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Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. On the Possible Disk Nature of Bright Early-Type Dwarfs
We present a systematic search for disk features in 476 Virgo Clusterearly-type dwarf (dE) galaxies. This is the first such study of analmost-complete, statistically significant dE sample, which includes allcertain or possible cluster members with mB<=18 that arecovered by the optical imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DataRelease 4. Disk features (spiral arms, edge-on disks, or bars) wereidentified by applying unsharp masks to a combined image from threebands (g, r, and i), as well as by subtracting the axisymmetric lightdistribution of each galaxy from that image. Fourteen objects areunambiguous identifications of disks, 10 objects show ``probable disk''features, and 17 objects show ``possible disk'' features. The numberfraction of these galaxies, for which we introduce the term ``dEdi,''reaches more than 50% at the bright end of the dE population anddecreases to less than 5% for magnitudes mB>16. Althoughpart of this observed decline might be due to the lower signal-to-noiseratio at fainter magnitudes, we show that it cannot be caused solely bythe limitations of our detection method. The luminosity function of ourfull dE sample can be explained by a superposition of dEdis and ordinarydEs, strongly suggesting that dEdis are a distinct type of galaxy. Thisis supported by the projected spatial distribution: dEdis show basicallyno clustering and roughly follow the spatial distribution of spirals andirregulars, whereas ordinary dEs are distributed similarly to thestrongly clustered E/S0 galaxies. While the flattening distribution ofordinary dEs is typical for spheroidal objects, the distribution ofdEdis is significantly different and agrees with their being flat oblateobjects. We therefore conclude that the dEdis are not spheroidalgalaxies that just have an embedded disk component but are instead apopulation of genuine disk galaxies. Several dEdis display well-definedspiral arms with grand-design features that clearly differ from theflocculent, open arms typical for late-type spirals that have frequentlybeen proposed as progenitors of dEs. This raises the question of whatprocess is able to create such spiral arms-with pitch angles like thoseof Sab/Sb galaxies-in bulgeless dwarf galaxies.

Are interactions the primary triggers of star formation in dwarf galaxies?
We investigate the assumption that the trigger of star formation indwarf galaxies is interactions with other galaxies, in the context of asearch for a `primary' trigger of a first generation of stars. This iscosmologically relevant because the galaxy formation process consistsnot only of the accumulation of gas in a gravitational potential wellbut also of the triggering of star formation in this gas mass, and alsobecause some high-z potentially primeval galaxy blocks look like nearbystar-forming dwarf galaxies. We review theoretical ideas proposed toaccount for the tidal interaction triggering mechanism and present aseries of observational tests of this assumption using published data.We also show results of a search in the vicinity of a composite sampleof 96 dwarf late-type galaxies for interaction candidates showing starformation. The small number of possible perturbing galaxies identifiedin the neighbourhood of our sample galaxies, along with similar findingsfrom other studies, supports the view that tidal interactions may not berelevant as primary triggers of star formation. We conclude thatinteractions between galaxies may explain some forms of star formationtriggering, perhaps in central regions of large galaxies, but they donot seem to be significant for dwarf galaxies and, by inference, forfirst-time galaxies forming at high redshifts. Intuitive reasoning,based on an analogy with stellar dynamics, shows that conditions forprimary star formation triggering may occur in gas masses oscillating ina dark-matter gravitational potential. We propose this mechanism as aplausible primary trigger scenario, which would be worth investigatingtheoretically.

