity measures was found, exceptthat the scatter is small for the class of "nonrotating" galaxies withsmall overall velocity amplitudes. Projected separation, separationnormalized to disk scale length, and morphological disturbance do notcorrelate with the velocity scatter.

A 1.425 GHz Atlas of the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample, Part II
Galaxies with δ >= -45^deg^ and |b| >= 10^deg^ in the IRASBright Galaxy Sample, Part II, were observed at 1.425 GHz by the VeryLarge Array in its B, CnB, C, DnC, and D configurations. An atlas ofradio contour maps and a table listing the principal radio sourceparameters (position, flux density, angular size) are given. This atlasof 187 galaxies supplements the 1.49 GHz atlas of 313 galaxies in therevised Bright Galaxy Sample, Part I. Together, they are complete forextragalactic sources stronger than S = 5.24Jy at λ = 60 micronsin the area |b| > 10^deg^, δ > -45^deg^. To the extent thatthe far-infrared and radio brightness distributions overlap, these radiomaps provide the most accurate positions and high-resolution images ofthe brightest extragalactic far-infrared sources.

Photometric Signatures of Starbursts in Interacting Galaxies and the Butcher-Oemler Effect
This paper presents new and synthetic narrowband photometry ofellipticals, spirals, Seyferts, and interacting galaxies in an attemptto identify the cause of the unusually high fraction of blue clustergalaxies in distance clusters (Butcher-Oemler effect). The propertiesand distribution of the low-redshift sample specifically points tostarbursts as the origin of the blue narrowband colors in interactingArp galaxies. Comparison between theoretical models and multicolordiagrams, particularly 4000 A break colors, indicates a photometricsignature that differs from both normal disk galaxy star formation andnonthermal components. This photometric signature is absent for theButcher-Oemler galaxies whose general color distribution, compared topresent-day clusters, is consistent with a majority of the bluepopulation involved in normal star formation rates (spiral-like) withthe addition of a small fraction of bright, blue interacting/mergersystems. This photometric picture of the Butcher-Oemler galaxies is inagreement with the morphological evidence from Hubble Space Telescopeimaging.

Morphological classification of new galaxies with a UV excess
The results of a morphological classification of 580 galaxies with a UVexcess, included in the lists in [M. A. Kazarian, Astrofizika,15, 5(1979); ibid.,15, 193 (1979); M. A. Kazarian and É. S. Kazarian,ibid.,16, 17 (1980); ibid.,18, 512 (1982); ibid.,19, 213 (1983)], arepresented. For this we have developed a set of symbols, using the typesE, S, and Ir introduced by Hubble, as well as symbols introduced byother authors and us. This set enabled us to make the morphologicalclassification. Direct photographs obtained on the 2.6-m and 6-mtelescopes were used to classify 141 of the galaxies (over 24%), whilePalomar Atlas charts were used for the remaining 439 galaxies. Thesegalaxies were divided into two groups based on classificationconditions, and data on each group are given in Tables 1 and 2,respectively. The results for each group, given in Table 3, show thatwith the transition from early types, such as C and E, to later types,such as S and Ir, the relative number of galaxies going into one group(Table 1), in which the classification was based on direct photographs,increases in comparison with the number going into the other group(Table 2).

A Spectrophotometric Survey of Merging Galaxies
We present long-slit spectrophotometry of 40 merging or stronglyinteracting galaxy systems in the wavelength range 3650-7100 A. Alongwith optically selected objects, the sample includes 10 ultraluminousIRAS galaxies with evidence of ongoing merger activity. The data show awide variety of phenomena, with spectra resembling those of isolatedelliptical galaxies, early and late-type spiral galaxies, activegalactic nuclei starbursts, and poststarburst systems.

