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|Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey|
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the 9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35
|Recovering physical parameters from galaxy spectra using MOPED|
We derive physical parameters of galaxies from their observed spectrausing MOPED, the optimized data compression algorithm of Heavens,Jimenez & Lahav. Here we concentrate on parametrizing galaxyproperties, and apply the method to the NGC galaxies in Kennicutt'sspectral atlas. We focus on deriving the star formation history,metallicity and dust content of galaxies. The method is very fast,taking a few seconds of CPU time to estimate ~17 parameters, and istherefore specially suited to studying large data sets, such as theAnglo-Australian two-degree-field (2dF) galaxy survey and the SloanDigital Sky Survey (SDSS). Without the power of MOPED, the recovery ofstar formation histories in these surveys would be impractical. InKennicutt's atlas, we find that for the spheroidals a small recent burstof star formation is required to provide the best fit to the spectrum.There is clearly a need for theoretical stellar atmospheric models withspectral resolution better than 1Å if we are to extract all therich information that large redshift surveys contain in their galaxyspectra.
|Cold gas and star formation in a merging galaxy sequence|
We explore the evolution of the cold gas (molecular and neutralhydrogen) and star formation activity during galaxy interactions, usinga merging galaxy sequence comprising both pre- and post-mergercandidates. Data for this study come from the literature, but aresupplemented by some new radio observations presented here. First, weconfirm that the ratio of far-infrared luminosity to molecular hydrogenmass (LFIRM(H2); star formation efficiency)increases close to nuclear coalescence. After the merging of the twonuclei there is evidence that the star formation efficiency declinesagain to values typical of ellipticals. This trend can be attributed toM(H2) depletion arising from interaction induced starformation. However, there is significant scatter, likely to arise fromdifferences in the interaction details (e.g., disc-to-bulge ratio,geometry) of individual systems. Secondly, we find that the centralmolecular hydrogen surface density, ΣH2,increases close to the final stages of the merging of the two nuclei.Such a trend, indicating gas inflows caused by gravitationalinstabilities during the interaction, is also predicted by numericalsimulations. Furthermore, there is evidence for a decreasing fraction ofcold gas mass from early interacting systems to merger remnants,attributed to neutral hydrogen conversion into other forms (e.g., stars,hot gas) and molecular hydrogen depletion resulting from ongoing starformation. The evolution of the total-radio to blue-band luminosityratio, reflecting the total (disc and nucleus) star formation activity,is also investigated. Although this ratio is on average higher than thatfor isolated spirals, we find a marginal increase along the mergingsequence, attributed to the relative insensitivity of disc starformation to interactions. However, a similar result is also obtainedfor the nuclear radio emission, although galaxy interactions arebelieved to significantly affect the activity (star formation, AGN) inthe central galaxy regions. Nevertheless, the nuclear-radio to blue-bandluminosity ratio is significantly elevated compared with that forisolated spirals. Finally, we find that the FIR-radio flux ratiodistribution of interacting galaxies is consistent with star formationbeing the main energizing source.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Molecular Gas in Strongly Interacting Galaxies. I. CO (1-0) Observations|
We present observations of the CO (1-0) line in 80 interacting galaxiesas part of a program to study the role of interactions and mergers intriggering starbursts. The sample, which only includes obviouslyinteracting pairs of galaxies, is the largest such sample observed inCO. The observations were carried out at the NRAO 12 m and IRAM 30 mtelescopes. CO emission was detected in 56 galaxies (of which 32 are newdetections), corresponding to a detection rate of 70%. Because mostgalaxies are slightly larger than the telescope beam, correction factorswere applied to include CO emission outside the beam. The correctionfactors were derived by fitting a Gaussian function or an exponential CObrightness distribution to galaxies with multiple pointings and byassuming an exponential model for galaxies with single pointing. Wecompared the global CO fluxes of 10 galaxies observed by us at bothtelescopes. We also compared the measured fluxes for another 10 galaxiesobserved by us with those by other authors using the NRAO 12 m and FCRAO14 m telescopes. These comparisons provide an estimate of the accuracyof our derived global fluxes, which is ~40%. Mapping observations of twoclose pairs of galaxies, UGC 594 (NGC 317) and UGC 11175 (NGC 6621), arealso presented. In subsequent papers we will report the statisticalanalyses of the molecular properties in our sample galaxies and makecomparisons between isolated spirals and interacting galaxies.
|Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxies|
Using images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC).
