Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 4762



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. VIII. The Nuclei of Early-Type Galaxies
The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey is a Hubble Space Telescope program toobtain high-resolution imaging in widely separated bandpasses (F475W~gand F850LP~z) for 100 early-type members of the Virgo Cluster, spanninga range of ~460 in blue luminosity. We use this large, homogenous dataset to examine the innermost structure of these galaxies and tocharacterize the properties of their compact central nuclei. We presenta sharp upward revision in the frequency of nucleation in early-typegalaxies brighter than MB~-15 (66%<~fn<~82%)and show that ground-based surveys underestimated the number of nucleidue to surface brightness selection effects, limited sensitivity andpoor spatial resolution. We speculate that previously reported claimsthat nucleated dwarfs are more concentrated toward the center of Virgothan their nonnucleated counterparts may be an artifact of theseselection effects. There is no clear evidence from the properties of thenuclei, or from the overall incidence of nucleation, for a change atMB~-17.6, the traditional dividing point between dwarf andgiant galaxies. There does, however, appear to be a fundamentaltransition at MB~-20.5, in the sense that the brighter,``core-Sérsic'' galaxies lack resolved (stellar) nuclei. A searchfor nuclei that may be offset from the photocenters of their hostgalaxies reveals only five candidates with displacements of more than0.5", all of which are in dwarf galaxies. In each case, however, theevidence suggests that these ``nuclei'' are, in fact, globular clustersprojected close to the galaxy photocenter. Working from a sample of 51galaxies with prominent nuclei, we find a median half-light radius of=4.2 pc, with the sizes of individual nucleiranging from 62 pc down to <=2 pc (i.e., unresolved in our images) inabout a half-dozen cases. Excluding these unresolved objects, the nucleisizes are found to depend on nuclear luminosity according to therelation rh L0.50+/-0.03. Because the largemajority of nuclei are resolved, we can rule out low-level AGNs as anexplanation for the central luminosity excess in almost all cases. Onaverage, the nuclei are ~3.5 mag brighter than a typical globularcluster. Based on their broadband colors, the nuclei appear to have oldto intermediate age stellar populations. The colors of the nuclei ingalaxies fainter than MB~-17.6 are tightly correlated withtheir luminosities, and less so with the luminosities of their hostgalaxies, suggesting that their chemical enrichment histories weregoverned by local or internal factors. Comparing the nuclei to the``nuclear clusters'' found in late-type spiral galaxies reveals a closematch in terms of size, luminosity, and overall frequency. A formationmechanism that is rather insensitive to the detailed properties of thehost galaxy properties is required to explain this ubiquity andhomogeneity. The mean of the frequency function for thenucleus-to-galaxy luminosity ratio in our nucleated galaxies,=-2.49+/-0.09 dex (σ=0.59+/-0.10), isindistinguishable from that of the SBH-to-bulge mass ratio,=-2.61+/-0.07dex (σ=0.45+/-0.09), calculated in 23 early-type galaxies withdetected supermassive black holes (SBHs). We argue that the compactstellar nuclei found in many of our program galaxies are the low-masscounterparts of the SBHs detected in the bright galaxies. If thisinterpretation is correct, then one should think in terms of ``centralmassive objects''-either SBHs or compact stellar nuclei-that accompanythe formation of almost all early-type galaxies and contain a meanfraction ~0.3% of the total bulge mass. In this view, SBHs would be thedominant formation mode above MB~-20.5.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. XI. The Nature of Diffuse Star Clusters in Early-Type Galaxies
We use HST ACS imaging of 100 early-type galaxies in the ACS VirgoCluster Survey to investigate the nature of diffuse star clusters(DSCs). Compared to globular clusters (GCs), these star clusters havelow luminosities (MV>-8) and a broad distribution of sizes(320 magarcsec-2). The median colors of diffuse star cluster systems(1.1

The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. IX. The Color Distributions of Globular Cluster Systems in Early-Type Galaxies
We present the color distributions of globular cluster (GC) systems for100 early-type galaxies observed in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, thedeepest and most homogeneous survey of this kind to date. On average,galaxies at all luminosities in our study (-22

