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 The Molecular Interstellar Medium of Dwarf Galaxies on Kiloparsec Scales: A New Survey for CO in Northern, IRAS-detected Dwarf GalaxiesWe present a new survey for CO in dwarf galaxies using the ARO Kitt Peak12 m telescope. This survey consists of observations of the centralregions of 121 northern dwarfs with IRAS detections and no known COemission. We detect CO in 28 of these galaxies and marginally detectanother 16, increasing by about 50% the number of such galaxies known tohave significant CO emission. The galaxies we detect are comparable instellar and dynamical mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud, althoughsomewhat brighter in CO and fainter in the far-IR. Within dwarfs, wefind that the CO luminosity LCO is most strongly correlatedwith the K-band and the far-infrared luminosities. There are also strongcorrelations with the radio continuum (RC) and B-band luminosities andlinear diameter. Conversely, we find that far-IR dust temperature is apoor predictor of CO emission within the dwarfs alone, although a goodpredictor of normalized CO content among a larger sample of galaxies. Wesuggest that LCO and LK correlate well because thestellar component of a galaxy dominates the midplane gravitational fieldand thus sets the pressure and density of the atomic gas, which controlthe formation of H2 from H I. We compare our sample with moremassive galaxies and find that dwarfs and large galaxies obey the samerelationship between CO and the 1.4 GHz RC surface brightness. Thisrelationship is well described by a Schmidt law withΣRC~Σ1.3CO. Therefore,dwarf galaxies and large spirals exhibit the same relationship betweenmolecular gas and star formation rate (SFR). We find that this result isrobust to moderate changes in the RC-to-SFR and CO-to-H2conversion factors. Our data appear to be inconsistent with large (orderof magnitude) variations in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor inthe star-forming molecular gas. Completing H I observations of galaxies in the Virgo clusterHigh sensitivity (rms noise  0.5 mJy) 21-cm H I line observationswere made of 33 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, using the refurbishedArecibo telescope, which resulted in the detection of 12 objects. Thesedata, combined with the measurements available from the literature,provide the first set of H I data that is complete for all 355 late-type(Sa-Im-BCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster with mp ≤ 18.0mag. The Virgo cluster H I mass function (HIMF) that was derived forthis optically selected galaxy sample is in agreement with the HIMFderived for the Virgo cluster from the blind HIJASS H I survey and isinconsistent with the Field HIMF. This indicates that both in this richcluster and in the general field, neutral hydrogen is primarilyassociated with late-type galaxies, with marginal contributions fromearly-type galaxies and isolated H I clouds. The inconsistency betweenthe cluster and the field HIMF derives primarily from the difference inthe optical luminosity function of late-type galaxies in the twoenvironments, combined with the HI deficiency that is known to occur ingalaxies in rich clusters.Tables \ref{t1, \ref{sample_dat} and Appendix A are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames GalaxiesCompanion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters. UV to radio centimetric spectral energy distributions of optically-selected late-type galaxies in the Virgo clusterWe present a multifrequency dataset for an optically-selected,volume-limited, complete sample of 118 late-type galaxies (>=S0a) inthe Virgo cluster. The database includes UV, visible, near-IR, mid-IR,far-IR, radio continuum photometric data as well as spectroscopic dataof Hα , CO and HI lines, homogeneously reduced, obtained from ourown observations or compiled from the literature. Assuming the energybalance between the absorbed stellar light and that radiated in the IRby dust, we calibarte an empirical attenuation law suitable forcorrecting photometric and spectroscopic data of normal galaxies. Thedata, corrected for internal extinction, are used to construct thespectral energy distribution (SED) of each individual galaxy, andcombined to trace the median SED of galaxies in various classes ofmorphological type and luminosity. Low-luminosity, dwarf galaxies haveon average bluer stellar continua and higher far-IR luminosities perunit galaxy mass than giant, early-type spirals. If compared to nearbystarburst galaxies such as M 82 and Arp 220, normal spirals haverelatively similar observed stellar spectra but 10-100 times lower IRluminosities. The temperature of the cold dust component increases withthe far-IR luminosity, from giant spirals to dwarf irregulars. The SEDare used to separate the stellar emission from the dust emission in themid-IR regime. We show that the contribution of the stellar