|Kinematics of the local universe. VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxies|
This paper presents 2112 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurementscarried out with the meridian transit Nan\c cay radiotelescope. Amongthese data we give also 213 new radial velocities which complement thoselisted in three previous papers of this series. These new measurements,together with the HI data collected in LEDA, put to 6 700 the number ofgalaxies with 21-cm line width, radial velocity, and apparent diameterin the so-called KLUN sample. Figure 5 and Appendices A and B forcorresponding comments are available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com
|Population analysis of faint galaxies with mixture modeling.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114..958T&db_key=AST
|The determination of the star formation rate in galaxies.|
A spectrophotometric model able to compute the integrated spectrum of agalaxy, including the contribution both of the stellar populations andof the ionized interstellar gas of the HII regions powered by young hotstars, has been used to study several spectral features and photometricquantities in order to derive calibrations of the star formation historyof late type galaxies. Attention has been paid to analyze the emissionof the Balmer lines and the [OII]λ3727 line to test theirattitude at providing estimates of the present star formation rate ingalaxies. Other features, like D_4000_ and the equivalent width of theHdelta_ line, influenced by the presence of intermediate agestars, have been considered. Several ways of estimating the starformation rates in normal galaxies are discussed and some considerationsconcerning the applicability of the models are presented. Criteria havebeen also studied for ascertaining the presence of a burst, current orended not long ago. Bursts usually hinder the determination of the paststar formation rate.
|An artificial neural network approach to the classification of galaxy spectra.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996MNRAS.283..651F&db_key=AST
|A CO survey of galaxies with the SEST and the 20-m Onsala telescope.|
A large survey of galaxies in the J=1-0 CO line, performed during1985-1988 using the 15-m SEST and the 20-m millimetre wave telescope ofOnsala Space Observatory, is presented. The HPBW of the telescopes are44" and 33" at 115GHz, respectively. The central positions of 168galaxies were observed and 101 of these were detected in the CO line.More than 20% of these are new detections. Maps of some of the galaxiesare also presented.
|A Spectrophotometric Survey of Merging Galaxies|
We present long-slit spectrophotometry of 40 merging or stronglyinteracting galaxy systems in the wavelength range 3650-7100 A. Alongwith optically selected objects, the sample includes 10 ultraluminousIRAS galaxies with evidence of ongoing merger activity. The data show awide variety of phenomena, with spectra resembling those of isolatedelliptical galaxies, early and late-type spiral galaxies, activegalactic nuclei starbursts, and poststarburst systems.
|Spectrophotometric Properties of Merging Galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...450..547L&db_key=AST
|The Local Merger Rate of Disk Galaxies|
We consider the local population of galaxy merger remnants, morespecifically the remnants of disk-disk mergers for which there arediagnostic features (such as tails) that might be catalogued in a fairlycomplete manner. We estimate the current rate of mergers for suchgalaxies by comparing the luminosity function for mergers with those ofspiral-spiral pairs (their most common precursors) and for all diskgalaxies, incorporating the effects of changing crossing time withluminosity. These are connected via the time scale for mergers, which weestimate from the dynamical properties of our sample and publishedn-body models. We derive a merger rate for spirals in pairs, at thepresent epoch, of 4.2 per Hubble time (2.8 over the age of the Universeat critical density, or extrapolated to all spirals, 0.33 per Hubbletime). Given this large difference, depending on which precursorpopulation is considered, a two-component model seems most appropriateto assess the effects of mergers on galaxy evolution - one for galaxiesoriginally in pairs or small groups, and a second for galaxies whichhave never been in environments so susceptible to merging.Distinguishing the initial contributions of each to the overall galaxypopulations will require samples at high redshift. We also evaluate thehistory of several indicators of observable star formation, using thedynamical state of each remnant as an age estimate. With large scatter,we see evidence that star formation builds up to the time of mergerrather slowly, with a rapid decline thereafter. For most systems, dustseems to be so important in obscuring much of the starburst's opticalradiation that the luminosity increase of a merger over its initialcomponents does not have a profound effect on either our derived mergerrate or on higher-redshift counts. This rapid fading means that mergersper se can be at most a minor contributor to the Butcher-Oemler effect;most blue galaxies in systems fated to merge will be observed during theinteractions that precede the final merging event. Further observationsof the dynamical state of high-redshift systems are clearly needed toassess the time- integrated impact of merging on the overall galaxypopulation; the crude estimates given per Hubble time must be lowerlimits under most conditions. An Appendix describes the luminosityfunction of "field" galaxies of various morphological types, derivedfrom a new analysis of the CfA survey in the B_t_^0^ system.