Structural Parameters of Thin and Thick Disks in Edge-on Disk Galaxies
We analyze the global structure of 34 late-type, edge-on, undisturbed,disk galaxies spanning a wide range of mass. We measure structuralparameters for the galaxies using two-dimensional least-squares fittingto our R-band photometry. The fits require both a thick and a thin diskto adequately fit the data. The thick disks have larger scale heightsand longer scale lengths than the embedded thin disks by factors of ~2and ~1.25, respectively. The observed structural parameters agree wellwith the properties of thick and thin disks derived from star counts inthe Milky Way and from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies.We find that massive galaxies' luminosities are dominated by the thindisk. However, in low-mass galaxies (Vc<~120 kms-1) thick disk stars contribute nearly half the luminosityand dominate the stellar mass. Thus, although low-mass dwarf galaxiesappear blue, the majority of their stars are probably quite old.Our data are most easily explained by a formation scenario in which thethick disk is assembled through direct accretion of stellar materialfrom merging satellites while the thin disk is formed from accreted gas.The baryonic fraction in the thin disk therefore constrains the gasrichness of the merging pregalactic fragments. If we include the mass inH I as part of the thin disk, the thick disk contains <~10% of thebaryons in high-mass galaxies and ~25%-30% of the baryons in low-massgalaxies. Our data, therefore, indicate that the fragments were quitegas rich at the time of merging (fgas=75%-90%). However,because low-mass galaxies have a smaller fraction of baryons in theirthin disks, the pregalactic fragments from which they assembled musthave been systematically more gas poor. We believe this trend resultsfrom increased outflow due to supernova-driven winds in the lower masspregalactic fragments. We estimate that ~60% of the total baryonic massin these systems was lost due to outflows. Pushing the episode ofsignificant winds to early times allows the mass-metallicityrelationship for disks to be established early, before the main disk isassembled, and obviates the difficulty in driving winds from diffusedisks with low star formation efficiencies. We discuss otherimplications of this scenario for solving the G dwarf problem, forpredicting abundance trends in thick disks, and for removingdiscrepancies between semianalytic galaxy formation models and theobserved colors of low-mass galaxies.

On the nature of bulges in general and of box/peanut bulges in particular: input from N-body simulations
Objects designated as bulges in disc galaxies do not form a homogeneousclass. I distinguish three types: the classical bulges, the propertiesof which are similar to those of ellipticals and which form by collapseor merging; boxy and peanut bulges, which are seen in near-edge-ongalaxies and which are in fact just a part of the bar seen edge-on; and,finally, disc-like bulges, which result from the inflow of (mainly) gasto the centre-most parts, and subsequent star formation. I make adetailed comparison of the properties of boxy and peanut bulges withthose of N-body bars seen edge-on, and answer previously voicedobjections about the links between the two. I also present and analysesimulations where a boxy/peanut feature is present at the same time as aclassical spheroidal bulge, and compare them with observations. Finally,I propose a nomenclature that can help to distinguish between the threetypes of bulges and avoid considerable confusion.

Bar Diagnostics in Edge-On Spiral Galaxies. III. N-Body Simulations of Disks
Present in over 45% of local spirals, boxy and peanut-shaped bulges aregenerally interpreted as edge-on bars and may represent a key phase inbar evolution. Aiming to test such claims, the kinematic properties ofself-consistent three-dimensional N-body simulations of bar-unstabledisks are studied. Using Gauss-Hermite polynomials to describe themajor-axis stellar kinematics, a number of characteristic bar signaturesare identified in edge-on disks: (1) a major-axis light profile with aquasi-exponential central peak and a plateau at moderate radii (Freemantype II profile); (2) a ``double-hump'' rotation curve; (3) a sometimesflat central velocity dispersion peak with a plateau at moderate radiiand occasional local central minimum and secondary peak; and (4) anh3-V correlation over the projected bar length. All of thesekinematic features are spatially correlated and can easily be understoodfrom the orbital structure of barred disks. They thus provide a reliableand easy-to-use tool to identify edge-on bars. Interestingly, they areall produced without dissipation and are increasingly realized to becommon in spirals, lending support to bar-driven evolution scenarios forbulge formation. So called ``figure-of-eight'' position-velocitydiagrams are never observed, as expected for realistic orbitalconfigurations. Although not uniquely related to triaxiality,line-of-sight velocity distributions with a high-velocity tail (i.e., anh3-V correlation) appear as particularly promising tracers ofbars. The stellar kinematic features identified grow in strength as thebar evolves and vary only slightly for small inclination variations.Many can be used to trace the bar length. Comparisons with observationsare encouraging and support the view that boxy and peanut-shaped bulgesare simply thick bars viewed edge-on.