Optical Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Analysis of the Nuclear and Long-Slit Data
A spectroscopic survey of a sample of 200 luminous IRAS galaxies (LIGs:L_ir_^7^ > 3 x 10^10^ L_sun_; H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^) was carriedout using the Palomar 5 meter and University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescopes.Kim et al. (1995) described the data-taking and data-reductionprocedures and presented line and continuum measurements extracted fromthe nucleus of these objects. In this paper, the nuclear data arecombined with circumnuclear measurements on 23 of these galaxies toinvestigate the properties of the line-emitting gas and underlyingstellar population in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear spectra ofthese galaxies were classified as H II region-like" or "AGN-like" usinga large number of line-ratio diagnostics corrected for the underlyingstellar absorption features. This correction is an important source oferrors in some previous studies. The emission-line spectra of many AGNswere found to-be of relatively low ionization level and were thereforeclassified as LINER. We confirm that both the fraction of LIGs with AGNspectra and the fraction of Seyferts among the AGN increase withinfrared luminosity, reaching values of 62% and 54% at the highestobserved luminosities, respectively. The fraction of LINERs, on theother hand, is relatively constant at ~27%. The source of the ionizationof the emission-line gas often is a function of the distance from thenucleus. Based on the emission-line ratios and the strengths of thestellar absorption features, circumnuclear starburst activity is acommon feature of LIGs, regardless of their nuclear spectral types. Theemission-line, absorption-line, continuum, radio, and IRAS properties ofthe LINERs suggest that most of the LINER emission in theseinfrared-selected galaxies is produced through shock ionization ratherthan photoionization by a genuine active nucleus. The nuclear region ofSeyfert LIGs is found to be slightly less reddened than that of theLINERs and H II galaxies. The dust distribution generally isconcentrated toward the nucleus, in agreement with the often peakydistribution of the molecular gas observed in these galaxies. Inverteddust profiles in which the nucleus appears less dusty than thecircumnuclear region are observed in only three LIGs, all of which haveAGN emission-line characteristics (one Seyfert 2 galaxy and two LINERs).Low nuclear dust content appears to favor the detection of activenuclei. This may be due to selection effects or may reflect realphysical differences between these classes of objects: galaxies withSeyfert emission lines may be at a more advanced stage of dustdestruction/expulsion than H II LIGs. Complex optical depth effects mayalso explain these results without invoking a smaller amount of dust inthe nucleus. The Hβ and Mg I b absorption features are stronger inthe nuclei of AGNs (especially among the LINERs) than in H II LIGs,suggesting that AGN LIGs are at a more advanced stage of stellarevolution than H II LIGs. Further support for this scenario comes fromthe fact that AGNs are found more frequently in advanced mergers than HII galaxies (only two Seyfert galaxies are detected in systems withwell-separated nuclei). However, this last result may be a luminosityeffect rather than an effect related to the dominant nuclear source ofionization. Moreover, the absorption-line data may simply reflect thefact that galaxies with powerful H II regions show evidence for youngstars while galaxies with AGNs do not. The radial variations of theHβ and Mg I b absorption features indicate the presence of a strongsource of featureless continuum in the nucleus of nearly all LIGs,regardless of their nuclear spectral types. Contamination by thecircumnuclear starburst prevents us from determining the extent of thiscontinuum source. The [O III] profiles of both Seyfert and LINER LIGswere found to be broader on average than those of H II objects. Nearly20% of the LIGs in our sample have line widths larger than 600 km s^-1^.We find that most of the galaxies in which we could determine the radialvariations of the [O III] line width present broader profiles in thecircumnuclear region than at the nucleus. When combined with publisheddata on a few other well-studied LIGs, these results suggest thatlarge-scale nuclear winds are common in these objects and are anefficient way of getting rid of the obscuring material in the nuclearregion. The spatially extended LINER emission observed in many of theseobjects is probably due to shock ionization resulting from theinteraction of the wind-accelerated gas with the ambient material of thehost galaxy.

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Right ascension:18h12m55.20s
Aparent dimensions:1.862′ × 0.759′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6621

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