Distances, Metallicities, and Ages of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster from Surface Brightness Fluctuations
We have employed FORS1 and 2 at the Very Large Telescope at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO) to acquire deep B and R-band CCD images of 16dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the direction of the Virgo cluster.For each dwarf, we measure the apparent R-band surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) magnitude mR and the (B-R)0color in a number of fields at different galactocentric distances. Fromthe field-to-field variation of the two quantities, we determine the SBFdistance by means of the (B-R)0-MR relation. Thederived distances of the dwarfs range from 14.9 to 21.3 Mpc, with a mean1 σ uncertainty of 1.4 Mpc or 8% of the distance, which confirmsthat there is considerable depth in the distance distribution ofearly-type cluster members. For VCC 1104 (IC 3388), our SBF distancemodulus of (m-M)SBF=31.15+/-0.19 (17.0+/-1.5 Mpc) is in goodagreement with the Harris et al result of(m-M)TRGB=30.98+/-0.19 mag (15.7+/-1.5 Mpc) based on HubbleSpace Telescope (HST) observations and the tip magnitude of the redgiant branch. Combining our results with existing distances for giantVirgo ellipticals, we identify two major galaxy concentrations in thedistance distribution: a broad primary clump around (M-m)=31.0 mag (15.8Mpc) and a narrow secondary clump around 31.33 mag (18.5 Mpc). Anadaptive kernel analysis finds the two concentrations to be significantat the 99% (2.5 σ) and 89% (1.6 σ) levels, respectively.While the near-side clump of Virgo early-type galaxies can be associatedwith the subcluster centered on M87, the second clump is believed to bemainly due to the far side infalling group of galaxies around M86. Theages and metallicities of the dE stellar populations are estimated bycombining the observed (B-R)0 colors with Worthey's stellarpopulation synthesis models. It appears that the Virgo dE galaxies covera wider range in metallicity, from [Fe/H]~-1.4 (VCC 0815) to -0.5 (NGC4415), than Fornax cluster dEs. The derived metallicities place theVirgo dEs on the extension of the metallicity-luminosity relationdefined by the low-luminosity Local Group dEs. The data further suggestan age range from genuinely old (~17 Gyr) stellar systems such as IC3019 and IC 0783 to intermediate-age (8-12 Gyr) dwarfs such as NGC 4431and IC 3468.

Galaxy Formation and the GTC
A review of faint galaxy counts and redshift surveys points to ascientific opportunity for the Gran Telecopio Canarias (GTC) to answer abasic question about galaxy formation: How and when did mass assemble?We argue that the key to answering this question is by focusing on the``faint-end'' of the galaxy luminosity function out to at least z = 2.This can be exploited with a concerted effort starting with deep countsin the optical and near infrared, followed with near-infraredmultiobject spectroscopy, and completed with integral field spectroscopyemploying adaptive optics.

Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters. IV. Deep H I Observations of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
In this paper we present deep Arecibo H I and WIYN optical observationsof Virgo Cluster dwarf elliptical galaxies. Based on this data we arguethat a significant fraction of low-mass galaxies in the Virgo Clusterrecently underwent evolution. Our new observations consist of H I 21 cmline observations for 22 classified dE galaxies with optical radialvelocities consistent with membership in the Virgo Cluster. Clustermembers VCC 390 and VCC 1713 are detected with H I massesMHI=6×107 and 8×107Msolar, respectively, while MHI values in theremaining 20 dE galaxies have upper limits as low as~5×105 Msolar. We combine our results withthose for 26 other Virgo Cluster dE galaxies with H I observations inthe literature, seven of which have H I detection claims. New opticalimages from the WIYN telescope of five of these H I-detected dEgalaxies, along with archival data, suggest that seven of the claimeddetections are true H I detections, yielding a ~15% detection rate.These H I-detected, classified dE galaxies are preferentially locatednear the periphery of the Virgo Cluster. Three Virgo dE galaxies haveobserved H I velocity widths greater than 200 km s-1,possibly indicating the presence of a large dark matter content ortransient extended H I. We discuss the possible origins of these objectsand argue that they originate from field galaxies accreted onto highangular momentum orbits by Virgo in the last few Gyr. As a result ofthis, we argue, these galaxies are slowly transformed within the clusterby gradual gas-stripping processes, associated truncation of starformation, and passive fading of stellar populations. Low-mass,early-type cluster galaxies are therefore currently being produced asthe product of cluster environmental effects. We utilize our results ina simple model to estimate the recent (past 1-3 Gyr) average massaccretion rate into the Virgo Cluster, deriving a value of M~50Msolar yr-1.