The Advanced Camera for Surveys Virgo Cluster Survey. V. Surface Brightness Fluctuation Calibration for Giant and Dwarf Early-Type Galaxies
As part of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Virgo Cluster Survey,we have measured surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) in a sample of100 early-type Virgo galaxies. Distances derived from these measurementsare needed to explore the three-dimensional structure of the VirgoCluster, study the intrinsic parameters of globular clusters associatedwith the program galaxies, and compare with the galaxy distances derivedfrom globular cluster luminosity functions. Our SBF measurements havebeen performed in the F850LP bandpass of the Wide Field Channel of theACS on the Hubble Space Telescope. These are the first measurements ofthis kind, and we present the first SBF calibration for this bandpass.The measured fluctuations depend on galaxy stellar populationvariations, which we quantify by galaxy color(g475-z850)0, where g475 andz850 are the galaxy magnitudes in the F475W and F850LP ACSfilters, respectively. We derive the calibration for the absolute SBFmagnitudeM850=-2.06+/-0.04+(2.0+/-0.2)[(g475-z850)0-1.3]in the range1.3<(g475-z850)0<=1.6, andM850=-2.06+/-0.04+(0.9+/-0.2)[(g475-z850)0-1.3]in the range1.0<=(g475-z850)0<=1.3. Thequoted zero-point uncertainty here includes all sources of internalerror; there is an additional systematic uncertainty of ~0.15 mag, dueto the uncertainty in the distance scale calibration. Physically, thetwo different color regimes correspond to different galaxy types: giantellipticals and S0s at the red end, and early-type dwarfs at the blueend. For the first time in SBF studies, we are able to provide a firmempirical calibration of SBF in early-type dwarf galaxies. Our resultsagree with stellar population model predictions from Bruzual &Charlot in the range1.3<(g475-z850)0<=1.6, while ourempirical slope is somewhat steeper than the theoretical prediction inthe range 0.9<=(g475-z850)0<=1.3.

Secular Evolution and the Formation of Pseudobulges in Disk Galaxies
The Universe is in transition. At early times, galactic evolution wasdominated by hierarchical clustering and merging, processes that areviolent and rapid. In the far future, evolution will mostly be secularthe slow rearrangement of energy and mass that results from interactionsinvolving collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiralstructure, and triaxial dark halos. Both processes are important now.This review discusses internal secular evolution, concentrating on oneimportant consequence, the buildup of dense central components in diskgalaxies that look like classical, merger-built bulges but that weremade slowly out of disk gas. We call these pseudobulges.