|A spectrophotometric atlas of galaxies|
Integrated spectra of 55 nearby normal and peculiar galaxies have beencompiled into a spectrophotometric atlas. Most observations cover thespectral range 3650-7100 A, with a resolution of 5-8 A, and sufficientsignal-to-noise ratio to measure the prominent emission and absorptionfeatures. The spectra have been reduced to a common spectrophotometricscale and are presented as a series of plots, arranged according tomorphological and spectral types. A digital version of the data is alsoavailable. The general characteristics of the integrated spectra ofgalaxies are discussed.
|A near-infrared imaging survey of interacting galaxies - The small angular-size ARP systems|
Near-IR images of a large sample of interacting galaxies selected fromthe Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies by Arp (1966) have been obtained.Approximately 180 systems have been imaged in at least two, and usuallythree of the standard JHK bands. The survey and the observing and datareduction procedures, are described, and contour plots and aperturephotometry are presented. Future papers will analyze the imaging data bygroupings based on interaction type, stage, and progenitors. The goalsof the analysis are to explore the relationships between galaxyinteractions, activity, and morphology by studying the structure of thenear-IR luminosity distribution, where extinction effects are muchreduced relative to the optical and the major stellar mass component ofgalaxies dominates the observed light.
|The integrated spectra of nearby galaxies - General properties and emission-line spectra|
Results from a survey of the integrated spectra of 90 nearby galaxiesare presented. Intermediate- and low-resolution spectrophotometry overthe 3650-7000-A range is used to compile a spectral atlas of galaxiesand to investigate the systematic behavior of the emission-line spectrain normal and peculiar galaxies. The integrated absorption- andemission-line spectra show a smooth progression with Hubble type. Mostspiral and irregular galaxies exhibited detectable emission lines ofH-alpha forbidden O II, N II, S II, and sometimes H-beta and forbidden OIII. Methods for distinguishing between distant starburst galaxies andactive nuclei are discussed. The new data are used to examine thestatistical properties of the forbidden O II emission in galaxies and tocalibrate a mean relation between O II luminosity and the total starformation rate. The forbidden O II distribution for faint galaxies isvery similar to that which is observed for nearby Markarian galaxies.
|The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog|
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.
|An extragalactic database. I - The Catalogue of Principal Galaxies|
The Catalogue of Principal Galaxies is described, which lists equatorialcoordinates (for the equinoxes 1950 and 2000) and cross-identificationsfor 73,197 galaxies. The 40,932 coordinates have standard deviationssmaller than 10 arcsec. A total of 131,601 names from the 38 most commonsources are listed. In addition, mean data for each object are givenwhen available: 49,102 morphological descriptions, 52,954 apparent majorand minor axes, 67,116 apparent magnitudes, 20,046 radial velocities and24,361 position angles. This information was used for facilitatingproper identification. Finally, distribution options are explained.
|IRAS observations of an optically selected sample of interacting galaxies|
IRAS observations of a large, morphologically selected sample ofstrongly interacting disk-type galaxies have demonstrated thatgalaxy-galaxy collisions can lead to enhanced infrared emission, but notin all cases. Infrared luminosities of the interacting galaxies span alarge range, but are about a factor of 2 higher, on average, than thoseof isolated disk galaxies. The data suggest the existence of a cutoff inblue luminosity, below which no galaxies show markedly enhanced infraredemission. Only the most strongly interacting systems in the sample showextreme values of infrared excess, suggesting that deep,interpenetrating collisions are necessary to drive infrared emission toextreme levels. Comparisons with optical indicators of star formationshow that infrared excess and color temperatures correlate with thelevel of star-formation activity in the interacting galaxies. Allinteracting galaxies in our sample that exhibit an infrared excess andhave higher than normal color temperatures also have optical indicatorsof high levels of star formation. It is not necessary to invokeprocesses other than star formation to account for the enhanced infraredluminosity in this sample of interacting galaxies.
|A catalog of low-surface-brightness objects - Declination zone + 20 deg|
Plates from the second Palomar Sky Survey are used to compile a list oflow-surface-brightness objects located along declination zone + 20 deg.Coordinates, descriptions, sizes, and ellipticities are presented usingthe same selection criteria of 1 arcmin limiting diameter as the UppsalaCatalog of Galaxies (Nilson 1973). Lists of previously known galaxieswith new low-surface-brightness features and interestinglow-surface-brightness objects with diameters between 0.5 and 1 arcminare also presented. As expected, the low-surface-brightness end of theluminosity function is dominated by late-type systems and dwarfs.Comparison with CCD surface photometry indicates an average limitingsurface brightness of 26.0 B mag/sq arcsec for this survey as comparedto 25.2 B mag/sq arcsec for the UGC. On the whole, too few newlow-surface-brightness galaxies have been found for the space density ofthese objects to be higher than that defined by conventional diskgalaxies.