VLT surface photometry and isophotal analysis of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster
We have carried out surface photometry and an isophotal analysis for asample of 25 early-type dwarf (dE and dS0) galaxies in the Virgo clusterbased on CCD images taken at the VLT with FORS1 and FORS2. For eachgalaxy we present B and R-band surface brightness profiles, as well asthe radial colour (B-R) profile. We give total apparent BR magnitudes,effective radii, effective surface brightnesses and total colourindices. The light profiles have been fitted with Sérsic modelsand the corresponding parameters are compared to the ones for otherclasses of objects. In general, dEs and dS0s bridge the gap in parameterspace between the giant ellipticals and the low-luminosity dwarfspheroidals in the Local Group, in accordance with previous findings.However, the observed profiles of the brightest cluster dwarfs showsignificant deviations from a simple Sérsic model, indicatingthat there is more inner structure than just a nucleus. This picture isreinforced by our isophotal analysis where complex radial dependenciesof ellipticity, position angle, and isophotal shape parameter a_4 areexhibited not only by objects like IC 3328, for which the presence of adisk component has been confirmed, but by many apparently normal dEs aswell. In addition, we find a relation between the effective surfacebrightness, at a given luminosity, and the strength of the offset of thegalaxy's nucleus with respect to the center of the isophotes. Dwarfswith large nuclear offsets also tend to have stronger isophotal twists.However, such twists are preferentially found in apparently round(epsilon < 0.3) galaxies and are always accompanied by significantradial changes of the ellipticity, which clearly points to a projectioneffect. In sum, our findings suggest the presence of substructure inmost, and preferentially in the less compact, bright early-type dwarfs.The physical (dynamical) meaning of this has yet to be explored.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory(ESO 63.O-0055 and 65.N-0062).Figure \ref{fig1} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

A search for Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the near-infrared. I. Selection of the sample
A sample of about 3800 Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies wasselected using the all-sky near-infrared (J, H and Ks-band)2MASS survey. The selected objects have a mean central surfacebrightness within a 5'' radius around their centre fainter than 18 magarcsec-2 in the Ks band, making them the lowestsurface brightness galaxies detected by 2MASS. A description is given ofthe relevant properties of the 2MASS survey and the LSB galaxy selectionprocedure, as well as of basic photometric properties of the selectedobjects. The latter properties are compared to those of other samples ofgalaxies, of both LSBs and ``classical'' high surface brightness (HSB)objects, which were selected in the optical. The 2MASS LSBs have aBT_c-KT colour which is on average 0.9 mag bluerthan that of HSBs from the NGC. The 2MASS sample does not appear tocontain a significant population of red objects.All tables and Figs. 2a-c are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Embedded disks in Fornax dwarf elliptical galaxies
We present photometric and kinematic evidence for the presence ofstellar disks, seen practically edge-on, in two Fornax dwarf galaxies,FCC 204 (dS0(6)) and FCC 288 (dS0(7)). This is the first time suchstructures have been identified in Fornax dwarfs. FCC 288 has only asmall bulge and a bright flaring and slightly warped disk that can betraced out to +/- 23 arcsec from the center (2.05 kpc for H_0=75 kms-1 Mpc-1). FCC 204's disk can be traced out to+/-20 arcsec (1.78 kpc). This galaxy possesses a large bulge. Theseresults can be compared to the findings of Jerjen et al. (\cite{jer00})and Barazza et al. (\cite{bar02}) who discovered nucleated dEs withspiral and bar features in the Virgo Cluster.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (ESO Large Programme Nr. 165.N-0115).