The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. II. Data Reduction Procedures
The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey is a large program to carry out multicolorimaging of 100 early-type members of the Virgo Cluster using theAdvanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. DeepF475W and F850LP images (~SDSS g and z) are being used to study thecentral regions of the program galaxies, their globular cluster systems,and the three-dimensional structure of Virgo itself. In this paper, wedescribe in detail the data reduction procedures used for the survey,including image registration, drizzling strategies, the computation ofweight images, object detection, the identification of globular clustercandidates, and the measurement of their photometric and structuralparameters.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. I. Introduction to the Survey
The Virgo Cluster is the dominant mass concentration in the LocalSupercluster and the largest collection of elliptical and lenticulargalaxies in the nearby universe. In this paper, we present anintroduction to the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey: a program to image, in theF475W and F850LP bandpasses (~Sloan g and z), 100 early-type galaxies inthe Virgo Cluster using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the HubbleSpace Telescope. We describe the selection of the program galaxies andtheir ensemble properties, the choice of filters, the field placementand orientation, the limiting magnitudes of the survey, coordinatedparallel observations of 100 ``intergalactic'' fields with WFPC2, andsupporting ground-based spectroscopic observations of the programgalaxies. In terms of depth, spatial resolution, sample size, andhomogeneity, this represents the most comprehensive imaging survey todate of early-type galaxies in a cluster environment. We brieflydescribe the main scientific goals of the survey, which include themeasurement of luminosities, metallicities, ages, and structuralparameters for the many thousands of globular clusters associated withthese galaxies, a high-resolution isophotal analysis of galaxiesspanning a factor of ~450 in luminosity and sharing a commonenvironment, the measurement of accurate distances for the full sampleof galaxies using the method of surface brightness fluctuations, and adetermination of the three-dimensional structure of Virgo itself.ID="FN1"> 1Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Stellar Kinematics of Boxy Bulges: Large-Scale Bars and Inner Disks
Long-slit stellar kinematic observations were obtained along the majoraxis of 30 edge-on spiral galaxies, 24 with a boxy or peanut-shaped(B/PS) bulge and six with other bulge types for comparison. Such B/PSbulges are identified in at least 45% of highly inclined systems, and agrowing body of theoretical and observational work suggests that theyare the edge-on projection of thickened bars. Profiles of the meanstellar velocity V, the velocity dispersion σ, as well as theasymmetric (h3) and symmetric (h4) deviations froma pure Gaussian are presented for all objects. Comparing these profileswith stellar kinematic bar diagnostics developed from N-bodysimulations, we find bar signatures in 24 of our sample galaxies (80%).Galaxies with a B/PS bulge typically show a double-humped rotation curvewith an intermediate dip or plateau. They also frequently show a ratherflat central velocity dispersion profile accompanied by a secondary peakor plateau, and numerous galaxies have a local central σ minimum(>~40%). The h3 profiles display up to three slopereversals. Most importantly, h3 is normally correlated with Vover the presumed bar length, contrary to expectations from axisymmetricdisks. These characteristic bar signatures strengthen the case for aclose relationship between B/PS bulges and bars and leave little roomfor other explanations of the bulges' shape. We also find thath3 is anticorrelated with V in the very center of mostgalaxies (>~60%), indicating that these objects additionally harborcold and dense decoupled (quasi-) axisymmetric central stellar disks,which may be related to the central light peaks. These central diskscoincide with previously identified star-forming ionized-gas disks(nuclear spirals) in gas-rich systems, and we argue that they formed outof gas accumulated by the bar at its center through inflow. As suggestedby N-body models, the asymmetry of the velocity profile (h3)appears to be a reliable tracer of asymmetries in disks, allowing us todiscriminate between axisymmetric and barred disks seen in projection.B/PS bulges (and thus a large fraction of all bulges) appear to be madeup mostly of disk material, which has acquired a large vertical extentthrough bar-driven vertical instabilities. Their formation is thusprobably dominated by secular evolution processes rather than merging.

Thick disks of lenticular galaxies. 3D-photometric thin/thick disk decomposition of eight edge-on s0 galaxies
Thick disks are faint and extended stellar components found aroundseveral disk galaxies including our Milky Way. The Milky Way thick disk,the only one studied in detail, contains mostly old disk stars (≈10Gyr), so that thick disks are likely to trace the early stages of diskevolution. Previous detections of thick disk stellar light in externalgalaxies have been originally made for early-type, edge-on galaxies butdetailed 2D thick/thin disk decompositions have been reported for only ascant handful of mostly late-type disk galaxies. We present in thispaper for the first time explicit 3D thick/thin disk decompositionscharacterising the presence and properties (e.g. scalelength andscaleheight) for a sample of eight lenticular galaxies by fitting 3Ddisk models to the data. For six out of the eight galaxies we were ableto derive a consistent thin/thick disk model. The mean scaleheight ofthe thick disk is 3.6 times larger than that of the thin disk. Thescalelength of the thick disk is about twice, and its central luminositydensity between 3-10% of, the thin disk value. Both thin and thick diskare truncated at similar radii. This implies that thick disks extendover fewer scalelengths than thin disks, and turning a thin disk into athick one requires therefore vertical but little radial heating. Allthese structural parameters are similar to thick disk parameters forlater Hubble-type galaxies previously studied. We discuss our data inrespect to present models for the origin of thick disks, either as pre-or post-thin-disk structures, providing new observational constraints.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory,Chile.Full appendices are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The origin of H I-deficiency in galaxies on the outskirts of the Virgo cluster. II. Companions and uncertainties in distances and deficiencies
The origin of the deficiency in neutral hydrogen of 13 spiral galaxieslying in the outskirts of the Virgo cluster is reassessed. If thesegalaxies have passed through the core of the cluster, their interstellargas should have been lost through ram pressure stripping by the hotX-ray emitting gas of the cluster. We analyze the positions of these HI-deficient and other spiral galaxies in velocity-distance plots, inwhich we include our compilation of velocity-distance data on 61elliptical galaxies, and compare with simulated velocity-distancediagrams obtained from cosmological N-body simulations. We find that˜20% relative Tully-Fisher distance errors are consistent with thegreat majority of the spirals, except for a small number of objectswhose positions in the velocity-distance diagram suggest grosslyincorrect distances, implying that the Tully-Fisher error distributionfunction has non-Gaussian wings. Moreover, we find that the distanceerrors may lead to an incorrect fitting of the Tolman-Bondi solutionthat can generate significant errors in the distance and especially themass estimates of the cluster. We suggest 4 possibilities for theoutlying H I-deficient spirals (in decreasing frequency): 1) they havelarge relative distance errors and are in fact close enough (atdistances between 12.7 and 20.9 Mpc from us) to the cluster to havepassed through its core and seen their gas removed by ram pressurestripping; 2) their gas is converted to stars by tidal interactions withother galaxies; 3) their gas is heated during recent mergers withsmaller galaxies; and 4) they are not truly H I-deficient (e.g. S0/amisclassified as Sa).Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Spectrophotometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. The data
Drift-scan mode (3600-6800 Å) spectra with 500