emission at6.75 mu m to the total emission of galaxies is generally important, from~ 80% in Sa to ~ 20% in Sc.Tables 2-5, 7, 8, and Fig. 2 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.orgTables 10-12 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/402/37 1.65-μm (H -band) surface photometry of galaxies - VIII. The near-IR κ space at z =0We present the distribution of a statistical sample of nearby galaxiesin the κ -space (κ 1 ~logM , κ 2~logI e 3 M /L , κ 3 ~logM /L ).Our study is based on near-IR (H -band: λ =1.65μm)observations, for the first time comprising early- and late-typesystems. Our data confirm that the mean effective dynamicalmass-to-light ratio M /L of the E+S0+S0a galaxies increases withincreasing effective dynamical mass M , as expected from the existenceof the Fundamental Plane relation. Conversely, spiral and Im/BCDgalaxies show a broad distribution in M /L with no detected trend of M/L with M , the former galaxies having M /L values about twice largerthan the latter, on average. For all the late-type galaxies, the M /Lincreases with decreasing effective surface intensity I e ,consistent with the existence of the Tully-Fisher relation. Theseresults are discussed on the basis of the assumptions behind theconstruction of the κ -space and their limitations. Our study iscomplementary to a previous investigation in the optical (B -band:λ =0.44μm) and allows us to study wavelength dependences ofthe galaxy distribution in the κ -space. As a first result, wefind that the galaxy distribution in the κ 1 -κ2 plane reproduces the transition from bulgeless tobulge-dominated systems in galaxies of increasing dynamical mass.Conversely, it appears that the M /L of late-types is higher (lower)than that of early-types with the same M in the near-IR (optical). Theorigins of this behaviour are discussed in terms of dust attenuation andstar formation history. The Three-dimensional Structure of the Virgo Cluster Region from Tully-Fisher and H I DataThe distances and H I contents of 161 spiral galaxies in the region ofthe Virgo cluster are used to gain insight into the complicatedstructure of this galaxy system. Special attention has been paid to theinvestigation of the suggestion presented in an earlier work that someperipheral Virgo groups may contain strongly gas-deficient spiralgalaxies. The three-dimensional galaxy distribution has been inferredfrom quality distance estimates obtained by averaging distance modulibased on the Tully-Fisher relationship taken from eight published datasets previously homogenized, resulting in a relation with a dispersionof 0.41 mag. Previous findings that the spiral distribution issubstantially more elongated along the line of sight than in the planeof the sky are confirmed by the current data. In addition, an importanteast-west disparity in this effect has been detected. The overallwidth-to-depth ratio of the Virgo cluster region is about 1:4, with themost distant objects concentrated in the western half. The filamentarystructure of the spiral population and its orientation are alsoreflected by the H I-deficient objects alone. The H I deficiency patternshows a central enhancement extending from ~16 to 22 Mpc inline-of-sight distance; most of this enhancement arises from galaxiesthat belong to the Virgo cluster proper. However, significant gasdeficiencies are also detected outside the main body of the cluster in aprobable group of galaxies at line-of-sight distances ~25-30 Mpc, lyingin the region dominated by the southern edge of the M49 subcluster andclouds W' and W, as well as in various foreground galaxies. In the Virgoregion, the H I content of the galaxies then is not a straightforwardindicator of cluster membership. The UZC-SSRS2 Group CatalogWe apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers. Hα surface photometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. IV. The current star formation in nearby clusters of galaxiesHα +[NII] imaging observations of 369 late-type (spiral) galaxiesin the Virgo cluster and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster are analyzed,covering 3 rich nearby clusters (A1367, Coma and Virgo) and nearlyisolated galaxies in the Great-Wall. They constitute an opticallyselected sample (mp<16.0) observed with ~ 60 %completeness. These observations provide us with the current(T<107 yrs) star formation properties of galaxies that westudy as a function of the clustercentric projected distances (Theta ).The expected decrease of the star formation rate (SFR), as traced by theHα EW, with decreasing Theta is found only when galaxies brighterthan Mp ~ -19.5 are considered. Fainter objects show no orreverse trends. We also include in our analysis Near Infrared data,providing information on the old (T>109 yrs) stars. Puttogether, the young and the old stellar indicators give the ratio ofcurrently formed stars over the stars formed in the past, orbirthrate'' parameter b. For