The luminosity function of the Virgo Cluster from MB=-22 to -11
We measure the galaxy luminosity function (LF) for the Virgo Clusterbetween blue magnitudes MB=-22 and -11 from wide-fieldcharge-coupled device (CCD) imaging data. The LF is only graduallyrising for -22

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

More evidence for hidden spiral and bar features in bright early-type dwarf galaxies
Following the discovery of spiral structure in IC 3328 (Jerjen et al.\cite{Jerjen2000}), we present further evidence that a sizable fractionof bright early-type dwarfs in the Virgo cluster are genuine diskgalaxies, or are hosting a disk component. Among a sample of 23nucleated dwarf ellipticals and dS0s observed with the Very LargeTelescope in B and R, we found another four systems exhibitingnon-axisymmetric structures, such as a bar and/or spiral arms,indicative of a disk (IC 0783, IC 3349, NGC 4431, IC 3468). Particularlyremarkable are the two-armed spiral pattern in IC 0783 and the bar andtrailing arms in NGC 4431. For both galaxies the disk nature hasrecently been confirmed by a rotation velocity measurement (Simien &Prugniel \cite{Simien2002}). Our photometric search is based on aFourier decomposition method and a specific version of unsharp masking.Some ``early-type'' dwarfs in the Virgo cluster seem to be formerlate-type galaxies which were transformed to early-type morphology, e.g.by ``harassment'', during their infall to the cluster, while maintainingpart of their disk structure. Based on observations collected at theEuropean Southern Observatory, Chile.

Kinematical data on early-type galaxies. VI.
We present the result of spectroscopic observations of a sample of 73galaxies, completing the database published in this series of articles.The sample contains mostly low-luminosity early-type objects, includingfour dwarfs of the Local Group (in particular, deep spectra of NGC 205),15 dEs or dS0s in the Virgo cluster, and UGC 05442, a spheroidal dwarfof the M 81 group. We have measured the central velocity dispersion forall but one object, and determined the major-axis rotation andvelocity-dispersion profiles for 59 objects. For the current sample ofdiffuse (or dwarf) elliptical galaxies, we have compared stellarrotation to velocity dispersion; the analysis suggests that theseobjects may be nearly rotationally flattened, and therefore thatanisotropy may be less important than previously thought. Based onobservations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. Table 1 isalso, and Tables 2 and 4 only, available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/384/371

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Old Stellar Populations. VI. Absorption-Line Spectra of Galaxy Nuclei and Globular Clusters
We present absorption-line strengths on the Lick/IDS line-strengthsystem of 381 galaxies and 38 globular clusters in the 4000-6400Angstroms region. All galaxies were observed at Lick Observatory between1972 and 1984 with the Cassegrain Image Dissector Scanner spectrograph,which makes this study one of the largest homogeneous collections ofgalaxy spectral line data to date. We also present a catalog of nuclearvelocity dispersions used to correct the absorption-line strengths ontothe stellar Lick/IDS system. Extensive discussion of both random andsystematic errors of the Lick/IDS system is provided. Indices are seento fall into three families: alpha -element-like indices (including CN,Mg, Na D, and TiO2) that correlate positively with velocity dispersion;Fe-like indices (including Ca, the G band, TiO1, and all Fe indices)that correlate only weakly with velocity dispersion and the alphaindices; and H beta that anticorrelates with both velocity dispersionand the alpha indices. C24668 seems to be intermediate between the alphaand Fe groups. These groupings probably represent different elementabundance families with different nucleosynthesis histories.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Is the shape of the luminosity profile of dwarf elliptical galaxies an useful distance indicator?
The shape of the surface brightness profile of dE galaxies, quantifiedby parameter n of Sersic's generalized profile law, has recently beenput forward as new extragalactic distance indicator (Young & Currie1994). Its application to the Virgo cluster has subsequently led to theclaim that the Virgo dEs are not lying in the cluster core but aredistributed in a prolate structure stretching from 8 to 20 Mpc distance(Young & Currie 1995). This claim is refuted here. We have fitted aSersic law to the surface brightness profiles of 128 Virgo cluster dEsand dS0s from the photometry of Binggeli & Cameron (1991). Thedispersion of the n - M relation is indeed large (sigma_rms ~ 0.9 mag).However, we argue that this scatter is not due to the depth of the Virgocluster, but is essentially intrinsic. Contrary to what one would expectfrom the cluster depth hypothesis, there is no clearvelocity-``distance'' relation for a sample of 43 Virgo dEs and dS0swith known redshifts. The analysis of Young & Currie (1995) ishampered by the use of low-resolution photometry and flawed by theassumption that the n - M and n - R relations can be used independently.By combining different Sersic law parameters, the scatter of the scalingrelations can be reduced somewhat, but never below sigma_rms ~ 0.7 mag,at least for the Virgo cluster. For the purpose of distancemeasurements, this falls short of the well-established Tully-Fisher andD_n - sigma methods, and it is comparable to what one can get alreadyfrom the < mu >_eff - M relation for dEs, which does not requireany profile modelling.