The infrared-X-ray continuum correlation in active galactic nuclei
The correlation between the soft X-ray and near-infrared emission fromactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) is analysed using composite models. Wefind new evidence for differences in the ranges of parameters thatcharacterize the narrow-line region (NLR) of Seyfert galaxies andlow-ionization nuclear emission regions (LINERs). Soft X-rays show lessvariability, so they are better fitted for this kind of analysis. In ourmodels, soft X-rays are emitted in the post-shock region of clouds withrelatively high shock velocities Vs > 250 kms-1. Consequently, dust emission peaks in the mid-infrared.On the other hand, in the photoionized zone, dust is at lowertemperature and usually does not contribute to the mid-infraredemission. The results are sensible enough to allow the same modellingmethod to be applied to different types of AGN. We found that shockvelocities are between 300 and 1000 km s-1, with the NLR oflow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) and type 2 Seyfertgalaxies (Sy2s) showing lower velocities than type 1 Seyfert galaxies(Sy1s). The intensity of the ionizing radiation flux at the Lyman limitfrom the central source is low for LINERs and low-luminosity AGNs (logFh= 9 to 10), increasing towards Sy2s (log Fh~ 11)and Sy1s (11 <=Fh<= 12). Results obtained by modellingthe Einstein and the ROSAT samples of galaxies are in full agreement.Dust-to-gas ratios by number are >=10-14 in LINERs andLLAGNs, between 10-15 and 3 × 10-13 in Sy1sand up to 5 × 10-13 in Sy2s. In order to fit theinfrared and X-ray continua, an η factor is defined, which accountsfor the emitting area of the cloud. If the infrared emission is due tobremsstrahlung and comes from the same cloud that produces the softX-rays, the η values obtained from both emissions must be the same.Therefore, if (η)IR < (η)softX, theremust be a strong contribution of soft X-rays from the active centre.From the η values, we expect to identify the objects that couldpresent strong variability.

Dynamical Evolution of Galaxies in Clusters
Tidal forces acting on galaxies in clusters lead to a strong dynamicalevolution. In order to quantify the amount of evolution, I runself-consistent N-body simulations of disk galaxies for a variety ofmodels in the hierarchically forming clusters. The tidal field along thegalactic orbits is extracted from the simulations of cluster formationin the Ω0=1, 0.4, and 0.4,ΩΛ=0.6 cosmological scenarios. For large spiralgalaxies with a rotation speed of 250 km s-1, tidalinteractions truncate massive dark matter halos at 30+/-6 kpc andthicken stellar disks by a factor of 2-3, increasing Toomre's parameterto Q>~2 and halting star formation. Low-density galaxies, such as thedwarf spheroidals with a circular velocity of 20 km s-1 andthe extended low surface brightness galaxies with a scale length of10-15 kpc, are completely disrupted by tidal shocks. Their debriscontribute to the diffuse intracluster light. The tidal effects aresignificant not only in the core but throughout the cluster and can beparametrized by the critical tidal density. The tidally inducedevolution results in the transformation of the infalling spirals into S0galaxies and in the depletion of the low surface brightness galaxypopulation. In the low-Ω0 cosmological models, clustersform earlier and produce stronger evolution of galaxies.