|Global properties of interacting disk-type galaxies|
Optical, far-IR, and radio observations of global properties arepresented for a sample of strongly interacting disk-type galaxies.Global star formation rates (SFRs) for the galaxies span a large rangeand are, on average, a factor of 2.5 higher than similarly determinedglobal SFRs for isolated spiral galaxies. New star formation occurspreferentially in or near the nuclear regions. H I 21 cm emission-lineprofiles indicate the presence of anomalous velocity material andchaotic patterns of gas motion in many interacting systems. Few systemsshow evidence for the presence of a well-organized rotating H I disksuch as are seen in isolated spiral galaxies. Neutral hydrogen gasmass-to-blue luminosity ratios are not atypical when compared withisolated spirals. The evidence indicates that local rather than globalproperties of these galaxies govern the star-formation process. Theobservations generally support the notion that enhanced SFRs are causedby increased cloud collision rates and dissipative flows of gas to thenucleus.
|Recognition and classification of galaxies with optical jets|
Deep images and spectra are presented for galaxies reported in variouscatalogs to have jets, as well as in a search of the SRC J survey platesin a region near the south galactic pole. Most of these are shown to besuperpositions, polar rings, tidal features, or artifacts of theoriginal plate material. Examples are shown of ten ways that false jetscan be produced, with more detailed case studies for several systems.Based on this experience, several criteria for the brightness, location,and symmetry of genuine optical jets are suggested, which should yieldsurvey samples much less contaminated by 'false alarms' than existingones. Among the objects that remain as optical-jet candidates, ESO0610-23 shows a linear, radial chain of H II regions on the outskirts ofan amorphous system with complex internal structure, UGC 3995 is a closepair of spirals, one of which has a type 2 Seyfert nucleus and apparentknotty jet, and NGC 1598 has the radial features previously reported,but considerable chaotic outer structure as well. Several systems (suchas AM 0207-49 and ESO 2330-38) illustrate the intrinsic difficulty ofseparating jets and tidal tails on morphological grounds alone incertain cases.
|Infrared observations of interacting/merging galaxies|
The present sample of 20 galaxy systems, selected on the basis ofmorphological evidence for the tidal interaction or merger of twogalaxies and observed at 1-10 microns, is noted to include 11 systems,detected at 10 microns, which have on average a significantly higher IRluminosity than noninteracting galaxies. The enhanced IR radiation isdue to star formation bursts. On the basis of IR Astronomical Satelliteresults for a sample of galaxies, as much as 30 percent of all thefar-IR emission observed arises in bursts of star formation that aretriggered by interactions, and massive stars account for most of theluminosity in these bursts. It is suggested, in view of a massive starformation rate in the interacting and merging galaxies that is about 3times higher than in noninteracting systems, that much of this starformation occurred in either nuclear regions or merger remnants.
|A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data|
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.
|Enhanced radio emission in merging galaxies|
The list of examples selected by Toomre (1977) is supplemented withmorphologically similar systems from the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies(1966). This sample of mergers is compared with two samples of spiralgalaxies in terms of radio power. The first comparison sample comprisesgalaxies with the same optical luminosities as the mergers. The secondis that subset of the first sample in which the galaxy forms part of adouble or multiple system. The mergers are found to be approximatelyeight times more likely to be radio-loud (radio power greater than orequal to 10 to the 22nd W/Hz at 1.4 GHz) than the members of the firstsample and two to three times more likely to be radio-loud than those ofthe second sample. The merger either involves a unique mechanism forstimulating radio emission or makes more extensive use of the samemechanism that enhances radio emission in galaxies in double or multiplesystems.
|Double galaxy investigations. I - Observations|
Redshift information from 240 A/mm spectrograms is presented for 370double arcsec galaxy systems from the Karachentsev (1972) catalog,including all pairs in that catalog with separation less than 80 arcsec.An extensive error discussion utilizing internal and external (21 cm)comparisons provides calibration of systematic error and determines theuncertainty for a typical high weight optical redshift to be plus orminus 65 km/sec. Internal differential redshifts within single spectrausing common lines achieve accuracies of 18-30 km/sec, depending uponseparation, and are available for about 200 pairs. Extensive informationon emission and other properties is also provided.
|Atlas of interacting galaxies, Part. II and the concept of fragmentation of galaxies.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977A&AS...28....1V&db_key=AST
|New radial velocities of galaxies from image-tube spectra.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971AJ.....76..409K&db_key=AST
|Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1966ApJS...14....1A&db_key=AST
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