Extragalactic Globular Clusters. IV. The Data
We have explored the use of absorption line strength indices, measuredfrom integrated globular cluster spectra, to predict mean metallicity inlate-type stellar systems. In previous papers we identified the bestindices for such metallicity calibrations out of ~13 measured in a largesample of galactic and M31 cluster spectra. In this paper we present theindividual measurements of 13 indices and averages of multiplemeasurements, where appropriate. Data are given for 151 M31 globularclusters, 88 galaxies, 22 M33 cluster candidates, 10 M87 clusters, eightM81 globular clusters, three Fornax dwarf galaxy clusters, "standard"stars from the lists of Faber et al., stars in the open cluster NGC 188and, for completeness, other stars observed as candidate globularclusters.

The UV properties of normal galaxies. III. Standard luminosity profiles and total magnitudes.
In the previous papers of this series we collected and reduced to thesame system all the available photometric data obtained in theultraviolet (UV) range for normal (i.e. non active) galaxies. Here weuse these data to derive standard UV luminosity profiles for threemorphological bins (E/S0; Sa/Sb; Sc/Sd) and extrapolated totalmagnitudes for almost 400 galaxies. We find that: 1) the UV growthcurves are well matched by the B-band revised standard luminosityprofiles, once a proper shift in the effective radius is applied, and 2)the UV light in early-type galaxies is more centrally concentrated thanthe visible light.

The UV properties of normal galaxies. II. The ``non-IUE'' data.
In the last decade several satellite and balloon borne experiments havecollected a large number of ultraviolet fluxes of normal galaxiesmeasured through apertures of various sizes and shapes. We havehomogenized this data set by deriving scale corrections with respect toIUE. In a forthcoming paper these data will be used to derive standardluminosity profiles and total magnitudes.

Distribution of the spin vectors of the disk galaxies of the Virgo cluster. I. The catalogue of 310 disk galaxies in the Virgo area.
Not Available

Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II - Photometric techniques and basic data
Results are presented of photographic surface photometry carried out for305 (mostly dwarf) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, in which the galaxyimages were digitized on 14 of the 67 du Pont plates used for the Virgocluster survey. Azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles areshown for all galaxies. The following model-free photometric parametersare derived and listed for each galaxy: total apparent blue magnitude,mean effective radius and surface brightness, and various isophotalradii, ellipticity, and position angle. Most galaxies were fitted by anexponential form and/or a King model profile. The best-fittingparameters, including the 'nuclear' (central residual) magnitudes fordE+dS0 galaxies, are listed.

Extragalactic globular clusters. III - Metallicity comparisons and anomalies
A method based on the strengths of six absorption line indices measuredin integrated spectra is used to derive metallicities for 22 globularclusters associated with the Sc galaxy, M33, 10 globular clusters withthe giant elliptical galaxy, M87, eight globular clusters associatedwith the Sb(r)I-II galaxy, M81, and three globular clusters associatedwith the Fornax dwarf elliptical galaxy. Mean metallicities are derivedfor 38 bright galaxies, mostly ellipticals, 29 dwarf elliptical galaxiesin the Virgo cluster, 10 dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Fornaxcluster, and four local group dwarf galaxies. These results are comparedwith previously derived metallicities for 149 clusters in M31 and withthe Milky Way cluster metallicities to show that the mean metallicity ofa cluster system is linearly related to the luminosity of the parentgalaxy. A similar relationship is suggested between galaxy metallicityand luminosity for the bright and dwarf galaxies.

Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. I - The systematic photometric properties of early-type dwarfs
The azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles of 200 faintearly-type Virgo cluster galaxies have been analyzed. Faint dwarfs arevery well described by an exponential or a King model. The magnitudes ofthe nuclei vary greatly at a given galaxian magnitude, but the maximumnuclear luminosity is a strong function of M(T). In the 0.1-1 kpc radiusrange, the logarithmically plotted profiles of all early-type galaxiescome in two well-defined classes identified with classical types versusdwarf types. The former are all classified E or S0, while the lattercomprise all galaxies classified dE or dS0, all morphologically'intermediate' types, and even two classified 'E'. The mean SB profilesof dS0 galaxies are indistinguishable from bright dE profiles. In 2D,the dS0s appear highly flattened and/or show asymmetric and irregularfeatures which may indicate their disk nature.

Three-color surface photometry of a selected sample of early-type galaxies. I - Observations and data reduction
This paper presents the results of two or three color surface photometryfor a sample of 36 early-type galaxies obtained at the Canada FranceHawaii Telescope with CCD cameras. The calibration and data reductionprocedures are described. A comparison of the results with previous workis made for NGC 3379. For each galaxy the B surface brightness profilealong the major axis, as well as ellipticity and color profiles aredisplayed.

Three-color surface photometry of a selected sample of early-type galaxies. II - Color gradients
Selected data from photometric observations of 35 early-type galaxies,obtained in two or three colors (B, R, and MgIb) with CCD cameras andreported by Vigroux et al. (1988), are compiled in graphs and analyzedto determine color gradients and their dependence on other parameters.Features noted include red nuclei and systematic reddening toward thecenter in high-luminosity galaxies with M(B) less than -18 (interpretedas a metallicity gradient), reddening at greater radial distance indwarf ellipticals with M(B) greater than -18 (attributed to an ageeffect), and maximum color gradients at M(B) = -20.5 (where ellipticalstend to become slow rotators). It is inferred that galaxies fainter thanthis critical luminosity have evolution dominated by internal processessuch as galactic winds and dissipation, while brighter galaxies areaffected by external processes such as mergers.

A statistical study of luminosity profiles of galaxies using spheroid-disk composite models
Structural parameters of spheroids and disks are presented for ahomogeneous sample of 167 galaxies of all morphological types, andsystematic properties and interplay of the spheroid and disk areexplored using a new technique to derive the structural parameters fromthe observed luminosity distribution. The luminosity distributions ofmost of the galaxies, including all of the elliptics, can be wellapproximated by two-component models, with the rest approximated byone-component disk models. Spheroids of disk galaxies are on averageless luminous in absolute magnitude and have both fainterbrightness-scale parameter and larger length-scale parameter than thoseof elliptics. Spheroid parameters of S0 galaxies are intermediatebetween those of elliptics and spirals.

The pattern of H I deficiency in the Virgo cluster
A sample of 160 galaxies in the Virgo region, including 16 new 21-cmprofiles in the Virgo 5-degree core obtained with the 305-m Arecibotelescope, are examined to investigate the severe depletion ofinterstellar H I within spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster core. Asimilar and non-Gaussian distribution is found for the distribution of HI deficiencies of both faint galaxies and brighter spirals, andpopulations of galaxies with normal abundances of interstellar H I, andthose of gas poor objects exhibiting a late-type morphology, are bothnoted. One-sixth of the sample within the Virgo 5-degree core have lostmore than 90 percent by mass of their original neutral hydrogen, andthree quarters of the galaxies found within 2.5 degrees of M87 are H Ipoor by more than a factor of three. The most deficient galaxies arealso found to be the ones with the smallest ratios of H I to opticaldisk size, and H I poor galaxies are redder than normal, indicating thatstar formation has been quenched.

Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.

Supplement to the detailed bibliography on the surface photometry of galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...60..517P&db_key=AST

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Constellation:Coma Berenices
Right ascension:12h21m38.80s
Aparent dimensions:1.445′ × 1.288′

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ICIC 783
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 490

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