The 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas
We present the largest galaxies as seen in the near-infrared (1-2μm), imaged with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), ranging inangular size from 1' to 1.5d. We highlight the 100 largest in thesample. The galaxies span all Hubble morphological types, includingelliptical galaxies, normal and barred spirals, and dwarf and peculiarclasses. The 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas provides the necessary sensitivityand angular resolution to examine in detail morphologies in thenear-infrared, which may be radically different from those in theoptical. Internal structures such as spirals, bulges, warps, rings,bars, and star formation regions are resolved by 2MASS. In addition tolarge mosaic images, the atlas includes astrometric, photometric, andshape global measurements for each galaxy. A comparison of fundamentalmeasures (e.g., surface brightness, Hubble type) is carried out for thesample and compared with the Third Reference Catalogue. We furthershowcase NGC 253 and M51 (NGC 5194/5195) to demonstrate the quality anddepth of the data. The atlas represents the first uniform, all-sky,dust-penetrated view of galaxies of every type, as seen in thenear-infrared wavelength window that is most sensitive to the dominantmass component of galaxies. The images and catalogs are availablethrough the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database and Infrared ScienceArchive and are part of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog.

An Hα survey aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in halos of edge-on spiral galaxies. I. How common are gaseous halos among non-starburst galaxies?
In a series of two papers we present results of a new Hα imagingsurvey, aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas inhalos of late-type spiral galaxies. We have investigated a sample of 74nearby edge-on spirals, covering the northern and southern hemisphere.In 30 galaxies we detected extraplanar diffuse emission at meandistances of |z| ~ 1-2 kpc. Individual filaments can be traced out to|z|<=6 kpc in a few cases. We find a good correlation between the FIRflux ratio (S60/S100) and the SFR per unit area(LFIR/D225), based on thedetections/non-detections. This is actually valid for starburst, normaland for quiescent galaxies. A minimal SFR per unit area for the lowestS60/S100 values, at which extended emission hasbeen detected, was derived, which amounts to dotEA25thres = (3.2+/-0.5)*E40ergs-1 kpc-2. There are galaxies where extraplanaremission was detected at smaller values ofLFIR/D225, however, only in combinationwith a significantly enhanced dust temperature. The results corroboratethe general view that the gaseous halos are a direct consequence of SFactivity in the underlying galactic disk.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (ESO No. 63.N-0070, ESO No. 64.N-0034, ESO No. 65.N.-0002).

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Core Radio and Optical Emission in the Nuclei of nearby FR I Radio Galaxies
In this paper we analyze the relation between radio, optical continuumand Hα+[N II] emission from the cores of a sample of 21 nearbyFanaroff and Riley type I galaxies as observed with the VLBA and HST.The emission arises inside the inner tens of parsecs of the galaxies.Core radio emission is observed in 19/20 galaxies, optical corecontinuum emission is detected in 12/21 galaxies and Hα+[N II]core emission is detected in 20/21 galaxies. We confirm the recentlydetected linear correlation between radio and optical core emission inFR I galaxies and show that both core emissions also correlate withcentral Hα+[N II] emission. The tight correlations between radio,optical, and Hα+[N II] core emission constrain the bulk Lorentzfactor to γ~2-5 and γ<~2 for a continuous jet and a jetconsisting of discrete blobs, respectively, assuming jet-viewing anglesin the range 30°-90°. Radio and optical core emissions arelikely to be synchrotron radiation from the inner jet, possibly with asignificant contribution from emission by an accretion disk and/or flow.Elliptical galaxies with LINER nuclei without large-scale radio jetsseem to follow the core emission correlations found in FR I galaxies.This suggests that the central engines could be very similar for the twoclasses of active galactic nuclei. Based on observations with theNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

1.65-μm (H -band) surface photometry of galaxies - VIII. The near-IR κ space at z =0
We present the distribution of a statistical sample of nearby galaxiesin the κ -space (κ 1 ~logM , κ 2~logI e 3 M /L , κ 3 ~logM /L ).Our study is based on near-IR (H -band: λ =1.65μm)observations, for the first time comprising early- and late-typesystems. Our data confirm that the mean effective dynamicalmass-to-light ratio M /L of the E+S0+S0a galaxies increases withincreasing effective dynamical mass M , as expected from the existenceof the Fundamental Plane relation. Conversely, spiral and Im/BCDgalaxies show a broad distribution in M /L with no detected trend of M/L with M , the former galaxies having M /L values about twice largerthan the latter, on average. For all the late-type galaxies, the M /Lincreases with decreasing effective surface intensity I e ,consistent with the existence of the Tully-Fisher relation. Theseresults are discussed on the basis of the assumptions behind theconstruction of the κ -space and their limitations. Our study iscomplementary to a previous investigation in the optical (B -band:λ =0.44μm) and allows us to study wavelength dependences ofthe galaxy distribution in the κ -space. As a first result, wefind that the galaxy distribution in the κ 1 -κ2 plane reproduces the transition from bulgeless tobulge-dominated systems in galaxies of increasing dynamical mass.Conversely, it appears that the M /L of late-types is higher (lower)than that of early-types with the same M in the near-IR (optical). Theorigins of this behaviour are discussed in terms of dust attenuation andstar formation history.