the considered galaxies we also determinethe global gas content'' combining HI with CO observations. We definethe gas deficiency'' parameter as the logarithmic difference betweenthe gas content of isolated galaxies of a given Hubble type and themeasured gas content. For the isolated objects we find that b decreaseswith increasing NIR luminosity. In other words less massive galaxies arecurrently forming stars at a higher rate than their giant counterpartswhich experienced most of their star formation activity at earliercosmological epochs. The gas-deficient objects, primarily members of theVirgo cluster, have a birthrate significantly lower than the isolatedobjects with normal gas content and of similar NIR luminosity. Thisindicates that the current star formation is regulated by the gaseouscontent of spirals. Whatever mechanism (most plausibly ram-pressurestripping) is responsible for the pattern of gas deficiency observed inspiral galaxies members of rich clusters, it also produces the observedquenching of the current star formation. A significant fraction of gashealthy'' (i.e. with a gas deficiency parameter less than 0.4) andcurrently star forming galaxies is unexpectedly found projected near thecenter of the Virgo cluster. Their average Tully-Fisher distance isfound approximately one magnitude further away (muo = 31.77)than the distance of their gas-deficient counterparts (muo =30.85), suggesting that the gas healthy objects belong to a cloudprojected onto the cluster center, but in fact lying a few Mpc behindVirgo, thus unaffected by the dense IGM of the cluster. Based onobservations taken at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional(Mexico), the OHP (France), Calar Alto and NOT (Spain) observatories.Table \ref{tab4} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Hα surface photometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster I. Observations with the San Pedro Martir 2.1 m telescopeHα imaging observations of 125 galaxies obtained with the 2.1 mtelescope of the San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPM) (Baja California,Mexico) are presented. The observed galaxies are mostly Virgo clustermembers (77), with 36 objects in the Coma/A1367 supercluster and 12 inthe clusters A2197 and A2199 taken as fillers. Hα +[NII] fluxesand equivalent widths, as well as images of the detected targets arepresented. The observatory of San Pedro Martir (Mexico) belongs to theObservatorio Astronómico Nacional, UNAM. Figure 4 is onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Molecular gas in normal late-type galaxiesWe present 12CO(J=1-0) line observations of 22 low-luminosityspiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. These data, together with 244others available in the literature, allow us to build a large samplethat we use to study the molecular gas properties of galaxies spanning alarge range of morphological types and luminosities and belonging todifferent environments (clusters - field). The molecular gas content ofthe target galaxies is estimated using a luminosity-dependent X =N(H_2)/I(CO) conversion factor that has been calibrated on a sample ofnearby galaxies. X spans from ~ 1020 mol cm-2 (Kkm s-1)-1 in giant spirals to ~ 1021mol cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 in dwarfirregulars. The value of the X conversion factor is found consistentwith a value derived independently from dust masses estimated from FIRfluxes, with a metallicity-dependent dust to gas ratio. Therelationships between X and the UV radiation field (as traced by theHα +[NII]EW), the metallicity and the H band luminosity areanalysed. We show that the molecular gas contained in molecular cloudsor complexes is of the order of 15% of the total gas on average whateverthe luminosity or the Hubble type of the galaxies. We discuss therelation between the star formation rate and the molecular gas contentand estimate the average star formation efficiency of late-typegalaxies. Based on observations made with the 12-m National RadioAstronomical Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona. Structure, mass and distance of the Virgo cluster from a Tolman-Bondi modelWe have applied a relativistic Tolman-Bondi model of the Virgo clusterto a sample of 183 galaxies with measured distances within a radius of 8degrees from M 87. We find that the sample is significantly contaminatedby background galaxies which lead to too large a cluster mean distanceif not excluded. The Tolman-Bondi model predictions, together with theHI deficiency of spiral galaxies, allows one to identify thesebackground galaxies. One such galaxy is clearly identified among the 6calibrating galaxies with Cepheid distances. As the Tolman-Bondi modelpredicts the expected distance ratio to the Virgo distance, this galaxycan still be used to estimate the Virgo distance, and the average valueover the 6 galaxies is 15.4 +/- 0.5 Mpc. Well-known background groups ofgalaxies are clearly recovered, together with filaments of galaxieswhich link these groups to the main cluster, and are falling into it. Noforeground galaxy is clearly detected in our sample. Applying the B-bandTully-Fisher method to a sample of 51 true members of the Virgo clusteraccording to our classification gives a cluster distance of 18.0 +/- 1.2Mpc, larger than the mean Cepheid distance. Finally, the same model isused to estimate the Virgo cluster mass, which is M = 1.2x1015 Msun within 8 degrees from the cluster center(2.2 Mpc radius), and amounts to 1.7 virial mass. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. 1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxiesWe present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The 3D structure of the Virgo cluster from H-band Fundamental Plane and Tully-Fisher distance determinationsWe undertook a surface photometry survey of 200 galaxies in the Virgocluster (complete to B<14.0 mag) carried out in the near-infrared(NIR) H band. Combining velocity dispersion measurements from theliterature with new spectroscopic data for 11 galaxies, we derivedistances of 59 early-type galaxies using the Fundamental Plane (FP)method. The distances of another 75 late-type galaxies are determinedusing the Tully-Fisher (TF) method. For this purpose we use the maximumrotational velocity, as derived from HI spectra from the literature,complemented with new Hα rotation curves of eight highlyHI-deficient galaxies. The zero-points of the FP and TF templaterelations are calibrated assuming the distance modulus of Virgomu_0=31.0, as determined with the Cepheids method. Using these 134distance determinations (with individual uncertainties of 0.35 mag (TF)and 0.45 mag (FP)) we find that the distance of cluster A, associatedwith M87, is mu_0=30.84 +/- 0.06. Cluster B, offset to the south, isfound at mu_0=31.84 +/- 0.10. This subcluster is falling on to A atabout 750 km s^-1. Clouds W and M are at twice the distance of A.Galaxies on the north-west and south-east of the main cluster A belongto two clouds composed almost exclusively of spiral galaxies withdistances consistent with A, but with significantly different velocitydistributions, suggesting that they are falling on to cluster A atapproximately 770 km s^-1 from the far side and at 200 km s^-1 from thenear side respectively. The mass of Virgo inferred from the peculiarmotions induced on its vicinity is consistent with the virialexpectation. Arcsecond Positions of UGC GalaxiesWe present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only. Kinematic Disturbances in Optical Rotation Curves among 89 Virgo Disk GalaxiesFor 89 galaxies, mostly spirals, in the Virgo Cluster region, we haveobtained optical long-slit major-axis spectra of the ionized gas. Wefind the following: (1) One-half of the Virgo galaxies we observed haveregular rotation patterns, while the other half exhibit kinematicdisturbances ranging from mild to major. Velocity complexities aregenerally consistent with those resulting from tidal encounters oraccretion events. Since kinematic disturbances are expected to fadewithin ~10^9 yr, many Virgo galaxies have experienced severalsignificant kinematic disturbances during their lifetimes. (2) There isno strong correlation of rotation curve complexity with Hubble type,with galaxy luminosity, with local galaxy density, or with H Ideficiency. (3) A few Virgo galaxies have ionized gas of limited extent,with velocities exceptionally low for their luminosities. In thesegalaxies the gas must be not rotationally supported. (4) There is aremarkable difference in the distribution of galaxy systemic velocityfor galaxies with regular rotation curves and galaxies with disturbedrotation curves. Galaxies with regular rotation patterns show a flatdistribution with velocities ranging from V_0=-300 km s^-1 to V_0=+2500km s^-1 galaxies with disturbed kinematics have a Gaussian distributionthat peaks at V_0=+1172+/-100 km s^-1, close to the cluster meanvelocity. This latter distribution is virtually identical to thedistribution of systemic velocity for elliptical galaxies in Virgo.However, disturbed galaxies are less concentrated to the cluster corethan are the ellipticals; those near the periphery have velocitiescloser to the mean cluster velocity. Thus, spirals with disturbedkinematics are preferentially on radial orbits, which bring them to thedenser core, where tidal interactions are strong and/or more common.Because they spend much time near apocenter, we observe them near thecluster periphery. Some may be falling into the core for the first time.These observations suggest that for a nonvirialized cluster like Virgo,galaxies may encounter either local (nearby galaxies) or global(cluster-related) interactions. These interactions may alter themorphology of the galaxy and may also play a role in driving the VirgoCluster toward dynamical equilibrium. Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxiesUsing images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC). Internal extinction, population incompleteness bias and the faint-end of the B-band Tully-Fisher relationWe analyse the distribution of three different samples of spiralgalaxies of the Local Universe in the B-band luminosity-maximumrotational velocity (L_B-VMax) plane, i.e. the B-magnitudeTully-Fisher (TF) relation. The first sample comprises 25+31 late-type(from Sa to Im-BCD) galaxies, selected from, respectively, the Virgo andthe Ursa Major clusters. In addition, a sample of 20 group extremelate-type (ELT) spiral (from Sd to Sm) galaxies and a sample of 13 dwarflate-type galaxies are selected. First, we analyse the influence ofthree different corrections for internal extinction (IE) on both theslope and the zero-point of the relation. These recipes reflect eitheri) the morphological type dependence of the IE or ii) the assumption ofa sandwich-model'' for the distribution of the dust and the stellarcomponents within the disk or iii) the existence of the metallicity-massrelation. As a first result we find that the latter recipe of IEcorrection systematically makes Sa-Sc galaxies brighter than laterspirals. Since the former galaxies mainly populate the region of thebright, fast rotators, the slope of the corresponding TF relationbecomes much steeper than in the other two cases. Under the hypothesisthat the ELT spiral galaxies in clusters and in groups share the sameLF, we show that the claimed skew of the group ELT spiral galaxies withrespect to the extrapolated TF relation of more luminous systems (i.e.the local TF calibrators) is due both to the population incompletenessbias affecting such a template and to the type segregation. Finally, weconfirm that the distribution of dwarf galaxies with comparablerotational and random velocities in the L_B-VMax plane isconsistent with the relation of more luminous systems, while therotationally supported dwarf galaxies are underluminous with respect tothe ELT galaxies of the same VMax. However, the latterresults may suffer from the heterogeneous methods of measurement ofdwarf galaxy distances that were adopted. A linear near-IR Tully-Fisher relation for giant and dwarf late-type galaxiesWe present the near-IR (K(') -band, i.e.: lambda = 2.1 ^mu m)Tully-Fisher (TF) relation for a sample of 50 giant and dwarf late-typegalaxies, selected from the Virgo Cluster Catalogue. We find that L ~VMax(4) along a range of 8 K(') -mag for galaxies withdifferent Hubble types (from Sa to Im-BCD), phenomenologies, structures,star-formation histories, masses, dark-to-luminous mass ratios,metallicities and, perhaps, ages. The linearity of the near-IR TFrelation is in contrast with recent determinations of the optical TFrelations for samples of extreme late-type and dwarf galaxies. Thenear-IR TF law is in agreement both with the expectation from theFundamental Plane for disk systems and with the scenario ofself-regulating star-formation in disks. The previous results suggestthat the TF relation reflects the connection between thestructural/dynamical properties and the star-formation process of bothgiant and dwarf late-type galaxies, through a gas supply forstar-formation regulated by the gravitational potential of the galaxy. The Virgo Cluster Distance from 21 Centimeter Line WidthsThe distance of the Virgo cluster is derived in the B band from the 21cm line width-absolute magnitude relation. This relation is calibratedusing 18 spirals with Cepheid distances, mainly from the Hubble SpaceTelescope. The calibration is applied to a complete sample ofnonpeculiar spirals with i > 45 deg lying within the optical (n = 49)or X-ray (n = 35) contour of the cluster, resulting in a mean clusterdistance of (m - M)0 = 31.58 +/- 0.24 mag (external error), or 20.7 +/-2.4 Mpc. The mean distance of subcluster A is 0.46 +/- 0.18 mag smallerthan that of subcluster B, but the individual distances of the membersof the two substructures show considerable overlap. Cluster spirals with30 deg < i < 45 deg yield distances almost as good as those ofmore inclined galaxies. H I-truncated galaxies are overluminous by 0.8mag at a given line width. The distance modulus is corrected by -0.07mag for the fact that cluster members have lower H I surface fluxes andare redder in (B-I) at a given line width than the (field) calibrators.Different sources for the B magnitudes and line widths have littleeffect on the resulting distance. Different precepts for the internalabsorption correction change the result by no more than +/-0.17 mag. Theindividual distances of the cluster members do not show any dependenceon recession velocity, inclination, Hubble type, or line width. Thedependence on apparent magnitude reflects the considerable depth effectof the cluster. The adopted distance is in good agreement withindependent distance determinations of the cluster. Combining thecluster distance with the corrected cluster velocity of 1142 +/- 61 kms-1 gives H0 = 55 +/- 7 km s-1 Mpc-1 (external error). If the Virgocluster distance is inserted into the tight Hubble diagram of clustersout to 11,000 km s-1 using relative distances to the Virgo cluster, oneobtains a global value of H0 = 57 +/- 7 km s-1 Mpc-1. Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory. Mid-IR emission of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. Integrated propertiesWe analyse the integrated properties of the Mid-IR emission of acomplete, optically selected sample of galaxies in the Virgo clusterobserved with the ISOCAM instrument on board the ISO satellite. TheISOCAM data allows us to construct the luminosity distribution at 6.75and 15 mu m of galaxies for different morphological classes. These dataare used to study the spectral energy distribution of galaxies ofdifferent type and luminosity in the wavelength range 2000 Angstroms -100 mu m. The analysis shows that the Mid-IR emission up to 15 mu m ofoptically-selected, normal early-type galaxies (E, S0 and S0a) isdominated by the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the cold stellar component. TheMid-IR emission of late-type galaxies is instead dominated by thethermal emission from dust. As in the Milky Way, the small dust grainsemitting in the Mid-IR have an excess of emission if compared to biggrains emitting in the Far-IR. While the Far-IR emission of galaxiesincreases with the intensity of the interstellar radiation field, theirMid-IR emission is non-linearly related to the UV radiation field. Thespectral energy distributions of the target galaxies indicate that thereis a linear relationship between the UV radiation field and the Mid-IRemission of galaxies for low or intermediate activities of starformation, while the emission from the hot dust seems to drop for strongUV fields. The Mid-IR colour of late-type galaxies is not related totheir activity of star formation. The properties of the dust emission inthe Mid-IR seem more related to the mass than to the morphological typeof the target galaxy. Since the activity of star formation isanticorrelated to the mass of galaxies, this reflects a relationshipbetween the emission of dust in the Mid-IR and the UV radiation field:galaxies with the lowest Mid-IR emission for a given UV field are lowmass, dwarf galaxies. These observational evidences are easily explainedif the carriers of the Unidentified Infrared Bands that dominate the6.75 mu m emission are destroyed by the intense UV radiation field ofdwarf galaxies, although abundance effects can also play a role. Basedon observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments founded by ESAmember states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, theNetherlands and the United Kingdom) and with participation of ISAS andNASA FAUST Observations of Ultraviolet Sources toward the Virgo ClusterWe analyze three UV images covering a ~100 square degree field towardthe Virgo cluster, obtained by the FAUST space experiment. We detect 191sources to a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.4 and identify 94% of them. Mostsources have optical counterparts in existing catalogs, and about halfare identified as galaxies. Some sources with no listed counterpart wereobserved at the Wise Observatory. We present the results oflow-resolution visible spectrophotometry and discuss the foreground 101stellar sources and the 76 detected galaxies, both in the cluster and inthe foreground or background. We derive conclusions on star formationproperties of galaxies and on the total UV flux from discrete anddiffuse sources in the cluster. We test for the presence of intraclusterdust, determine the clustering properties of UV emitting galaxies, andderive the UV luminosity function of Virgo galaxies. Study of the Virgo Cluster Using the B-Band Tully-Fisher RelationThe distances to spiral galaxies of the Virgo cluster are estimatedusing the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation, and the three-dimensionalstructure of the cluster is studied. The analysis is made for a completespiral sample taken from the Virgo Cluster catalog of Binggeli, Sandage,& Tammann. The sample contains virtually all spiral galaxies down toM_{BT}=-15 mag at 40 Mpc. A careful examination is made ofthe selection effect and errors of the data. We estimate distance to 181galaxies, among which distances to 89 galaxies are reasonably accurate.We compare these distances to those obtained by other authors on agalaxy-by-galaxy basis. We find reasonable consistency of theTully-Fisher distance among various authors. In particular, it is foundthat the discrepancy in the distance among the different analyses withdifferent data is about 15%, when good H I and photometric data areavailable. We clarify that the different results on the Virgo distanceamong authors arise from the choice of the sample and interpretation ofthe data. We confirm that the Tully-Fisher relation for the Virgocluster shows an unusually large scatter sigma = 0.67 mag, compared tothat for other clusters. We conclude that this scatter is not due to theintrinsic dispersion of the Tully-Fisher relation, but due to a largedepth effect of the Virgo cluster, which we estimate to be extended from12 Mpc to 30 Mpc. The distribution of H I--deficient galaxies isconcentrated at around 14--20 Mpc, indicating the presence of a core atthis distance, and this agrees with the distance estimated for M87 andother elliptical galaxies with other methods. We show also that thespatial number density of spiral galaxies takes a peak at this distance,while a simple average of all spiral galaxy distances gives 20 Mpc. Thefact that the velocity dispersion of galaxies takes a maximum at 14--18Mpc lends an additional support for the distance to the core. Thesefeatures cannot be understood if the large scatter of the TF relation ismerely due to the intrinsic dispersion. The structure of the VirgoCluster we infer from the Tully-Fisher analysis looks like a filamentwhich is familiar to us in a late phase of structure formation in thepancake collapse in hierarchical clustering simulations. This Virgofilament lies almost along the line of sight, and this is the originthat has led a number of authors to much confusion in the Virgo distancedeterminations. We show that the M87 subcluster is located around 15--18Mpc, and it consists mainly of early-type type spiral galaxies inaddition to elliptical and S0 galaxies. There are very few late-typespiral galaxies in this subcluster. The spiral rich M49 subclusterconsists of a mixture of all types of spiral galaxies and is located atabout 22 Mpc. The two other known clouds, W and M, are located at about30--40 Mpc and undergo infall toward the core. The M cloud contains fewearly type spirals. We cannot discriminate, however, whether thesesubclusters or clouds are isolated aggregates or merely parts offilamentary structure. Finally, we infer the Hubble constant to be 82+/- 10 km s-1 Mpc-1. Near infrared surface photometry of late-type Virgo cluster galaxiesNear Infrared (K' band) surface photometry has been obtained for 102 (88late-type) Virgo cluster galaxies. A subset of 20 galaxies was alsoimaged in the H band. Magnitudes and diameters within the 21.5 and 22.0mag arcsec$^{-2}$ isophote, concentration indices and total H and K'magnitudes are derived. Basic statistical properties of a completesample of spiral galaxies spanning the range 6.3 < K'_T < 13.5 aregiven. Tables 3, 5 and 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html} Based on observations taken atthe Calar Alto Observatory, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut furAstronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with the Spanish National Commission forAstronomy. New aperture photometry for 217 galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters.We present photo electric multi-aperture photometry in UBVRI of 171 and46 galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters, respectively. Many of thegalaxies have not been observed in at least one of these passbandsbefore. We discuss the reduction and transformation into the Cousinsphotometric system as well as the extinction coefficients obtainedbetween 1990 and 1993. An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect. Optical identifications of the IRAS faint sources in the Virgo cluster area.This paper presents a study on the deep optical identifications of 369IRAS faint sources in a 102 square degree area centered on the Virgocluster. We obtained the positions and magnitudes of candidates fromfour UK Schmidt Telescope IIIa-J direct plates. 89 (24%) are identifiedas stars and 276 (75%) as galaxies. There are 4 (1%) empty fields to theplate limit of B=~22. The infrared-optical database for 193 FSC-onlysources is given. Most of the IRAS galaxy sources are spirals. There are83 IRAS galaxy sources being regarded as the cluster members by Binggeliet al. (1985). In our sample, a correlation between the luminosity ratioL_IR_/L_B_ and the infrared flux ratio F(100μm)/F(60μm) isevident. For the member galaxies, a weak correlation between L_IR_/L_B_and L_IR_ is also found. Surface photometry of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster regionPhotographic surface photometry is carried out for 246 spiral galaxiesin the Virgo cluster region north of declination + 5 deg. The samplecontains all spiral galaxies of 'certain' and 'possible' Virgo membersin the Virgo Cluster Catalogue of Binggeli, Sandage, & Tammann. Thesample also includes those galaxies which were used in the Tully-Fisheranalyses of the Virgo cluster given in the literature. A catalog ispresented for positions, B-band total magnitudes and inclinations forthese galaxies, and they are compared with the data given in previousstudies.
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