A catalogue and analysis of local galaxy ages and metallicities
We have assembled a catalogue of relative ages, metallicities andabundance ratios for about 150 local galaxies in field, group andcluster environments. The galaxies span morphological types from cD andellipticals, to late-type spirals. Ages and metallicities were estimatedfrom high-quality published spectral line indices using Worthey &Ottaviani (1997) single stellar population evolutionary models. Theidentification of galaxy age as a fourth parameter in the fundamentalplane (Forbes, Ponman & Brown 1998) is confirmed by our largersample of ages. We investigate trends between age and metallicity, andwith other physical parameters of the galaxies, such as ellipticity,luminosity and kinematic anisotropy. We demonstrate the existence of agalaxy age-metallicity relation similar to that seen for local galacticdisc stars, whereby young galaxies have high metallicity, while oldgalaxies span a large range in metallicities. We also investigate theinfluence of environment and morphology on the galaxy age andmetallicity, especially the predictions made by semi-analytichierarchical clustering models (HCM). We confirm that non-clusterellipticals are indeed younger on average than cluster ellipticals aspredicted by the HCM models. However we also find a trend for the moreluminous galaxies to have a higher [Mg/Fe] ratio than the lowerluminosity galaxies, which is opposite to the expectation from HCMmodels.

The New Galaxy: Signatures of Its Formation
The formation and evolution of galaxies is one of the great outstandingproblems of astrophysics. Within the broad context of hierachicalstructure formation, we have only a crude picture of how galaxies likeour own came into existence. A detailed physical picture whereindividual stellar populations can be associated with (tagged to)elements of the protocloud is far beyond our current understanding.Important clues have begun to emerge from both the Galaxy (near-fieldcosmology) and the high redshift universe (far-field cosmology). Here wefocus on the fossil evidence provided by the Galaxy. Detailed studies ofthe Galaxy lie at the core of understanding the complex processesinvolved in baryon dissipation. This is a necessary first step towardachieving a successful theory of galaxy formation.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Radio sources in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. III. ``AGNs'' in a distance-limited sample of ``LLAGNs''
This paper presents the results of a high resolution radio imagingsurvey of all known (96) low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs)at D <= 19 Mpc. We first report new 2 cm (150 mas resolution usingthe VLA) and 6 cm (2 mas resolution using the VLBA) radio observationsof the previously unobserved nuclei in our samples and then presentresults on the complete survey. We find that almost half of all LINERsand low-luminosity Seyferts have flat-spectrum radio cores when observedat 150 mas resolution. Higher (2 mas) resolution observations of aflux-limited subsample have provided a 100% (16 of 16) detection rate ofpc-scale radio cores, with implied brightness temperatures gtrsim108 K. The five LLAGNs with the highest core radio fluxesalso have pc-scale ``jets''. Compact radio cores are almost exclusivelyfound in massive ellipticals and in type 1 nuclei (i.e. nuclei withbroad Hα emission). Only a few ``transition'' nuclei have compactradio cores; those detected in the radio have optical emission-linediagnostic ratios close to those of LINERs/Seyferts. This indicates thatsome transition nuclei are truly composite Seyfert/LINER+H II regionnuclei, with the radio core power depending on the strength of theformer component. The core radio power is correlated with the nuclearoptical ``broad'' Hα luminosity, the nuclear optical ``narrow''emission-line luminosity and width, and with the galaxy luminosity. Inthese correlations LLAGNs fall close to the low-luminosityextrapolations of more powerful AGNs. The scalings suggest that many ofthe radio-non-detected LLAGNs are simply lower power versions of theradio-detected LLAGNs. The ratio of core radio power to nuclear opticalemission-line luminosity increases with increasing bulge luminosity forall LLAGNs. Also, there is evidence that the luminosity of the diskcomponent of the galaxy is correlated with the nuclear emission-lineluminosity (but not the core radio power). About half of all LLAGNs withmultiple epoch data show significant inter-year radio variability.Investigation of a sample of ~ 150 nearby bright galaxies, most of themLLAGNs, shows that the nuclear (<=150 mas size) radio power isstrongly correlated with both the black hole mass and the galaxy bulgeluminosity; linear regression fits to all ~ 150 galaxies give: logP2 cm = 1.31(+/-0.16) log {MMDO} + 8.77 and logP2 cm = 1.89(+/-0.21) log LB(bulge) -0.17. Lowaccretion rates (<=10-2-10-3 of the Eddingtonrate) are implied in both advection- and jet-type models. In brief, allevidence points towards the presence of accreting massive black holes ina large fraction, perhaps all, of LLAGNs, with the nuclear radioemission originating in either the accretion inflow onto the massiveblack hole or from jets launched by this black hole-accretion disksystem.

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

The Frequency of Active and Quiescent Galaxies with Companions: Implications for the Feeding of the Nucleus
We analyze the idea that nuclear activity, either active galactic nuclei(AGNs) or star formation, can be triggered by interactions by studyingthe percentage of active, H II, and quiescent galaxies with companions.Our sample was selected from the Palomar survey and avoids selectionbiases faced by previous studies. This sample was split into fivedifferent groups, Seyfert galaxies, LINERs, transition galaxies, H IIgalaxies, and absorption-line galaxies. The comparison between the localgalaxy density distributions of the different groups showed that in mostcases there is no statistically significant difference among galaxies ofdifferent activity types, with the exception that absorption-linegalaxies are seen in higher density environments, since most of them arein the Virgo Cluster. The comparison of the percentage of galaxies withnearby companions showed that there is a higher percentage of LINERs,transition galaxies, and absorption-line galaxies with companions thanSeyfert and H II galaxies. However, we find that when we consider onlygalaxies of similar morphological types (elliptical or spiral), there isno difference in the percentage of galaxies with companions amongdifferent activity types, indicating that the former result was due tothe morphology-density effect. In addition, only small differences arefound when we consider galaxies with similar Hα luminosities. Thecomparison between H II galaxies of different Hα luminositiesshows that there is a significantly higher percentage of galaxies withcompanions among H II galaxies with L(Hα)>1039 ergss-1 than among those with L(Hα)<=1039ergs s-1, indicating that interactions increase the amount ofcircumnuclear star formation, in agreement with previous results. Thefact that we find that galaxies of different activity types have thesame percentage of companions suggests that interactions betweengalaxies is not a necessary condition to trigger the nuclear activity inAGNs. We compare our results with previous ones and discuss theirimplications.

The Soft X-Ray Properties of Nearby Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei and their Contribution to the Cosmic X-Ray Background
We have examined ROSAT soft X-ray observations of a complete,distance-limited sample of Seyfert and LINER galaxies. X-ray data areavailable for 46 out of 60 such objects which lie within a hemisphere ofradius 18 Mpc. We have constructed radial profiles of the nuclearsources in order to characterize their spatial extent and, in somecases, to help constrain the amount of flux associated with a nuclearpoint source. PSPC data from ROSAT have been used to explore thespectral characteristics of the objects with sufficient numbers ofdetected counts. Based on the typical spectral parameters of thesesources, we have estimated the luminosities of the weaker sources in thesample. We then explore the relationship between the soft X-ray andHα luminosities of the observed objects; these quantities arecorrelated for higher luminosity AGNs. We find a weak correlation at lowluminosities as well, and we have used this relationship to predictLX for the 14 objects in our sample that lack X-ray data.Using the results of the spatial and spectral analyses, we have comparedthe X-ray properties of Seyferts and LINERs, finding no strikingdifferences between the two classes of objects. However, both types ofobjects often exhibit significant amounts of extended emission, whichcould minimize the appearance of differences in their nuclearproperties. The soft X-ray characteristics of the type 1 and type 2active galaxies in the sample are also discussed. We then compute thelocal X-ray volume emissivity of low-luminosity Seyferts and LINERs andinvestigate their contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. The0.5-2.0 keV volume emissivity of 2.2×1038 ergss-1 Mpc-3 we obtain for our sample suggests thatlow-luminosity AGNs produce at least 9% of the soft X-ray background.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h52m55.80s
Aparent dimensions:9.12′ × 3.02′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 4762
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 2095

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR